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Study Guide for Oct.4th Exam

by: Renee Notetaker

Study Guide for Oct.4th Exam Biology 1020

Marketplace > Southern Utah University > Biology > Biology 1020 > Study Guide for Oct 4th Exam
Renee Notetaker

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About this Document

Goes over all the notes as well as tips to help remember important concepts. Highlights important information that will be on the test.
Human Biology
Carrie Bucklin
Study Guide
Human, Biology
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Renee Notetaker on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 1020 at Southern Utah University taught by Carrie Bucklin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Southern Utah University.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Human Biology Study Guide for Integumentary, Skeletal, and Muscles Highlight ​= Important Principle ​Highlight​ = Important Concept ​Highlight​ = Key Term Integumentary System: Body membranes: covers body surfaces, lines body cavities, forms a protective sheet around organs ● Types of Body Membranes ● Epithelial 1. Cutaneous (skin, largest membrane) 2. mucous (mucosa) 3. serous (serosa) ● Connective:​ synovial (ball & socket, knee, etc.) has epithelial cells and aerolar tissue. Lines fibrous capsules surrounding joints, secretes a lubricating fluid. 1. Cutaneous: ● dry membrane ● outermost protective boundary ● Stratified squamous epithelium Example: skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, nails. 2​. Mucous: ● Stratified squamous epithelium ● Simple and columnar (digestive tract) ● Lines open cavities ● Adapted for absorption and secretion Example: nose, throat ​ 3. Serous ● Simple squamous epithelium ● Aerolar connective tissue ● Closed to exterior body ● Two layers 1. Visceral layer:​ outside of organ 2. Parietal layer​: lines portion of wall of body cavity ● Smooth to reduce friction ● Fluid between layers (serous fluid) ★ Specific Serous Membranes: peritoneum (abdominal area), pleural (around lungs), pericardium (around heart) Skin Structure ● Epidermis ○ Outer layer ○ Keratinized 1. Stratum Basale: deepest layer, cells undergoing mitosis 2. Stratum Spinosum: keratin 3. Stratum Granulosum: layers 4. Stratum Lucidum: dead cells, thick and hairless skin 5. Stratum Corneum: outermost layer, dead cells, protective ● Dermis ○ Collagen and elastic fibers ○ Collagen + keratin = toughness ○ Elastic fibers = elasticity ○ Blood vessels = temperature regulation ○ Two Layers: Thin layer: 1. Papillary (upper)--capillary loops and pain and touch receptors. Thick layer: 2. Reticular (deepest skin layer) blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, deep pressure receptors. ● Skin Color ○ Melanin:​ yellow, brown, or black pigments ○ Carotene: orange/yellow pigment from veggies ○ Hemoglobin: red coloring from blood cells in dermal capillaries. Oxygen content determines the red coloring. ● Skin Appendages:​ ​cutaneous glands=exocrine glands (sebaceous - oil, suderiforous - sweat​, hair, hair follicles, nails) ● Function of Sweat: dissipate heat, excretes waste products, limits bacterial growth ● Hair: arrector pili muscle: smooth muscle that raises hair when cold or frightened ● Nail: heavily keratinized ● Homeostatic Imbalances:​ Athletes foot (fungus), boils & carbuncles (bacterial), cold sore (virus), contact dermatitis (allergic reaction), impetigo (bacterial), psoriasis (unknown cause, plaques in dermis), Burns: 1st degree - dermal surface, 2nd degree - dermis & epidermis, red & blisters, 3rd degree - hypodermis and fat layer. Critical burns: over 25% - 2nd, over 10% - 3rd OR 3rd on face, hands, or feet. Skin Cancer: abnormal skin cell mass: benign - encapsulated, not dangerous. Malignant - spreads, dangerous. 3 types of skin cancer: basal cell carninoma - least malignant. Squamous cell carcinoma - will move, sun induced. Malignant melanoma - most deadly, spreads. Skeletal System: Axial & Appendicular ● Axial Skeleton ○ Central bones ○ 3 parts: skull, vertebral column, bony thorax. ○ Skull: ​cranium, facial bone, (mandible), bones are joined by sutures (fetal skull contains fontanels - fibrous membranes) ○ Paranasal sinus ○ Hyoid bone ○ Vertebral column​: 7 cervicle, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 9 fused together to form sacrum and coccyx. Separated by intervertebral discs. ○ Curvature of vertebral column:​ 1. primary - thoracic & sacral, present from birth, 2. Secondary - cervical & lumbar, developed after birth. ○ Bony thorax:​ protects major organs, made up of: sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. True ribs: connect to cartilage to sternum, false ribs: cartilage to cartilage to sternum, floating: just hang out, muscle attachment, not cartilage to attach to. ● Appendicular Skeleton ○ Pectoral girdle:​ clavicle (collarbone), scapula (shoulder blade), allows free movement ○ Upper limbs: humerous - forms arm, single bone, hinge joint, radius - inner, close to body, ulna - pinky side. ○ Hands: carpals (wrist), metacarpals (palm), phalanges (superior, fingers) ○ Pelvic girdle: ilium and ischium and pubis - fused bones. Protects reproductive organs, urinary bladder, and part of large intestines. A woman’s pubic arch is greater than 90 degrees, a man’s is less than 90 degrees. ○ Lower limbs: femur (thigh), tibia (shin), fibula (behind shin), tarsals (calcaneus (heel) and talus (where tibia and fibula meet foot)), metatarsals (sole), and phalanges (inferior, toes) ● Joints ○ Articulations of bone ○ Hold bones together, allow for mobility ○ Synarthrosis fibrous: immovable , amphiarthroses and cartilaginous: slightly movable, diarthrosis and synovial: freely moveable ● Skeletal Changes Throughout Life ○ Abnormal spinal curvatures (scoliosis, lordosis, almost always congenital) ○ Osteoporosis: brittle bone disease ○ Inflammation: bursitis, tendonitis, and arthritis - osteo: chronic, aging process, rheumatiod: autoimmune, certain joints, gout: uric acid crystals from blood, controlled with diet. Muscular System Cardiac, skeletal, smooth ● Cardiac ○ Intercalated discs ○ striated ○ Heart muscle only ○ Involuntary ○ Controls heart ● Smooth ○ Found in walls of HOLLOW organs ○ Involuntary ○ Spindle shaped cells ○ Moves materials and blood ○ Not striated ● Skeletal ○ Striated ○ Voluntary ○ Microscopic aspects: myofibrils - long organelles, contain sarcomeres, wrapped in sarcolemma. ○ I-band: light band, contains THIN filaments, A-band: dark band, contains THICK filaments ○ Sarcomere: contractile unit, composed of myofilaments (myosin - thick, actin - thin) ○ Sarscoplasmis reticulum: stores and releases calcium, surround the myofilament ● How to know if it’s a muscle: ○ Excitability:​ receive and respond ○ Contractility: ​ability to shorten when stimulated ○ Extensibility:​ ability of muscle cells to be stretched ○ Elasticity:​ ability to recoil after stretching ● How muscles contract: ○ Stimulated by neuron (motor unit = 1 motor neuron) ○ Neurotransmitter: chemical released by nerve upon arrival of nerve impulse ○ Binds with sarcolemma ○ When each action potential reaches the tubules, the calcium is released into muscles to muscle fibers to make the muscle to contract a different way. ○ Actin + myosin = (come together) contracting ○ Actin + myosin = (not together) stop that contraction ● Contraction of Skeletal Muscle: ○ Graded responses: degree of contraction ○ Frequency of muscle stimulation ○ The # of muscle cells being stimulated ○ Muscles can continue to contract unless they run out of energy ● Muscle Fatigue ○ Unable to contract even with a stimulus ○ Common cause: oxygen deficit, oxygen is required to remove lactic acid build up ○ Increasing acidity plus lack of ATP = less contraction ● Types of Contraction ○ Isotonic:​ muscle shortens, movement occurs ○ I​sometric​: muscle can’t shorten, can’t produce movement, tension increases ● Muscle Tone:​ different fibers contract at different times ○ High tone: too much tension, tight muscles. ○ Normal tone: correct tension at rest, contract on command ○ Low tone: not enough tension, mushy and floppy feel. (caused by neurological homeostatic imbalance) ● Effect of exercise ○ Increases muscle size, strength, and endurance ○ Aerobic (endurance): stronger and more flexible ○ Resistance (isometric): strength training ● All skeletal muscles cross at least one joint (with a few exceptions) ● Have at least two attachments (origin and insertion) ● Only pull, never push ● Movement is attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone ● Origin:​ attached to immovable bone ● Insertion: ​attached to movable bone ● Types of muscle movement: ○ Agonist: ​prime mover ○ Antagonist: ​opposed prime mover ○ Synergist:​ ids prime mover, helps prevent rotation ○ Fixator:​ helps origin point stay stable for prime mover ● Muscles of the head: ○ Frontalis: raises eyebrows ○ Orbicularis oculi: blinks ○ Zygomaticus: smile, mouth ○ Buccinator: fish face, chews ○ Orbicularis oris: talking, duck face ● Muscles of the neck (and head) ○ Masseter: jaw, elevate and lower ○ Temporalis: close jaw, helps masseter (synergist) ○ Platysma: corners of mouth inferiorly, frown ○ Sternocleidomastoid: flexes neck, rotates head ● Muscles of the trunk: ○ Rectus abdominus: flexes vertebral column ○ Transverse abdominus: beneath rectus, helps with compression ○ External & internal obliques: flex vertebral column, rotate trunk and bend it laterally ○ Trapezius: elevates, depresses, adducts, and stabilizes ○ Deltoid: arm abduction ○ Latissimus dorsi: extends and adducts humerus ○ Erector spinae: 3 pieces, back extension, under lats and trapezius ○ Quadratus lumborum: flexes spine laterally, under lat. dorsi, helps with posture ● Upper limbs: ○ Biceps brachii: supinates forearm, flexes elbow ○ Brachialis: elbow flexion, stability ○ Triceps brachii: elbow extension, antagonist to biceps brachii ○ Brachioradialus: flexes forearm ○ Flexors: posterior (back) side, finger extension, supination ○ Extensors: anterior side, pronation ● Lower Limb ○ Posterior: gluteus medias: hip abduction, steadies pelvis, walking. Gluteus maximus: hip extension. Adductor muscles: adducts the thighs. Anterior: iliopsoas - near hips, helps with hip flexion ○ Knee movement: hamstring - thigh extension and knee flexion, sartorius: flexes the thigh, quadriceps: extends the knee ○ ankle/foot movement: plantar flexion (point toes), eversion (turn out), inversion (turn in), dorsiflexion (foot flexed up to the sky) ● Movement types ○ Flexion: ​decrease angle of joint ○ Extension: ​increase angle of joint ○ Hyperextension: ​too far extended, painful ○ Rotation:​ turning on an axis, shaking head “no” ○ Abduction: ​moving away from the midline ○ Adduction:​ pposite of abduction ○ Circumduction: ​flexion + extension + abduction + adduction, done in ball and socket joints ○ Supination: ​forearm rotates laterally, palm faces anteriorly ○ Pronation:​ forarm rotation, medially so palm faces posteriorally ○ Opposition: makes “ok” sign with fingers ● Homeostatic Imbalances of Muscles ○ Myopathy = general ○ Sprains, strains, cramps, inflammation ○ Soft tissue sarcoma - starts in soft tissue, tumors found anywhere ○ Muscular dystrophy - (group of diseases) genetic, degenerative muscle fibers, common types: appear in childhood, loss of muscle mass. ○ Multiple Sclerosis (MS) - neuromuscular, affects both. Neuron muscle communication slows to an eventual stop.


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