PHIL1010 Study Guide Midterm 1
PHIL1010 Study Guide Midterm 1 Phil1010
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carly Rothert on Friday September 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Phil1010 at University of Toledo taught by Atanasova,N in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Logic in PHILOSOPHY AND HUMANITIES at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
PHIL1010 Study Guide Midterm 1 Argument: a group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are claimed to provide support for one of the others (conclusion) Premises: statement in an argment that sets forth evidence Conclusion: statement in an argument that the premises are claimed to support or imply Deductive argument: argument incorporating the claim that it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true o Valid argument: argument in which it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true o Sound argument: a deductive argument that is valid and has all true premises Inductive argument: argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable that the conclusion is false giben that the premises are true Proposition: Categorical proposition: a proposition that relates two cclasses or categories o Subject term: the term that comes after the quantifier Quantifier: the words “all”, “no”, and “some” o Predicate term: the term that comes after the copula Copula: the words “are”, and “are not” o Quality: attribute by which it is either affirmative or negative o Quality: attribute by which it is either universal or particular o Distribution: attribute possessed by a term in the proposition if and only if the proposition makes a laim about all the members of the class denotated by the term UNIVERSAL AFFIRMATIVE: subject is distributed UNIVERSAL NEGATIVE: both subject and predicate are distributed PARTICULAR AFFIRMATIVE: nerither are distributed PARTICULAR NEGATIVE: predicate is distributed Modern Square of Opposition: a diagram that illustrates the necessary relations that prevail between the four kinds of standard-form categorical propositions as interpreted from the Boolean Standpoint o Contradictory Relation: exists between statements with logically undetermined truth values Only relation in the Modern Square Traditional Square of Opposition: diagram that illustrates the necessary relations that prevail between the four kinds of standard form categorical propositions as interpreted from the Aristotelian Standpoint o Contradictory: opposite truth value o Contrary: at least one is false (not both true) o Subcontrary: at least one is true (not both false) o Contradictory: opposite truth values o Subalternation: truth flows upward, and falsity trickles downward Aristotelian Standpoint: universal propositions about existing things have existential import o Conditionally valid statements o Open to existence o Thinks that particular propositions make a positive assertation about existence (some means existence) Boolean Standpoint: no universal propositions have existential import and they never imply the existence of things talked about o Unconditionally valid statements o Closed to existence o Thinks that particular propositions make a positive assertation about existence (some means existence) ***** when things don’t exist, neither recognizes existence Syllogism: deductive argument consisting of two premises and one conclusion Categorical syllogism: syllogism in which all three statements are categorical propositions (deductive) Standard form: o 1)Quantifer_______ Copula_______. (Major premise) o 2)Quantifier ______ Copula_______. (minor premise) o 3)Quantifier (minor term) Copula (major term). (conclusion) Major term: the predicate of the conclusion Minor term: the subject of the conclusion Middle term: term only occurring in the premises Major premise: contains major term Minor premise: contains minor term Mood: attribute that specifies what kind of statements (AEIO) make up the categorical syllogism Figure: determined by location of the two occurances of the middle term in the premises Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Middle Predica Predica Middle Middle Predica Predica Middle te te te te Subject Middle Subject Middle Middle Subject Middle Subject Subject Predica Subject Predica Subject Predica Subject Predica te te te te Unconditionally Valid Forms (Boolean) Figure Figure Figure Figure 1 2 3 4 AAA EAE IAI AEE EAE AEE AII IAI AII EIO OAO EIO EIO AOO EIO Conditionally Valid Forms (Aristotelian) Figur Figur Figur Figur Required e 1 e 2 e 3 e 4 condition AAI AEO AEO S exists EAO EAO AAI EAO M exists EAO AAI P exists Rules for valid syllogisms: 1. All three statements are standard-form categorical propositions. 2. The two occurrences of each term are identical. 3. Each term is used in the same sense throughout the argument. 4. The major premise is listed first, the minor premise second, and the conclusion last.
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