ART 3683 QUIZ 2 STUDY GUIDE
ART 3683 QUIZ 2 STUDY GUIDE ART 3683
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nichole Pike on Friday September 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ART 3683 at Oklahoma State University taught by Dr. Siddons in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see History of 20th Century Art in Art at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
ART 3683: HISTORY OF 20 CENTURY ART QUIZ 2: STUDY GUIDE DISCLAIMER: THIS STUDY GUIDE SHOULD BE USED TO AID IN YOUR INDIVIDUAL STUDYING. THIS IS IN NO WAY COMPREHENSIVE, BUT SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH CLASS MATERIALS PROVIDED BY THE PROFESSOR FOR THE EXAM. • Describe each of the major movements we’ve discussed in class since the first quiz in terms of its primary national affiliation, two or three key concepts, one or two artists, and one or two key artworks associated with them. Relevant movements are: DESTIJL Theo van Doesburg (Dutch, 18831931) Piet Mondrian (Dutch, 18721944) founded the movement in 1917 bubble of peace in the country because they remained neutral during the war interested in Russian avantgarde and saw this work in reproductions such as newspapers being exposed to the Russian avantgarde they start to think about the ideas of nonobjective art as a way to create social change were attracted in intellectual art (nonemotional) thought of geometric art as antipainterly; eliminating texture of artists’ hand van Doesburg was the one who wrote the manifesto for the movement (essentially the leader) van Doesburg painting of playing cards pushing the geometric forms a little farther thinking about the decorative as a way to get to abstraction he is not interested in abstraction, but getting to the point of nonobjectivity relationship between the forms and not what they mean is where the importance lies like in Composition IX (9) de Stijl manifesto, 1918, says: There is an old and a new consciousness of time. The old is connected with the individual. The new is connected with the universal. The struggle of the individual against the universal is revealing itself in the world war as well as in the art of the present day. it is saying what they care about and not how to make art in the middle of the war, the artists see the struggle between individual and universal ambition vs. governmental power the idea that the art of the present day is where the struggle is being revealed modern art itself is participating in the struggle (the conversations and debates) we get a strong sense that the individual is bad in the manifesto if we want an art that improves society, we need to be on the side of the universal for abstract art (Picasso table) we need to know a lot to fully get the impact of the painting while nonobjectivity (Mondrian) artists say that you don’t need to know anything to look at the painting; it is super accessible the idea of de Stijl is that if you can create a piece without any cultural ideals, then you have created a universal piece it’s about the viewer learning something from the viewing experience of the piece Mondrian arguing that nonobjectivity painting is more pure than abstract paintings by 1917 he is painting completely nonobjectively as his work progresses, he offers more plastic images to viewers; simplifies colors and form interested in visual simplicity with the rectilinear; but still exploring the special relationships in order to explore plastic relationships, the painting must be completely flat and not overlapping trying to get rid of the idea that painting is about putting objects into a space; an experience without a foreground or background he wants all colors to be equally represented on surface to get rid of any illusions NeoplasticismMondrian starts using this term people are compelled because Mondrian argues that Neoplasticism can lead to a spiritual enlightenment pulling this from theosophy and Kandinsky and is very influenced by these ideals a lot of motivation of the followers come from the spiritual aspect de Stijl broke up because of a fight between van Doesburg and Mondrian about what de Stijl architecture would look like van Doesburg wanted it be encompassing and Mondrian thought that painting was the most important Mondrian begins doing the diagonal paintings in 1930s as he’s moving to US sense of how the diamond shape changes what is happening the frame generally seems as a boundary and the view just fits in it Mondrian makes the painting to seem like its flowing off the canvas this is saying that we have a limit to our senses by only seeing a portion of the view Mondrian in the US by the 1940s and things are done differently return to representation by critics rather than being considered nonobjective Mondrian is thinking about the sense and visualizing jazz in this painting painstakingly painting over colored tape that looks like it was created in a software American culture is really glorified in the 1940s FUTURISM Manifesto of Futurism, 1909 Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (Italian, b. Egypt, 18761944) believed in “words of freedom” literary movement of using words without any reason published others works can see the relationship between text and writing in his own work Giacomo Balla (1871/41958) older generation of Futurists interested in technology of Futurist Painting of dog on a leash from 1912 sense of movement in painting favorite Futurist painting looks like a cartoon in the repetition of feet and tail Street Light, 1909 trying to communicate the intensity of the light intentionally shining brighter than the moon electrical light shows it pushing the edge of the darkness Eadweard Muybridge caught the image of horses and became famous for proving that they take all four feet off the ground EtienneJules Marey both use photography artists are drawn to this photography of Marey the idea of simultaneity and abstraction Luigi Russolo (18851947) became a futurist in 1910 after reading manifesto was also a musician Revolt, 1911 Futurism is basically a multimeadia music becomes an important part of Futurism Russolo is also interested in the noises around 1912 and creates instruments to mimic the sound of machines Recording he liked the fact that it was awful sounding and it was something to aspire to Umberto Boccioni (18821916) States of Mine #1 we get a sense of the chaos from the hustle of the train station combining idea of representing motion and the fragmentation of cubism Unique Forms of Continuity and Space we get this sense of the fluidity of the form as it moves through the space Gino Severini (18831966) hieroglyph is a metaphorthe fact that it is picture based writing is painting and painting is writing sequins are collaged onto the painting Carlo Carra (18811966) interest in words is also about poetry; not just about analytic cubism VORTICISM Percy Wyndham Lewis (British, 18861957) mainly promoted and encouraged placed himself in opposition of futurists even though they have a lot of the same ideals he thinks futurism and its imagery is passive and fussy (hysterics) he wants activity; an external focus on cars, planes, trains, etc. was into war and the aggression aesthetics he says Vorticism has the essential movement Vorticism only lasts a few years Composition, 1913 falling sensation with forms condensed at the bottom and expanded at the top this kind of form is what he is referring to as movement Blast thinks of Vorticism as a multimedia movement interested in poetry and writes his own th he attacks all 19 century art for being too sentimental because it is feminine he likes bold lines, wood cuts and aluminum cuts because of the clean lines Francis Picabia Print of an illustration of Dada as a movement Wilfred Owen, “Dulce Et Decorum Est”, 191718 (excerpt) most famous poem from WWI; war poet tries to speak to the reality of the experience of being a soldier “Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.”Sweet and honorable it is to die for your country. people had been hearing patriotic images and Owen takes it down to the real effect of the war and the violence Lewis continues to support the violence, even after the war The Tyro, 2 taking aesthetics of Vorticism and turning it into a discussion of subjectivity Self Portrait Tyro was the character in pop culture, hostile to culture; anti; alienated personality transformation of people into machines; the internalization of machine individual hostility instead of machine hostility EXPERIMENTAL FILM “cinema attraction”telling a story but also visual attraction Manhatta, Paul Strand and Charles Sheeler, 1921 camera moves to a different scene but remains static shows welldressed getting off ferry shows hard laborers using machinery to construct building shows machines and dependence people have on it music varies based on activity happening ex. cruise has flapper type music abundance of steam/smoke shown coming from the equipment “ceaseless cities”people moving about and machineslarge quantities of people all views were shot from above (aerial and static) stillness of camera and machinery makes it almost robotic; see stillness (almost painterly) Ballet Mecanique, Fernand Leger and George Antheil, 1924 repetitive chaotic fast movements are almost timed to music Metropolis, Fritz Lang, 1927 futuristic, set in 2026 one of the first movies to picture a robot 1927, just a few years before NaziGermany comes to power machine swallowing people; foreshadowing in retrospect The Wizard of Oz, Victor Fleming, 1939 use of color; beginning beginning of big studio productions tension between past and modernity and between magic and fantasy black and white (in Kansas) to color (Fantasy) special effects are normal techniques at this time narrative but nothing really happens color brings luxury for viewing all used crows besides Ballet visual with individuals vs society issues between 1920s and 30s SURREALISM is basically an art movement of various types of people who were trying to create a new kind of reality Metropolis is a representative set with real people but also sculpture; they were building stylized set surrealism is augmented reality; it is more than real sense of being more than just reality; a reality that incorporates augmentation; a psychology of reality Sigmund Freud (Austrian, 18561939) and psychoanalysis been discredited on a scientific level, but were revolutionary at the time begins to develop new theories in response to the change in experiences develops a theory of the unconscious mind; you have no idea what’s happening in the unconsciousness, but it governs what happens and the decisions made governs behavior without the knowledge of it; unconscious is driving most of the decisions made reality principle says our conscious mind can make predictions based on the past (intellect) pleasure principle is largely unconscious that says it wants pleasure all of the time people develop these 2 principles in a variety of ways you don’t realize that you make decisions based on pleasure principle; partly because we don’t know what we really wantsublimation and repression sublimation is when the unconscious mind turns wants into something else ex. of wanting sugar and saying that you love baking in order to make it socially acceptable repression is something worse; you hide the desire from yourself we get all of these mechanisms into place in order for sublimation and repression to happen is learned through the different stages: oral, anal and phallic stages points to early childhood development in order to illustrate these stages, but is referring to everyone in society; both women and men as an adult, the pleasure principle primarily dominates surrealism structure to brain: id, ego, superego (conscience and ego ideal) superego is the judgement mechanism between id (pleasure) and ego (self) by the time surrealists come around; they question Freud’s theory of id, ego and superego healthy revelation of repressed desires: dreams, parapraxis (Freudian slipsaying cake when you meant to say something else), jokes (jokes that aren’t really jokes) unhealthy revelation of repressed desires: neurosis, paranoia, schizophrenia some amount of repression is normal; it is not all bad the only way you will be a successful individual in society is to repress the inappropriate solution to these relationships is to talk to a counselor and have the counselor read between the lines surrealists try to tap into the unconscious; take the Freudian ideas and turn them into images could make very interesting art by tapping into id exquisite corpsegroup drawings of drawing with only a small visual of the previous part of drawing; this was a group unconscious we get the idea of biomorphic, violence, nongeometric surrealists were interested in the creative potential that happened in coincidence and chance surrealists ask what if they get rid of intention creates 2 strands of surrealism biomorphic (or organicabstract) Surrealism naturalistic Surrealism BIOMORPHIC SURREALISM in opposition to geometric abstraction framed in part of reaction to Cubism (Cubism was seen as intellectual and intentional) what happened when they try to create abstraction unintentionally? curvilinear forms Andre Masson (French, 18691987) individual artists did automatic drawing and believed you could disconnect your conscious mind and physical actions and would get a product of your unconscious lot of representational forms in Masson’s piece; hands, etc. objects that are recognizable not making conscious stylistic decisions continues to experiment with automatic drawing Battle of the Fishes elaborates upon the automatic drawing and collages over drawing collaging chaotic things such as sand and dirt interested in collage because of the chance of the glue falling on the paper in a random way and the sand sticking to random areas Meret Oppenheim (GermanSwiss, 19131985) Object in Fur, 1936 dreamlike thing making something functional and making it completely useless sense of propriety associated with teacup it becomes a confrontational object; fur is the opposite of porcelain biomorphic curves Jean Arp (GermanFrench (Alsatian), 18861966 Objects Arranged According to the Laws of Chance interested in themes of chance accidental composition; idea remains important through remainder of 20 th century art wood has biomorphic quality (plant life) Head with Annoying Objects visual discomfort is a metaphor for psychological discomfort Joan Miro (Catalan/Spanish, 18931983) work runs from representational to abstraction thinking about an art historical unconsciousness (repressed memories) Dog Barking at the Moon, 1926 the ladder is achieving a higher plane of understanding (transcendence) aspiration to human experience (travelling to the moon) everything becomes a metaphor; an abstraction of human desire playful but serious painting later paintings are almost completely abstracted not sure if you’re making up the forms or if they are objects in painting interested in mural size scale and the response to it NATURALIST SURREALISM illustration through dreams or parapraxis hyper realism basic compared to abstraction surrealists look at my dreams Yves Tanguy (French, 19001955) Salvador Dali (Catalan/Spanish, 19041989) sense of curiosity how do we interpret the artist? Surrealism is international and has extremely drastically different artworks Surrealists are interested in fundamental unity of all materials dominant form of surrealism were not supposed to have our own experience, but rather look at what the artist was experiencing you could collect symbolism of artists if familiar or could analyze these paintings from the artist’s perspective our view is to be analytical Dali thinking of distortion of space or hyperrealistic unconscious narrative sometimes paintings related directly to historical events Rene Magritte (Belgian, 18981967) main representative of intellectual surrealism thinking about things like parapraxis thinking about relationship between words and image; painted thing and the real world much more interested in talking about art and a less political Magritte, Treachery of Images the image is betraying us somehow; deceiving us conversation of abstraction and naturalistic surrealism inviting the conversation about the representation by painting the thing by painting the words directly onto the painting Magritte, Human Condition metajoke since the real world is depicted as a painting in a painting; it’s all painting making things that are normal into something strange power of visual art could use naturalism to make the natural world strange again DADA tries to take nonsense and make it meaningful; Dada comes from the word that you can make nothing into something transforming the ordinary day; resituating things into another place and changes its meaning both Dada and Surrealism rely on psychoanalysis; the unconscious being a significant force Dada has a more serious edge at the end of the first world war arises in Zurich, Switzerland since they were neutral looking at WWI and it seems neverending begin making nonsensical art; paintings, poem, music, etc. said if the world doesn’t make sense, then we’ll make art that doesn’t make sense expressing the frustration through that a lot of ways to introduce chance artists start to explore how chance interacts with system how can they create order out of chaos; a potent metaphor Hammer Flower moves towards realism because he wants a change New York Dada had a sense of humor distant culturally, even though American audiences are involved and understand war engage in more lighthearted ways with Americans Stieglitz was very involved in having European Dada artists come to America European artists saw America as focused on technology; ahead of England Francis Picabia, Ideal (portrait of Alfred Stieglitz), 1915 Stieglitz was a photographer and the camera become Stieglitz literally deconstruction of camera is a creative tool which was still controversial Marcel Duchamp (French, 18871986) “To put art back in the service of the mind.” exposed to the radical shifts of postimpressionism and those of the turn of the century was influenced by the individualism of symbolists was required to serve in the French military and worked with Press was interested in the manipulation of press in a variety of ways key figure in bringing the ideas of Dada to New York taking a little bit of chance and a little bit of system and combining them the accidental and arbitrary are a fact of life “readymade” “assisted readymade” readymade objects put together to make a sculpture arguing for fundamental equality for objects and demoting the artists for Duchamp, the idea was not about the thing, but instead the idea behind the thing Man Ray, Rrose Selavy, 1921 Duchamp’s alter ego was Rrose Selavy was introduced to the world through Man Ray’s work published writing under that name; second identity allowed Duchamp to have a fuller artistic and social identity Man Ray, Untitled, Rayograph, 1922 Man Ray, Gift, originally 1928 Duchamp “mechanomorphic” in the shape of mechanical things trying is to communicate the top half as the bride and the bottom half the bachelor’s trying to woo her questioning the process of the art Duchamp, Box in a Suitcase miniature versions of Duchamp’s art resonance of suitcase with refugees and fleeing Nazis and the war the idea can escape when the work can’t the idea that the concept continues out there, even if the work can’t THE ASHCAN SCHOOL term first used in 1916 was not an official group of people Young used this term because it was an ordinary object and elaborate or fancy getting away from elitist art to a more demographic one Robert Henri (American, 18651929) coming into a forward thinking environment in terms of subject matter Henri starts looking at American labor in a variety of different ways bright light impressionist paintings as he is finishing school in 1888 he goes to Paris and goes to the primary art school in Paris, Julien diverse but traditional edthation at this time in the beginning of the 20 century as he begins teaching, his art takes a dramatic shift second guesses his interest in impressionism Henri, Sidewalk Café, c. 1899 simplifying forms not using a bright light pallet; darker tones stopped worrying about the immediacy of impressionism elevated perspective; it’s unclear where the viewer actually is rejection of the immersive point of view sense of contrast, and imagery from abbreviated use of colors starts to attract private students to his studio while he continues to teach these were known as the “Philadelphia Four” interested in the fast paced rendering; those who had background in newspaper press people watching in an urban space; sidewalk cafes were often places to people watch critics name the Eight artists the ashcan school Henri, Portrait of Mary Patton, 1927 portraiture was a guaranteed sense of income continues with dark tones and contrast enjoys capturing personality the rest of the ashcan school were interested in very different things the Ashcan artists were interested in looking at things from the view of the working people in order to allow the viewer to identify with them John Sloan (American, 18711951) Sloan, Picture Shop Window, 190708 interested in urban experience engaged in the spectatorship perspective he doesn’t turn away from this perspective but is rather interested in the access to images pointing out the way it disrupts the status quo very positive rendering of consumerism experience Sloan, Two Black Crows, 1924 begins to look at different things as he grows older this back and forth between urban and rural landscapes interest in the Southwest becomes a huge part of his art and goes back in forth to places introduces the tension between the urban and the rural there is a curiosity of American landscape and seek to explore it Reginald Marsh (American, 18981954) interested in working class work and rights interested in materiality Marsh, Pip and Flip, 1932 interested in Coney Island and the source of entertainment for working class people completely seduced by the circus and freak shows interested in Renaissance mural painting using visual repetition is trying to say the crowd that is as framed as the circus itself, are just as freak showish as they are also interesting to look at Marsh, The Bowl, 1933 American culture is conservatism but also has moments of release, much like Coney Island people can go against convention chaotic ride that allows bodies to lose control; a pile of human flesh in a bizarre way saw this as a metaphor for an urban societal experience; a chaos of body Marsh, Tattoo HaircutShave, 1932 people under an elevated train in storefronts giving us the structure like in the storefront painting not the most lucrative business front because of the trains going by, you have these discount places underneath structure signs and words tell us about the type of people here the two men in the front who are invalids from the first world war legacy was very present and a new war could be eminent in the future a lot of anxiety about global politics at this time collects the people who have nowhere else to go Edward Hopper (American, 18821967) Hopper, New York Movie, 1939 an experience that people think is entertaining and fun but focuses on the staff hopper is playing with the association of color movies of fantasy and pleasure and uses color where the worker is Hopper, Nighthawks, 1942 space is 90% empty space and a few people in the diner creates curiosity with what time it is and what are these people doing shows the loneliness of the urban area chooses to use a realistic mode of expression of figures even though it is not a realist painting he uses narrative to express this Alfred Stieglitz (American, 18641946) gallery owner, curator and photographer Stieglitz, 291, 19051917 first successful gallery thought of himself of a figurehead and had a unique insight Stieglitz, An American Place, 19291946 Americans are asking what makes American exceptional how is America different from other nations, etc. sense that American culture and society that made it unique An American Place is proving this uniqueness promoted the people in his circle like crazy promoted in terms of how American they are what is the most truly American modernist thing is? PRECISIONISM coined in the 1920s an aesthetic strategy or technique by this group very closely associated with the artists in Stieglitz’s circle invented by people in the group Georgia O’Keeffe (American, 18871986) Midwesterner O’Keeffe, Evening Star VI, 1917 paints watercolors as she teaches in Texas often nighttime or dusk paintings Stieglitz marries O’Keeffe in 1924
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