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Chapter 3-4

by: Shoshana Tamir

Chapter 3-4 Psyc 10300-02

Shoshana Tamir

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General Psychology
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shoshana Tamir on Friday September 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 10300-02 at Ithaca College taught by Warren in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Exam 2 Study Guide By: Shoshana Tamir Absolute Threshold: The minimum amount of energy in a sensory stimulus detected 50% of the time. Signal Detection Theory: A theory that assumes that the detection of faint sensory stimuli  depends not only upon a person’s physiological sensitivity to a stimulus but also upon his  decision criterion for detection, which is based on non­sensory factors. Difference Threshold: The minimum difference between 2 sensory stimuli detecting 50% of the time.  Weber’s Law:  For each type of sensory judgment that we can make, the measured difference  threshold is a constant fraction of the standard stimuli value used to measure it.   Stevens’ Power Law:  The perceived magnitude of a stimulus is equal to its actual physical  intensity raised to some constant power. Sensory Adaption: Our sensitivity to unchanging and repetitious stimuli disappears over time. Wavelength: The Distance in one cycle of a wave, from one crest to the next. Amplitude: The amount of energy in a wave, its intensity, which is the height of the wave at its  crest. Frequency: The number of times a wave cycles in one second. Transduction: The conversion of physical energy into neural signals that the brain can  understand. Accommodation: The focusing of light waves from objects of different distances directly on the  retina. Nearsightedness: A visual problem in which the light waves from distant objects come into  focus in front of the retina, blurring the images of these objects  Farsightedness: A visual problem in which the light waves from nearby object come into focus  behind the retina, blurring the image of these objects Retina: The light­sensitive layer of the eye that is composed of 3 layers of cells – ganglion,  bipolar, and receptor Blind sight: A condition in which a blind person has some spared visual capacities in the  absence of any visual awareness  Rods: Receptor cells in the retina that are principally responsible for dim light and achromatic  vision  Cones: Receptors cells in the retina that are principally responsible for bright light and color  vision Fovea: A tiny pit in the center of the retina filled with cones Dark adaptation: The process by which the rods and cones through internal chemicals changes  become more and more sensitive to light in dim light conditions Trichromatic theory: A theory of color vision that assumes that there are 3 types of cones, each only activated by wavelength ranges of light corresponding roughly to blue, green, and red.  In  further assumes that all of the various colors that we can see are mixtures of various levels of  activity of the 3 types of cones. If all 3 are equally activated, we see all white. Additive mixtures: Direct mixtures of different wavelengths of light in which all of the  wavelengths reach the retina and are added together Subtractive mixtures: Mixtures of wavelengths of light in which some wavelengths are  absorbed and so do not get reflected from the mixture to the retina Complementary colors: Wavelength of light that when added together produce white. Hair cells:  The receptor cells for hearing.  They line the inside of the ear to the cochlea. Nerve deafness: Hearing loss created by damage to the hair cells or the auditory nerve fibers in  the inner ear. Condition deafness: Hearing loss created by damage to one of the structures in the ear  responsibility for mechanically conducting the auditory info to the inner ear. Place theory: A theory of pitch perception which assumes that there is a specific location along  the basilar membrane that will maximally respond to a particular frequency, thereby increasing  the pitch to the brain. As this location goes down the basilar membrane from the oval window,  the pitch goes down from 20,000 Hz to 20 Hz. Frequency theory: A theory of pitch perception that assume that the frequency of the sound  wave is mimicked by the firing rate of the entire basilar membrane Volley principle: Cells taking turns firing will increase the max firing rate for a group of cells Sensation: The initial info gathering and recoding by the sensory structures Perception: The interpretations by the brain of sensory info Bottom­Up processing: The processing of incoming sensory info as it travels up from the  sensory structures to the brain Top­Up processing: The brain’s use of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations to interpret sensory info Perceptual Set: The interpretation of ambiguous sensory info in terms of how our past  experiences have set us to perceive it Contextual Effect: The use of the present context of sensory info to determine its meaning Figure­ and­ Ground Principles: The Gestalt perceptual organizational principle that the brain  organizes sensory info into figure or figures (center or attention) and the ground (the less distinct  background) Perceptual Constancy: The perceptual stability of the size, shape, brightness, & color for  familiar objects seen at varying distances, different angles, & under different lighting conditions Depth Perception: Our ability to perceive the distance of objects from us Retinal Disparity: A binocular depth cue referring to the fact that as the disparity between the 2  retinal images of an object increases, the distance of the object form us decreases Linear Perspective: A monocular depth cue referring to the fact that as parallel lines recede  away from us, they appear to coverage – the greater that distance, the more they seem to  converge Interposition: A monocular depth cue referring to the fact that is one object partially blocks out  view of another, we perceive it as closer to us Classical conditioning: Acquiring a new response to a previously neural stimulus that reliably  signals that arrival of an unconditioned stimuli  Reflex:  A stimulus­response pair in which the stimulus automatically elicits the response Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): The stimuli in a reflex that automatically elicits an  unconditioned response Unconditioned Response (UCR): The response in a reflex that automatically elicits an  unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Stimuli (CS): The stimulus that comes to elicit a new response in classical  conditioning Conditioned Response (CR): The response that is elicit by the conditioned stimulus in classical  conditioning Delayed Conditioning:  A classical conditioning procedure in which the conditioned stimulus  precedes the unconditioned stimuli and remains present until after the unconditioned stimulus is  presented so that the 2 stimuli occurs together Trace Conditioning:  A classical conditioning procedure in which the conditioned stimulus  precedes the unconditioned stimuli but is removed before the unconditioned stimulus is  presented so that the 2 stimuli do not occurs together Acquisition: classical conditioning, a new response to the conditioned stimuli//Operant  conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced operant response Extinction:  classical conditioning, the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus  no longer follows the conditioned stimuli//Operant conditioning, the diminishing of the operant  response when it is no longer reinforced Spontaneous Recovery: Classical conditioning, a partial recovery in strength of the conditioned  response following a break during extinction training// Operant conditioning, the temporary  recovery of the operant response following a break during extinction training Discriminative Stimulus: Operant conditioning, the stimulus that has to be present for the  operant response to be reinforced  Stimulus Generalization: Classical conditioning, the elicitation of the conditioned response to  stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus.  The more similar the stimulus is to the  condition stimulus, the stronger the response//Operant conditioning, giving the operant response  in the presence of stimuli similar to the discriminative stimulus.  The more similar the stimulus is to the discriminative stimulus is to the discriminative stimulus, the higher the operant response  rate Stimulus Discrimination: Classical conditioning, the elicitation of the conditioned response  only by a small set of highly similar stimuli that includes the conditioned stimulus//Operant  conditioning, learning to give the operant response only in the presence of the discriminative  stimulus Operant Conditioning: Learning to associate behavior with their consequences.  Behaviors that  are reinforced will be strengthened, and behaviors that are punished will be weakened  Law of Effect: A principle developed by Edward Thorndike that says that any behavior that  results in satisfying consequences tends to be repeated and that any behavior that results in  unsatisfying consequences tends not to be repeated. Reinforcer: A stimulus that increases the probability of a prior response Punisher: A stimulus that decreases the probability of a prior response Reinforcement: The process by which the probability of a response is increased by the  presentation of a reinforcer  Punishment: The process by which the probability of a response is decreased by the  presentation of a punisher Appetitive Stimulus: A stimulus that is pleasant  Aversive Stimulus: A stimulus that is unpleasant Positive Reinforcement: Reinforcement in which an appetitive stimulus is presented Negative Reinforcement: Reinforcement in which an aversive stimulus is removed Positive Punishment: Punishment on which an aversive stimulus is presented  Negative Punishment: Punishment on which an appetitive stimulus is removed Positive Negative Reinforcement  Something pleasant is Something given unpleasant is removed Punishment Something Something pleasant is unpleasant is given removed Premack Principle: The principle that the opportunity to perform a highly frequent behavior  can reinforce a less frequent behavior Primary Reinforcer: A stimulus that is innately reinforcing Secondary Reinforcer: A stimulus that gains its reinforcing property through learning Behavior Modification:  The application of classical and operant conditioning principles to  eliminate undesirable behavior and to teach more desirable behavior Cumulative Record: A record of the total number of operant responses over time that visually  depicts the rate of responding  Continuous Schedule of Reinforcement: Reinforcing the desired operant response each time it  is made Partial Schedule of Reinforcement: Reinforcing the desired operant response only part of the  time Partial ­ Reinforcement Effect: The finding that operant response that are reinforced on partial  schedules are more resistant to extinction that those reinforced on a continuous schedule 164 Class Notes ­reinforcement increases behavior ­punishment decreases behavior ­Intermittent (not every time) / Partial Reinforcement can lead behavior’s to become extinct    


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