Philosophy Midterm Terms
Philosophy Midterm Terms PHI 2010
Seminole State College of Florida
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaylan Notetaker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHI 2010 at Seminole State College of Florida taught by Tiffany Traylor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Philosophy in Humanities and Social Sciences at Seminole State College of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
MIDTERM REVIEW HUME: Scottish philosopher ..... BUNDLE THEORY Does NOT believe that personal identity/a self exists in the first place • Pain and pleasure, grief and joy, passions and sensations succeed each other, and never all exist at the same time. It cannot, therefore, be from any of these impressions, or from any other, that the idea of self is derived; and consequently there is no such idea.” • POINT: We are all or a bundle of selves; which is essentially no self at all. THE FORMS: "TRUE KNOWLEDGE" DREAMS: 1. I often have perceptions very much like the ones I have while I am dreaming. 2. There are no definite signs to distinguish my dream experience from my waking experience. therefore...... 3. It is possible that I am dreaming right now and that all of my perceptions (including bodily perceptions) are false. FREE WILL: Freedom in the literal sense. Being the originating source of ones own actions….no other factor guiding my behavior. Two sides: hard determinism(All our actions are a result of some previous action (biology/nature/etc). indeterminism(There are multiple possibilities, from which we freely choose – choice alone (even if that choice is limited) proves free-will)) LOVE OF WISDOM: DEFINITION OF PHILOSOPHY LOCKE: WESTERN PHILOSOPHER • Locke’s major inquiry was: How do thoughts enter the mind; how do know ideas such as “hardness”, “elephant”, “truth”, “beauty” etc?....His answer… “Experience” .......Look at Tabula Rosa....... • “I am the same person as someone who existed in the past…if and only if, I can extend my current consciousness back to that person’s actions.” Meaning: if you can’t remember and connect back to concrete conscious memories, then it was not you and is not a part of your person!! EX: The prince and cobbler (mental life of the prince is zapped into the body of the cobbler – everyone would think it’s the prince despite physical alterations) PHILODOXERS: Lovers Of opinion TABULA ROSA/BLANK SLATE:In his view, the human mind begins as a blank sheet of paper or the Latin phrase, “Tabula Rasa” = Blank Slate • Over the course of our lives, we fill this Blank slate with knowledge through experience • For Locke, there is no such thing as innate knowledge (ideas/concepts that we know from birth). J.L MACKIE: The idea of all powerful god, a wholly good God, and Evil are inconsistent ideas. • In his view: If any two of them hold true, then the third must be false Example1 : If God is all powerful and evil exists, then God can’t be wholly good – because if he were all powerful then he could have created a world that only produces good. Example2: If God is all powerful and all good, then evil would not exist – because it would be illogical and contradictory, for a totally good entity that can do whatever it chooses to create bad. However, evil does exist 1. Evil is due to human free will 2. Evil is necessary argument (Good can’t exist without evil; balance) or God uses Evil to test our commitment and/or make us stronger J.BUTLER: gender is not an internal reality(Meaning, gender not as biologically natural as it seems… • Instead, gender is socially and culturally constructed) -norms constrict us and others from living our most full lives D;HOLBACH: Hard determinist “we are not free for a single moment” • Think: Our genetics, biology, environment, culture, etc all line up and interact with one another in such a way, as to move our wills (inner most desires), to fall one way or another. • Says our essence to move towards our greatest desire. BUT, its based on our free will over the years. If d’holbach is correct….then we can’t ever be held accountable for our actions because we could not have done otherwise. (EXAMPLE: If I kick your dog ….It was nothing more than my will/strongest desire which actually comes forth from past experiences/genetics/laws of nature, etc... Thus, I should not be held accountable) DESCARTES : FRENCH PHILOSOPHER " I think there for i am" • Our minds exist, therefore we exist, Thus, “as long as I continue thinking (even if all my thoughts are wrong), then I continue existing. W.T STACE: British Philosopher.... Soft determinist • First, he believes that free will must hold true for two reasons: 1. If there is no free will then there is no need for morality, laws, or praise. AND 2. Even those that deny the existence of free will, behave as if there is free will. • According to Stace, people think there is no free will because: 1. We have the wrong definition of free will *We all have free will…we can “will” whatever we want but we confuse free will (our mind) with actual freedom(of our bodies/environment); hence we hold the illusion of free will Look at external/internal EVIL DEMONS: Instead of assuming that God is the source of our deceptions, we will assume that there exists an evil demon, who is capable of deceiving us in the same way we just supposed God to be able. Therefore, Since an evil demon unlike God, would totally deceive me, then I have reason to doubt everything (all my senses and matters of fact like math). • Descartes into his final two arguments. 1. Our minds exist 2. God exist PLATO: beauty and true knowledge can only be grasped by mind and soul(questioning/reasoning) the many and the forms • He believed in two people: philodoxers(lovers of opinion) & philosophers(lovers of true knowledge" • Meaning, if we wish to escape the cave ( to gain true, top soul level understanding); then we must all become philosophers, which by definition is to love and thus constantly seek wisdom!! CAVE ALLEGORY : These prisoners are chained so that their legs and necks are fixed, forcing them to gaze at the wall in front of them and not look around at the cave, each other. Behind the prisoners is a fire, and between the fire and the prisoners is a walkway, behind which people walk carrying objects Socrates suggests that the shadows constitute reality for the prisoners because they have never seen anything else. Plato then supposes that one prisoner is freed, being forced to turn and see the fire. Gradually he can later see the people and things themselves. Eventually he is able to look at the stars and moon at night until finally he can look upon the sun itself. Plato continues, saying that the freed prisoner would think that the real world was superior to the world he experienced in the cave; The returning prisoner, whose eyes have become acclimated to the light of the sun, would be blind when he re-enters the cave, just as he was when he was first exposed to the sun.The prisoners would think the returning man's blindness that the journey out of the cave had harmed him and that they should not undertake a similar journey. BUDDHIST THEORY: No self theory • Buddhist belief is that our goal should be to escape the notion of identity. • Such statements are about pleasing the ego, and the ego is the root of all our despair; it’s essentially our cage. When all those things are collectively found together, my name may be applied but spiritually I’m aware that they are not me and I am not them. • For example, if I lose my job as a professor or my child moves out of the house; I don’t despair and lose my entire identity because my ego/identity is not attached!! POINT: For the Buddhist, we are not “I” and “me”, our goal is to be “all” with the universe or essentially “nothing”. NORMATIVE VIOLENCE: Boestens Theory • Mentally or physically harming someone because who they are, or how they are, as humans deviates too far from the norms. • Various forms: Exclusion, ignoring their existence, verbal attacks, or in worst case scenarios physical assaults UNCONSCIOUS : Self understanding theory (Marya Schectman) INTERNAL/EXTERNAL: The only real way to know if an act is truly free is to look at the origin of the cause. • External cause = a determined action • -Internal cause = an act of free will PERSONHOOD: • “a thinking intelligent being that has reason and reflection and can consider itself as itself the same thinking thing in different times and places.” DETERMINISM: sides of free will • HARD- All our actions are a result of some previous action (biology/nature/etc). • INDETERMINISM- There are multiple possibilities, from which we freely choose – choice alone (even if that choice is limited) proves free-will • SOFT: All things are determined and have a cause...... However we need to determine the origin of the cause to know if it’s free will or not!! QUESTIONS OF MILINDA: Ø King Milinda opens the discussion asking: what is your name sir? Ø Nagasena replies by giving his name. Ø However, he makes an important point, which is, that his name is simply a name; a conceptual term, and that no real person exist. Ø King Milinda finds this absurd and concludes that “Nagasena” is just a sound. Ø In an attempt to find out what he is, if not a person, he ask various questions…are you your physical traits(hairs, blood, nails, and teeth)?...are you your feelings, perceptions, and thought? Etc. Ø To all of this Nagasena says, “No.” He then turns the tables to the Kings Chariot. He returns similar questions related to the chariot; is it a pole, an axle, the wheels, etc. Ø King answer: “No” and goes on to state, where all parts are present, the word “chariot" is applied Ø To this, Nagasena says, the same goes for his person • GENDER PERFORMATIVITY: We utilize our naturally sexed bodies, to perform gender. We do this based on normative frameworks that are historically and culturally constructed • Leads people to think their is a natural or absolute "right way "to be male or female The danger of Gender Performativity 1. We get trapped in our assigned roles Hyper Masculinity or Femininity – Be a “Man’s man” or “A real woman” 2. We become afraid to live our most full lives (Fragile Masculinity and femininity – Men afraid to wear pink or sit with their legs crossed and women who are afraid to cut their hair or go a day without makeup) Result: we harm or exclude those that don’t adhere to the performance IFEANYI MENKITI: Nigerian Philosopher THESIS: The African perception of personhood is different than the Western idea 1. The Western idea of personhood = a minimum view of personhood 2. The African idea of personhood = a maximum view of personhood WESTERN VIEW AFRICAN VIEW ZERA YACOB: Ethiopian philosopher Nothing (including God) should be accepted without getting tested by intelligence or natural reason. • He further believed that truth (religious or otherwise) takes patience and intelligent reasoning. Does God exist? : “He who created them (people) from nothing must be an uncreated essence who is and will be for all centuries [to come], the Lord and master of all things, without beginning or end, immutable, whose years cannot be numbered… Therefore there is a creator, else there would have been no creation.” “Is everything that is written in the Holy Scriptures true?” : As my own faith appears true to me, so does another one find his own faith true. We interpret various ways. MARYA SCHETTMAN: Contemporary philosoher in US -She specializes in “personal identity” and is known for expanding upon John Locke’s view of personhood. -In her view, our lives are a combination of conscious and unconscious moments that weave together creating our individual identity or narrative. • Unconsciousness counts too; our lost memories ARE a part of us!...Further, our current lives are reflections/result of our past experiences memorable or not • Remembering alone is not good enough, we must also work to understand the effect of the memory on our entire story! EPISTEMOLOGY: study of knowledge NO SELF THEORY: aka Buddhist Theory • Buddhist belief is that our goal should be to escape the notion of identity.
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