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This 71 page Study Guide was uploaded by Autumn Griffith on Friday September 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARTS 2000 at University of Georgia taught by Andrea Trombetta in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Chapter 1 The Nature of Art • Artist unknown/DEER AND HANDS/c.15,000 B.C.E./ cave painting Work of ar- tThe visual expression of an idea formed with the skill through use of a medium Medium- particular material, along with it’s technique Mixed media- art made with a combination of different materials • Newman/CATHEDRA/1951/oil on canvas Purpose and Functions of Art: 1. Art for communicating information Examples: • Artist unknown/WHEEL OF TIME/1997/sand • Artist unknown/THE TREE OF JESSE/1150-1170/stained glass 2. Art for day to day living Example: • Artist unknown/BLACK FEET PAR FLECHE/1885/rawhide-pigment 3. Art for worship and ritual Example: • Artist unknown/STONEHENGE/c.2000 BCE England/photograph 4. Art for personal expression • Rembrandt Van Rijn/SELF PORTRAIT/1658/oil on canvas • Yong Soon Min/DWELLING/1994/mixed media • Bearden/ROCKET TO THE MOON/1971/ Collage on board 5. Art for social causes Example: • Chaz Maviyane-Davies/GLOBAL WARNING/1997/poster for 3rd United Nations convention 6. Art for visual delight Examples: Mirlam Schaprio/HEARTLAND/1985/acrylic, fabric, and glitter on canvas Art- the expression of creative skill and imagination, especially through a visual medium such as painting or sculpture Art 21 season 1: -Anne Hamilton- threaded, hung sheets in a warehouse, mouth camera Chapter 2- awareness, creativity , and communication • Weston/PEPPER #30/1930/photograph Aesthetics- an awareness of beauty or to that quality in a work of art or other manmade or natural form which evokes a sense of elevated awareness in the viewer • Da Vinci/A MAN TRICKED BY GYPSIES/1493/ pen and brown ink • Van Gogh/ SKULL WITH A BURNING CIGARETTE/1885/ oil on canvas • Basquiat/TOBACCO/1984/acrylic and oil on canvas • Hampton/ THRONE OF THE THIRD HEAVEN/1950-1964/ gold and silver aluminum foil Creativity- the ability to see and to respond Untrained and folk artists- those with little or no formal art education who make objects Art and Appearances: representational, abstract, and non-representational: Representational art- art in which it is the artists intention to present again or represent a particular subject Example: • Magritte/ LA TRAHISON DES IMAGES/1929/ oil on canvas Abstract art- art that departs significantly from natural appearances (very slight appearances) Example: • Van Doesburg/COMPOSITION (THE COW)/1917/ tempera, oil on canvas Non-representational art - art without reference to anything outside itself- without representational objects Example: Van Doesburg/COMPOSITION/1917/oil on canvas Abstract landscape example: • Maori Peoples/ TUKUTUKU PANELS/1930’S/dyed wooden strips Form- total effect of the combined visual qualities within a work (materials, shape, color, line, design) Content- the message of the work– what the artist expresses • Rodin / THE KISS / 1886 / marble • Brancusi/ THE KISS/ 1916/ limestone Rodin’s work expresses feelings of love, while Brancusi’s work expresses the idea of love • O’keefe/ ORIENTAL POPPIES/1927/oil on canvas • O’keefe/JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT/1930/oil on canvas Iconography- symbolic meaning of signs, subjects, and images used to convey ideas important to particular cultures th • Artist unknown/ DETAIL OF THE DESCENT OF THE GANGES/7 century/granite • Saar/THE LIBERATION OF AUNT JEMIMA/1972/ mixed media Andy Goldsworthy- Rivers and Tides • Made a curvy line out of icicles • Made a whirlpool like shape out of sticks • Made an egg shaped stone stack and gave it to the sea as a gift Time and Motion: th Time is the non-spatial continuum, the 4 dimension, in which events occur in succession. Although time is invisible, it can be made perceptible in art. • Artist unknown/AZTEC CALENDAR IN STONE/1479/stone Mass- whereas a two-dimensional area is called a shape, a three-dimensional area is called a mass *mass is often a major element in sculpture and architecture Implied Motion- to give lifelike feeling, artists often search for ways to create a sense of movement • Artist unknown/ DANCING KRISHNA/chola dynasty 1300/ bronze Chapter 3- Visual Elements Line- an extension of a point, a path of action • Adams/RAILS AND JET TRAILS/1953/photograph • Calder/ TWO ACROBATS/1928/brass wire or sculpture • Pollock/DRAWING/1950/ duco on paper • Smith/GINZER/2000/etching slight line or a line along which two shapes align with each otherIt may be a Shape- the expanse within the outline of a two-dimensional area or within the outer boundaries of a three-dimensional object oGeometric shape- precise and regular (circles and squares) oOrganic shapes- irregular, often curving or rounded • Chagall/I AND THE VILLAGE/1911/oil on canvas Positive shapes/figures - the subject or dominant shapes Negative shapes/figures- background area Figure ground reversal- a phenomenon as our awareness shifts • Escher/SKY AND WATER 1/1938/woodcut Space- the indefinable, general receptacle of all things, the seemingly empty space around us, continuous, infinite, and ever present • Mu Qi/SIX PERSIMMONS/1269/pen and ink on paper Linear perspective: Perspective- parallel lines or edges appear to converge and objects appear smaller as the distance between them and the viewer increase: point of view Horizon- the place where land and sky appear to meet Vanishing point- the point on the horizon line at which lines or edges that are parallel appear to converge • Raphael/THE SCHOOL OF ATHENS/1508/fresco Atmospheric perspectiv- ean aerial perspective is a nonlinear means for giving an illusion of depth, which is created by changing color, value, and detail • Durand/KINDRED SPIRITS/1849/oil on canvas • Shenzhou/POET ON A MOUNTAIN TOP/ 1368-1644 Ming Dynasty/ink and water colors on paper Actual Motion- before the advent of motors, artists created moving sculptures by harnessing the forces of wind and water, like fountains and kites Kinetic art- art that incorporates actual movement as part of the design • Calder/BIG RED/1959/painted sheet metal and steel wire Light Natural light- contains all the color of light that make of the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum Value or ton- erefers to the relative lightness and darkness of surfaces • Daniel Chester French/ABRAHAM LINCOLN/ 1917-18/plaster Chiaoscuro- shading from light to dark to create an illusion of roundness • Carraci/HEAD OF A YOUTH/1590/charcoal and white chalk on gray paper Light as a medium Artificial light used in combination with visual media and sound has become an interest to contemporary artists. • Sonnier/MOTORDOM/2004/light installation Color- the effect on our eyes of light waves of differing wavelengths or frequencies Hue- a particular wavelength of spectral color to which we give a name Value - relative lightness or darkness from white through grays to black Shade- black added to hue Tint- white added to hue Intensity- also called saturation, refers to the purity of a hue or color The color wheel is a 20 century version of a concept first developed in the 17 century by Sir Isaac Newton. in the eye and mind, to create the appearance of other huest they blend Pointillism or divisionis- a system of painting brushwork of tiny dots of color • Seurat/ DETAIL OF A SUNDAY ON LA GRANDE JATTE/1884-84/oil on canvas Color schemes- color groupings that provide distinct color harmonies Monochromatic- color schemes based on variations in the value and intensity of a single hue Analogous- color schemes based on colors adjacent to one another on the color wheel Complimentary- emphasize two hues directly opposite each other on the color wheel (red and green) • Whistler/ NOCTURNE:BLEUE AND GOLD- OLD BATTERSEA BRIDGE/1872-75/ Texture- refers to the tactile qualities of surfaces or to the visual representation of those qualities Actual textures- can be felt by touching (marble, sand, wood, etc.) • Oppenheim/OBJECT/1936/fur covered cup Simulated texture- those created to look like something other than pain on a flat surface • Van Gogh/STARRY NIGHT/1889/oil on canvas Chapter 4-Principles of Design Unity- the appearance of condition Variety- provides diversity and acts to counter unity • Lawrence/GOING HOME/1946/gouche Balance- symmetrical balance is the near or exact matching of left to right sides of a three-dimensional form or two dimensional composition • Hoban/A DESIGN FOR THE PRESIDENTS HOUSE/ 1972/drawing • Hirst/POSTERITY-THE HOLY PLACE/2006/ butterflies and gloss on canvas Emphasis- used to draw our attention to an area that is a specific spot called a focal point Subordination- an artist creates neutral ideas of lesser interest that keep us from being distracted from area of emphasis • Poussin/THE HOLY FAMILY ON THE STEPS/1648/ oil on canvas Asymmetrical Balance- left and right sides are not the same • Degas/JOCKEYS BEFORE THE RACE/1878/oil essence, gauche, pastel Directional forces- paths for the eye to follow provided by actual or implied lines • Goya/BULL FIGHT/plate 20- printmaking Contrast- the juxtaposition of strongly dissimilar elements- for example, dark set against light, large against small, bright colors against dull • Artist Unknown/LUSTER-PAINTED BOWL/ Spain 1400/earthenware painted in cobalt blue and luster Repetition- gives a composition unity, continuity, flow, and emphasis • Raphael/MADONNA OF THE CHAIR/1514/oil on wood Rhythm- created through regular recurrence of elements with related variations and refers to any subordinate elements in sequence • Orozco/ZAPATISTAS/1931/oil on canvas • Oldenburg and Van Bruggen/SHUTTLE COCKS/ 1994/mixed media Scale- size relation of one thing to another Proportion- size relationships of parts to a whole Hierarchial scale- use of unnatural proportions to show the relative importance of figures • Michelangelo/PIETA/1501/ Marble • Artist unknown/ROETTGEN PIETA/1300-25/ painted wood • Matisse/ PHOTOS OF 3 STATES OF LARGE RECLINING NUDE /1935 • Matisse/LARGE RECLINING NUDE/1935/oil on canvas Chapter 5 Evaluation - when we select one thing over another, or appreciate the specialness of something- varies from person to person, age to age, culture to culture Art criticism- making discriminating judgements, both favorable and unfavorable • Artist unknown/ATEN, AKHENHATEN, AND FAMILY/ Egypt, Amara Period/stone • Jigagian/SHY GLANCE/1976/acrylic on canvas • Vigee Lebrun/SELF-PORTRAIT IN STRAW HAT /1782/ oil on canvas Formal theories - focus attention on the composition of the work and how it may have been influences by earlier works • Titian/PIETA/1576/oil on canvas Sociocultural theories- consider art as a product and of a culture and value system • Attributed to asauanta and Tara/UMAR SLAYS A DRAGON/1567-72/gouache and color on paper Expressive theories- pat attention to the artists’ attempt to express a personality or worldview Evaluation - can describe, analyze, interpret, or appraise art to which is rewarding from any viewpoint because it draws the viewer into the creative process • Ni Zan/SIX GENTLEMEN/1345/hanging scroll, ink on paper Chapter 6- Drawing To Draw- to pull, push, or drag a marking tool across a surface to leave a line or mark. A drawing can share ideas, feelings experiences, and images. • Van Gogh/ OLD MAN WITH HIS HEAD IN HIS HANDS / 1882/pencil on paper A drawing can function as in 3 ways- 1. As a notation, sketch, or record of something seen, remembered, or imagined 2. As a study of preparation for another, usually larger and more complex work as a sculpture, a building, a painting, or another drawing 3. As an end in itself; a complete work of art • Michelangelo/ STUDIES FOR THE LIBYAN SIBYL ON THE SISTINE CHAPEL CEILING /1510/red chalk on paper Pablo Picasso recognized the importance of documenting the creative process from initial idea to finished painting. • Picasso/ FIRST COMPOSITION STUDY FOR GUERNICA/ May 1,1937/ pencil on blue paper • Picasso/ COMPOSITION STUDY FOR GUERNICA/May 9,1937/pencil on white paper • Picasso/ GUERNICA/1937/ Oil on canvas Hatching shows how values can be built up with parallel lines Dry drawing media includes pencil, charcoal, conte, crayon, and pastels • Okeefe/ BANANA FLOWER/1933/ charcoal and black chalk on paper • Carriera/ PORTRAIL OF A GIRL WITH A BASSOLA/1725-30/pastel on paper • Degas/ LE PETIT DEJEUNER APRES LE BAIN /1894/pastel on paper Liquid media- include black or colored ink, or washes of ink thinned with water • Van Gogh/ THE FOUNTAIN IN THE HOSPITAL GARDEN/1889/pen and ink • Mehretu/ BACK TO GONDWANALAND/2000/ink and acrylic on canvas Chapter 7- painting Painting - drawing with paint through either watercolor, gouache, tempera, oils or acrylics -Paint consists of three components: 1. Pigment of powdered coloring agents provides color 2. Binder mixes with the pigment to hold the pigment particles together and to attach the pigment to the surface 3. Vehicle spreads the pigment • Richter/ ABTRACT PAINTING/1984/ oil on canvas Watercolor paintinga sre made by applying pigments suspended in a solution of water and gum Arabic to white paper. Watercolor is a staining technique applied to thin, translucent washes that allow light to pass through the layers of color and to reflect back from the white paper • Homer/ SLOOP , NASSAU/ 1899/watercolor • Qi Baishi/ LANDSCAPE/1924/hanging scroll, ink colors on paper Tempera - a water based paint that uses egg, egg yolk, glue, or casein as a binder and is well suited for depicting translucencies Gesso- a preparation of chalk or plaster or Paris and glue, is applied to a support as a ground for tempera and oil paintings • Lippi/ MADONNA AND CHILD/ 1440-45/ tempera on panel Oil- paint in which the pigment is held together with a binder of oil, usually linseed oil and has a slow drying time oThe brothers Hubert and Jan van Eyck are credited with developing oil painting techniques and bringing them to their first perfection oThe luminous quality of the surface is the result of successive oil glazes • Jan van Eyck/ MADONNA AND CHILD WITH THE CHANCELLOR ROLIN/1433-34/ oil and tempera on panel Impasto- oil paint applied thickly • Auerbach/ HEAD OF MICHEAL PODRO/1981/oil on board • Van Rijn/ SEL PORTRAIT/1633/oil on canvas Acrylics are among synthetic painting media which are pigments suspended in acrylic polymer medium, in which provides a fast-drying, flexible film. Acrylics work well when paint is applied quickly with little blending. • Hockney/ A BIGGER SPLASH / 1967/ acrylic on canvas Airbrush- a small-scale paint sprayer capable of projecting a fine, controlled mist of paint, and an even application without the personal tough of individual brush strokes • Flack/ WHEEL OF FORTUNE/ 1977-78/ oil over acrylic on canvas Fresco- true fresco is an ancient wall painint technique in which finely ground pigments suspended in water are applied to a damp lime - plaster surface. Once the surface has dried, the painting is part of the wall. Due to the slow completion of the chemical reaction, colors reach their greatest intensity 50 to 100 years after fresco is painted, yet hues always have a muted quality. • Rivera/ DETROIT INDUDTRY/ 1932-33/fresco Mural- any wall sized painting Chapter 8- Printmaking multiple copies of a single image techniques developed to create Print- a multiple original impression made from a plate, stone, wood, block, or screen by an artist or made under the artists’ supervision Relief- printing technique in which parts of the printing surface that carry the ink are left raised, while the remaining areas are cut away Examples- • Artist unknown/ SECTION OF THE DIAMOND SUTRA/ 868/scroll, woodblock print on paper More Examples of Relief- • Hokusai/ THE WAVE/ 1830/color woodblock print • Nolde/ PROPHET/ 1912/ woodcut • Catlett/ SHARECROPPER/1970/ Color linocut on cream paper Intaglio “to cut into”- lines appear to be inked and transferred to paper are recessed below the surface of the printing plate • Van Rijn/ CHRIST PREACHING/ 1652/etching Aquatint- value area rather than lines are etched on the printing plate. Powdered resin is sprinkled on the plate, which is then immersed in an acid bath. The acid bites around the resin particles creating a rough surface that holds ink • Cassatt/ THE LETTER/ 1891/ drypoint, soft ground etching and aquatint, printed in color Lithography- based on the antipathy of oil and water, the image is drawn with a grease crayon or painted with tusche (greasy liquid) on stone or aluminum plate. The surface is then chemically treated and dampered so that it will accept ink only where crayon or tusche has been used. • Baumier/ RUE TRANSHOMIN, APRIL 15, 1834 /lithograph • Toulous- Lautrec/ JANE AVRIL /1893/poster lithograph printed in 5 colors Screenprinting- stencils are applied to fabric stretched across a frame. Paint of ink is forced with a squeegee through the unlocked portions of the screen onto paper or other surfaces beneath • Hernandez/ SUN MAD/ 1982/silkscreen Chapter 9- Photography “light-writing” the observation that reflected sunlight passing through a small hole in the wall of a darkened room projects onto the opposite wall an inverted image of whatever lies outside Daguerre in the 1830s, which required a treated metal plate. This plate was exposed to light, and the chemical reactions on the plate created the first satisfactory photographs. • Daguerre/ LE BOULEVARD DU TEMPLE/ 1839/ daguerreotype Portrait photographywas raised to the level of art through Cameron’s use of close-ups and carefully controlled lighting to enhance the images of her subjects • Cameron/ JULIA JACKSON/ 1866/ albumen silver print from wet - collodion glass negative Photography as an art form- • Stieglitz/ THE FLAT IRON BUILDING/ 1903/ photo from camera work • Cartier-Bresson/ PLACE DE L’EUROPE BEHIND THE GARE ST.LAZARE/ 1932/photo Photography and social change- • Hine/ COAL BREAKERS, PENNSYLVANIA/ 1910/gelatin silver print Photo essay- a collection of photos on a single subject, arranged to tell a story or convey a mood in a way not possible with a single photo • Artist unknown/ MARGARET BOURKE-WHITE ATOP THE CHRYSLER BUILDING/ 1934/ photo • Adams/ CLEARING WINTER STORM, YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK, CALIFORNIA/ 1944/ photo • Sheridan/ FLOWERS/ 1976/3M color-in- color- print (image in book) Film: the moving image The illusion of motion is made possible by the persistence of vision, by which the mind attempts to make sense on incomplete information . • Muybridge/ THE HORSE IN MOTION/ 1878/ photographs Film as an international language • Chaplin/ CITY LIGHTS/1931/film still Animation and special effects: • Lucas/ STAR WARS/ 1977/film still Chapter 10- Graphic Design Graphic design- the process of working with words and pictures to create solutions to problems of visual communication • Heidi Cody/ AMERICAN ALPHABET/ 2000/ lightbox installation Graphic design is a creative process employing art and technology to communicate ideas • Maviyane-Davies/ ARTICLE 15: EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO NATIONALITY AND TO CHANGE IT/ 1996/offset poster • Kalmanand Meyerowitz/ NEWYORKISTAN, NEW YORK COVER/ Dec. 10,2001 • Jamie Reid/ GOD SAVE THE QUEEN/ 1977/album cover Chapter 11- Sculpture The total experience of a sculpture is the sum of its surfaces and profiles. Sculpture meant to be seen from all sides is called in-the-round or freestanding. • Calder/ OBUS/1972/printed sheet metal Armature- to prevent sagging, sculptors usually start all but very small pieces with a rigid inner support • Arneson/ CALIFORNIA ARTIST /1982/stoneware with glazes Carving- carving away unwanted material to form a sculpture is a subtractive Carving is the most challenging sculptural method because it is a o-way technique that provides little or no opportunity to correct mistakes • Michelangelo/ AWAKENING SLAVE/ 1530-34/marble In wood-carving, sculptors prefer walnut and cypress because of their strength and ease of working with • Catlett/ MOTHER AND CHILD #2/1971/walnut Joint-Block construction - different parts of a sculptureare carved separately and filled together • Artist unknown/ GUANYION/ 11 -12 century/wood with paint • Butterfield/ NAHELE/1986/scrap metal Assemblage- when sculptors assemble found objects in ways that radically change the way we see familiar things, yet the artists maintain enough of the objects original characteristics and identities to invite us to participate in their transformation • Picasso/ BULL’S HEAD/ 1943/ bronze seat and handles of a bike Kinetic sculpture - sculpture that moves • Calder/ UNTITLED/ 1976/ aluminum and tempered steel Chapter 12-clay , glass, metal, wood, fiber This media has been associated with crafts and by looking at traditionally and contemporary examples, we will see that seperating are from craft is nearly impossible and it is better to simply think of them all as art forms. • Schapiro/ PERSONAL APPEARANCE #3/1973/acrylic and fabric on canvas Clay: Ceramics- the art and science of making objects from clay. Clay is extremely flexible in the artists’ hands, yet it hardens into a permanent shapes when exposed to heat called firing. 3 types of clay: 1. Earthenware (red to brown to tan, low temp., and porous after firing) 2. Stoneware (grayish and brown, high temp., and not porous) 3. Porcelain (white and translucent, high temp., nonporous, rarest, and most expensive) • Voulkos / GALLASROCK/1960/glazed ceramic • Takaezu/ MAKAHA BLUE ll/ 2002/ stoneware Glass: Hot or molten glass is a sensitive material that is shaped by blowing, casting, or pressing into molds • Chihuly/ MAUVE SEAFORM SET WITH BLACK LIP WRAPS FROM THE SEAFORMS SERIES/1985/blown glass Fiber: Fiber art includes such processes as weaving, stitching, basket-making, surface design, wearable art, and handmade papermaking. • Unknown/ THE ARDABIL CARPET/1540/ wool pile on silk warps • Itter/ PATTERNSCAPE/ 1985/ linen, knotted • Apfelbaum/ BLOSSOM/2000/velvet and dye • Ringgold/ TAR BEACH/ 1988/acrylic pieced and printed fabric • Abakanowicz/ BACKS (IN LANDSCAPE)/1976-82/ 80 pieces, burlap and glue Chapter 13- Architecture Architecture- the art and science of designing buildings for practical, aesthetic, and symbolic purposes. We find comfort in making our surroundings beautiful. • Courtney-Clarke/ BEAUTIFYING THE SPACE IN WHICH WE LIVE MAKES LIFE MORE BEARABLE/ 1990/photo In dry masonry, the weight of the stones themselves holds the structure up or the technique is to pile stones atop one another • GREAT ZIMBABWE/ before 1450 The invention of the semicircular round arch allowed builders to transcend limitation and create new architectural forms • PONT DU GARD/15 C.E./limestone The word dome refers to a hemispherical vault built up from a circular base • HAGIA SOFIA/532-535
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