MGMT Exam 1 Study Guide Prof Puranik
MGMT Exam 1 Study Guide Prof Puranik MGMT3080
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brady Zuver on Friday September 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT3080 at University of Cincinnati taught by Harshad Girish Puranik in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Management in Business at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
MGMT 3080 Prof Puranik Study Guide 1) What is Organizational Behavior? a) Organization i) A group of persons organized for some common purpose. ii) Course will focus on workplaces people work with coworkers, supervisors, subordinates ect. b) Behavior i) Course focuses on behaviors displayed by employees in the workplace or behaviors related to work (when outside the workplace) c) Organizational Behavior i) “Organizational Behavior (OB) is a field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations” (Colquitt, LePine & Wesson, 2014:6) Definition from notes 2) What makes a good co-worker? a) Good communication skills, gets job done, able to adapt to changes, show initiative in the workplace, and help others to succeed b) Why are good employees important? i) Important to set a good example and establish a positive culture in the work environment 3) Method of Science a) Evidence based management: A perspective that argues scientific findings should form the foundation of management education i) Therefore, research findings in Organizational Behavior are tested and validated often b) Four steps i) Theory (1) Collection of assertions that specify how and why variables are related, and the conditions the should and should not be related ii) Hypothesis (1) Predictions that specify relationships iii) Data (1) Collected via observations iv) Verification (1) Trends in the data are analyzed and validated using statistical methods such as correlation, regression etc. 4) Correlation a) Describes a statistical relationship between two variables and is detonated by “r” i) R=1 means linear or perfect relation +1 perfect positive -1 perfect negative ii) R=.5 strongly associated R=.3 is moderate and r=.1 is weak iii) R=0 means no correlation 5) Causality a) Tells you the cause of the correlation b) Need to meet ALL 3 points to establish causality i) The two variables are correlated ii) The variable that is supposed to be the cause should precede the variable that is supposed to be the effect (we need to show the cause happens before the effect) iii) There are no alternative explanations for the effect variable 6) Job Performance a) Why Focus on job performance? i) As a manager it is critical to know your own performance and performance of others b) What is Job Performance? i) Behavior that your employee performs (or doesn’t)? ii) OR the end result? c) Problems using ONLY results as indicators i) Employees contribute in ways that are more than just the bottom line ii) Managers focus on bottom line trends to create a bottom line mentality among employees & may lead to social undermining iii) Results are often influenced by factors beyond employee’s control iv) Focusing on just results does not tell you improvement areas v) DEFINITION: The value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute either positively or negatively to organizational goal accomplishment (From Book) 7) Task Performance a) Employee behaviors directly involved in transformation of organizational resources into goods and services that the organization produces b) Tasks, duties and responsibilities that are a core/necessary part of the job- usually included in the advertisement for that job position c) Employee must fulfill these obligations to receive compensation and continued employment d) Routinized Task Performance i) Tasks done in normal, routine and predictable ways as a part of the job routine. ii) Usually performed daily in a programmed manner e) Adaptive Task Performance i) Tasks that are novel, unusual or unpredictable. ii) Becoming important as pace of change in organizations is increasing due to advances in technology and globalization f) Creative Task Performance i) Where employees develop ideas or physical outcomes that are both novel and useful ii) New and Useful are important for an idea or action to be creative 8) Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) a) Voluntary activates that may or may not be rewarded, but contribute to the organization by improving overall quality of the setting where the work occurs b) Organizational i) Benefit the organization by defending the company, working to improve operations and being loyal to company ii) Voice (1) Involves speaking up and suggesting constructive change opportunities (a) Taking action instead of just passively complaining about them iii) Civic Virtue (1) Participating in a company’s operations at a deeper level than expected (a) Attending voluntary meetings, being well-informed on announcements and important events that might impact the organization iv) Boosterism (1) Representing the organization in a positive way in the public, away from work (a) Advocating and defending the organization in a casual setting in public places c) Interpersonal i) Benefit colleagues and coworkers (1) Assisting, supporting and developing other organizational members in a way that is above and beyond expectations (2) Helping: Involves assisting employees with heavy workloads, helping personal matters, guiding new employees and so on (3) Courtesy: keeping coworkers informed about important work information, showing mutual respect and courtesy (4) Sportsmanship: Remaining positive when things get tough or others are complaining or whining 9) Counterproductive Behaviors a) Work behaviors that hinder organizational goal accomplishment i) May harm other co-workers or the organization ii) Willingly defy accepted norms in the workplace b) Production Deviance i) Behaviors aimed at reducing efficiency and output c) Political Deviance i) Meant to intentionally disadvantage other persons rather than the organization d) Property Deviance i) Harm the organization’s assets and possessions e) Personal Aggression i) Hostile verbal and physical actions directed at other employees 10) Performance Management i) Organizational performance is heavily reliant on individual performance of employees ii) Methods of understanding the employee performance (1) Rewarding performance (2) Working to improve it iii) Performance findings may also lead to important decisions (1) Pay hikes, Promotions, Job rotation, firings, etc. iv) Important that performance measured accurately and objectively b) Management by Objectives i) Focuses more on outcomes, rather than behaviors (1) Suitable for contexts where (a) Objective measures of performance can be quantified (b) Tasks are well documented and routinized and don’t require individual (personal) behaviors ii) Promotes commitment by objectives (1) Goal oriented workplace iii) Maximum overlaps in objectives/goals and job responsibilities iv) Example: Increase Grade in Class A by 5% by November (1) Has Quantified data and a Deadline c) Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales i) Assesses Job performance behaviors (1) Uses descriptions of effective and ineffective behaviors to create a measure of evaluation- “Critical Incidents” (2) Shows both effective and ineffective behaviors (a) Effective behaviors can be praised (b) Ineffective behaviors can be improved by providing constructive feedback d) 360 Degree Feedback i) Gathers feedback information from anyone who could have firsthand feedback on an employee (1) Not just managers, but also coworkers and subordinates (2) Customers and suppliers also can rate employee performance ii) Disadvantages (1) Sources where feedback is received is different from on employee to another (a) Sales Rep will have more sources (coworkers, managers, customers) than Line worker (coworkers, manager) e) Forced Ranking i) Make clear distinctions among employees in terms of performance (1) Categorize employees based on performance (a) Top X%, Lower Y% Etc. ii) Guidelines set to determine how employees are placed in rankings iii) High ranking employees are rewarded while low ranking employees are given training or are fired 11) Organizational Commitment a) The desire by an employee to remain a part of an organization i) Types of Commitment (1) Affective Commitment (Want to) (a) Desire to remain within organization because of an emotional attachment to and involvement with the organization (i) Close with co-workers (ii) Enjoy workplace atmosphere (2) Continuance Commitment (Need to) (a) Desire to remain with an organization due to awareness of the cost of leaving it (i) Loss of salary or benefits (ii) Upcoming promotions that would be lost by leaving (3) Normative Commitment (Ought to) (a) Desire to stay at an organization because feelings of obligation (i) Staying as a result of thinking of the time the company invested in you 12) Withdrawal Behaviors a) Psychological i) Daydreaming ii) Looking Busy iii) Cyber loafing iv) Socializing v) Moonlighting b) Physical i) Tardiness ii) Missing Meetings iii) Quitting iv) Long Breaks 13) How can organizations Foster Commitment? a) Organizations can be supportive by providing rewards, protecting job security and improving work conditions 14) Personality and Cultural Values a) What is Personality? i) Characteristic patterns exhibited by people b) How does personality develop i) Nature Vs Nurture (1) Parents (a) Heredity (nature) (b) Influence by parents (nurture) (2) Personal Experiences (nurture) (3) Friends (a) Tend to align with similar people (nurture) ii) Both Nature and nurture, Nature essentially “plants the seed” and nurture “determines how it grows” 15) Big 5 Personality Traits a) Conscientiousness i) Dependable, organized, reliable, ambitions and hardworking ii) Driven to achieve goals or meet targets iii) Desire to complete tasks, channel high amounts of efforts to tasks and work longer and harder on tasks. b) Agreeableness i) Warm, Kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful and courteous ii) Strong drive for social acceptance and building relationships (1) Can be too focused on relationships and not focus on job iii) More focused on getting along rather than getting ahead c) Extraversion i) Talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold and dominant (1) Flourish in jobs that require interpersonal interaction ii) Prioritize “status striving”: a strong desire to obtain power and influence within a social structure- as a means of expressing their personality (1) Care a lot about being successful, influential and moving up the organization with a strong reputation iii) Strongest influence of genes: tends to be more or less stable d) Neuroticism i) Nervous, moody, emotional, insecure and jealous ii) Tendency toward Negative Affectivity (hostility, nervousness, annoyance) (1) Tendency to hold more stress on everyday tasks, causing them to be anxious and worried often iii) External locus of control (1) Feel they have very little control over things (2) Believe in luck, chance, fate, and destiny iv) Tend to experience lower job satisfaction because of stress e) Openness to Experience i) Curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined and sophisticated (1) Often flexible and amenable to new information, situations and experiences (2) Not set in their ways and dynamic in their jobs (3) Can be negative on jobs that rely on routine, rigid and demand conformity to established routines 16) Culture and the Company a) Cultural Values i) Shared beliefs about desirable end-states ii) Can influence development of personality traits as well as how the traits are expressed b) Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions i) Individualism vs Collectivism (1) Focused on individual benefits or benefits of the group ii) Power Distance (1) High: Uneven distribution, few are very powerful (2) Low: Power distributed (United States) iii) Uncertainty Avoidance (1) Low: Tolerates uncertainty (2) High: avoids uncertain situations iv) Masculine vs Feminine (1) Masculine (a) Assertiveness (2) Feminine (a) Caring and Quality of life v) Short Term vs Long Term (1) Short: Respect for tradition (2) Long: Focus on long term/ future oriented 17) Ability a) Refers to the relatively stable capabilities that people have to perform a particular range of different but related activities. i) competence in an activity or occupation because of one's skill, training, or other qualification b) Skill is different than ability i) You develop skill only up to a certain point (1) Limited by your ability in the area 18) Emotional Ability a) Emotional Intelligence i) Composite of several subcomponents that equips a person to navigate emotional interpersonal encounters effectively ii) High EI usually have many good qualities and Low EI have poor qualities (1) Person with High EI scores high on (a) Self-Awareness: Awareness of own emotions (b) Other Awareness: Awareness of others’ emotions (c) Emotion Regulation: Ability to quickly recover from emotional experiences (d) Able to grasp emotional undertones of a situation and act accordingly 19) Job Satisfaction a) A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or experiences i) Represents how you feel about your job (1) High Job satisfaction (a) Positive feelings when thinking about job or taking part in work activities (2) Low Job Satisfaction (a) Negative feelings when thinking about work or taking part in work activities b) Why are some employees more satisfied than others? i) Satisfied when the job provides things that they value, that are important to them, and what they seek from a job (1) Different employees will seek different things from a job (2) The same employee might seek different things from their job at different points in their career ii) Value-Percept Theory (1) Job satisfaction depends on whether you perceive that your job supplies the things you value (2) Says that people evaluate job satisfaction according to specific facets of the job (a) Collection of tasks, relationships, and rewards iii) Satisfaction with work itself (1) 50s and 60s tried standardizing job tasks, simplifying them (a) Reduced Job satisfaction as the tasks were boring c) Satisfying work tasks i) Meaningfulness of work (1) Degree to which work tasks are viewed as something that "counts" as per the employee's philosophies and beliefs (a) Is this a meaningful job, am I accomplishing anything ii) Responsibility for outcomes (1) How much employees feel they are responsible for the quality of the work iii) Knowledge of results (1) The extent of which employees know how good or bad they are doing 20) Job Characteristics Theory a) 5 core job characteristics that result in high levels of the 3 psychological states that make work more satisfying i) Variety: the degree of different activities requiring different skills and talents to complete a job ii) Identity: Degree to which the job requires completing a whole, identifiable piece of work, from beginning to end iii) Significance: How much does this job have an impact on other people iv) Autonomy: Whether the job provides freedom, independence and discretion to whoever is doing the job v) Feedback: Degree to which the job activities and other processes provide clear information about how an employee is performing 21) Moods and Emotions a) Moods i) States of feeling that are often mild in intensity (1) Usually last for an extended period of time (2) Not explicitly directed at a target or caused by anything specific (3) When people are in good or bad moods, they do not know who or what deserves credit (a) They just know they are experiencing that mood b) Emotions i) Short lived feelings that come from a known cause (1) Often last for a short period of time (2) Often caused by something particular ii) Difference between emotion and mood (1) Emotion: I am angry at… I am mad at… I am sad about… (2) Mood: I am feeling… (Note: no specific target or source of feeling) c) Emotional Labor i) Need to manage emotions to complete job duties successfully ii) Customer service jobs demand pleasant emotions shown (1) Emotions shown and emotions actually felt by employees may be different (Displayed Emotions) (a) Actual emotions are Felt Emotions (b) Bottled up emotions may erupt, resulting in angry outbursts, emotional exhaustion or even burnout iii) Emotional Contagion: Tendency of a person to “catch” the emotion of another person 22) Motivation: Set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work related effort and determines direction, intensity and persistence (From book) a) As a manger you want your employees to put in more effort and be highly persistent about work i) You want workers to be highly motivated ii) Effective job performance requires both Ability and Motivation b) Extrinsic Motivation: Motivation that is not dependent on the task itself, but more with the contingencies associated with the performance of the task i) Contingencies such as rewards, bonuses, promotion etc. c) Intrinsic Motivation: Motivation that is derived from the performance of the task itself, fostered when the task serves as its own reward i) Tasks that are interesting, enjoyable, allowing expression (employees want to do the task) 23) Expectancy Theory a) Tries to answer the question: What makes you put in the effort during a project instead of taking a break or getting online i) Expectancy: Belief that high effort will result in successful performance of the task (1) Realistic, reachable goals are important so workers know that putting in the effort will help accomplish the goal ii) Instrumentality: Belief that successful performance of task will result in some outcomes (1) Can boost by ensuring high amount of trust, and give what is promised iii) Valence: Anticipated value of outcomes associated with task performance (1) High valence means outcomes are highly coveted, achieve this by getting to know employee aspirations, likings and personality to give rewards associated to them (2) Vital outcomes are associated with positive valance, if you feel the task will lead to a coveted outcome, you will be more likely to exert the extra effort 24) Goal Setting Theory a) Goals are viewed as primary drivers for the intensity and persistency of efforts b) Specific and difficult goals will lead to higher levels of performance i) Gives employees something to shoot for, a measuring stick that allows them to see how hard and how long they have to work 25) Smart Goals and Goal Commitment a) SMART Goals: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time Specific b) Goals need to be committed to be met, not hoped to be met c) Managers and employees set goals together to ensure SMART Goals are made 26) Equity Theory a) Acknowledges motivation doesn’t only depend on your own beliefs and circumstances, but also what happens to others i) Efforts put in by that employee= Input of that employee ii) Rewards earned as a result of his/her efforts = Output for that employee (1) Will compare output-input ratio with output-input ratio of a comparison other (2) Ratio is more important than the total outcome b) Who do employees compare themselves to? i) Generally, compare to workers who are similar to them ii) Themselves at some point in the past (previous jobs input-output ratio) 27) Ways to boost intrinsic motivation: a) Ensure that you match the personality of the person to the job demands b) Boost the level of - Variety, Identity, Significance, Autonomy, Feedback 28) Types of Knowledge a) Explicit Knowledge i) Knowledge that can be written down or verbally communicated b) Tacit Knowledge i) Very difficult or even impossible to articulate to others 29) Methods of Learning a) Reinforcement i) We learn by observing a link between our behaviors and consequences (1) Positive Reinforcement: When a positive outcome results from a desired behavior (2) Negative Reinforcement: When and unwanted outcome is removed as a result of performing a desired behavior (3) Punishment (4) Extinction ii) Schedules of Reinforcement (1) Continuous: Rewarded after every desired behavior (a) Praise, high level of importance, but hard to maintain praise on every behavior (2) Fixed Interval: Rewarded at fixed time periods (a) Paychecks, paid ever week, every other week (3) Variable Interval: Variable time periods (a) Supervisor walk-by at random times (4) Fixed Ratio: Fixed number of desired behaviors (a) Piece-rate Pay (Paid per piece completed instead of hourly) (5) Variable Ratio: Variable number of desired behaviors (a) Commission based pay: Pay based on number of sales b) Goal Orientation i) Learning Orientation: Working on new tasks to expand their knowledge ii) Performance Driven Orientation: Focus on demonstrating their competence so that others can thing favorably of them 30) Decision Making a) Programmed Decisions: Decisions that are familiar due to tacit knowledge i) Intuition or Gut feeling decisions so it is hard to describe why you made that decision b) Non-Programmed Decisions: Unfamiliar environment that require you to understand problems and come up with solutions i) Steps in Non-Programmed Decision Making (1) Gather all relevant information (2) Come up with 3-4 alternatives that address the issue (3) Choose the alternative with the Maximum benefit ii) These Assume (1) Decision makers are rational and always look for best interest in the organization (2) Decision makers have access to all information (3) There are not time or money constraints 31) Decision Making Problems a) Limited information- Cannot access or process all information or alternatives to make optimal decisions i) Simplification- misses or fails to account for some information when analyzing problems and creating solutions ii) Satisfying solutions- Will choose the first acceptable solution that is most efficient to them b) Faulty Perceptions- Bias and assumptions cause decision makers to perceive possible solutions differently i) Selective Perception- Seeing the environment only as it affects you and is consistent with your exception ii) Projection Bias- We believe others think, feel and act the same way we do iii) Stereotype- Assumption that all members of a certain group are similar iv) Heuristics- using simple, efficient rules of thumb to make decisions c) Faulty Attribution i) Fundamental Attribution Error- Tendency to judge others’ behaviors as caused due to internal factors ii) Self-serving Bias: Tendency to attribute our own failures to external factors and our own successes as internal iii) Attribution Theory (1) Consensus of Behavior: Do others behave similarly? (2) Distinctiveness of Behavior: Does this person act differently in other circumstances? (3) Consistency of Behavior: Does this person always behave similarly in such circumstances d) Escalation of Commitment i) Decision to continue following a failing course of action (1) Not wanting to admit making a mistake or looking incompetent
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