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SPA 2001 Exam #1 Study guide

by: Stephanie Newman

SPA 2001 Exam #1 Study guide Spa 2001

Marketplace > Florida State University > Natural Sciences > Spa 2001 > SPA 2001 Exam 1 Study guide
Stephanie Newman
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

This is a study guide for Sana Tibi's SPA 2001 Exam #1! It has the most important concepts that are on the test as well as the more detailed topics that were not mentioned in class.
Commication Sciences and Disorders
Sana Tibi
Study Guide
speech pathology, Intro to Communication, intro to communication behavior, SPA2001
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Newman on Friday September 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Spa 2001 at Florida State University taught by Sana Tibi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 206 views. For similar materials see Commication Sciences and Disorders in Natural Sciences at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 09/30/16
SPA 2001 Test #1 Review Chapters 1, 2, 4, and 5 Chapter 1  Communication disorders o Communication disorders­ impair the ability to receive/send or  process/comprehend information, including verbal, nonverbal, or graphic info.  Affects any aspect of communication o Are swallowing disorders considered communication disorder? ­ Yes, they are communication disorders, but they are also considered to be feeding disorders o Different types of communication disorders (page 3) Disorder Impairment Language written/spoken comprehension Hearing auditory/hearing system Central auditory processing processing of audible signals Augmentative/alternative not impairments, but methods that SLPs  use to compensate for impairments caused  by communication disorders o People who deal with these disorders (page 3) Professional Type What do they do Credentials SLPs (speech­language  Identify, assess, treat, and  Public school certification,  pathologists) prevent communication  clinical practice, pass  disorders national exam; BA or  Can also work privately,  Master’s; CCC­SLP  with people with  (certificate of clinical  swallowing disorders, or  competence) awarded by  people modifying a dielect ASHA; license (if private  practice  Audiologists Educational settings  3­5 professional education  Measure/assess hearing  after BA; doctorate (AuD,  ability in order to prevent  PhD, or EdD); audiology  and manage hearing  specializing websites disorders CCC­A awarded by ASHA Assess people with APDs  and fit/provide them with  hearing aids Speech, language, hearing  Conduct research about  Doctorate (PhD or EdD) scientists speech­sound production, or how children learn language Professional  Work closely with SLP to  Associate’s/Bachelor’s aides/Paraprofessionals  provide therapy tasks;  (assistants to SLPs) clerical tasks; screenings o Laws (ASHA has been an important advocate for both of these laws!!)­  ­ 94­142 EAHCA (education for all handicapped children)­ children  ages 5­21 with disabilities must be given free/appropriate public  education ­ PL 99­457, IDEA (individuals with disabilities education act)­ racial  and ethnic minorities have different language learning needs that  English language learners (ELLs)  Chapter 1 key terms (make sure you know these!!)­  ­ Communication disorders  ­ APDs (auditory processing  ­ ASHA (American Speech  disorders)  Language Hearing  ­ Efficacy, effectiveness, and  Association) efficiency (page 11)  ­ SLPs (Speech­language  ­ 94­142 EAHCA and PL 99­ pathologists) 457, IDEA laws ­ Audiologist ­ ­ Chapter 2  Know these definitions: o Communication­ exchange of ideas; message from sender and response from  listener o Sociolinguistics­ study of the influence of things like culture and setting on  communication o Speech­ the process of producing acoustic sounds of language o Language­ social code used to represent concepts o Grammar­ rules of language o Generative­ everything we say is freshly created  What makes a language generative? –We can always generate an  infinite number of sentences  What makes a language dynamic? –It changes over time o Linguistic intuition­ a sense of what sounds right or wrong in language ­  Components of language (page 18)­  ­ Component ­ What it consists of ­ Form ­ Phonology­ smallest units of sound (43)  ­ Morphology­ smallest units that carry  meaning; grammatical units ­ Syntax­ how words are arranged in  sentences ­ Content ­ Semantics­ knowledge of words and their  meanings ­ Use  ­ Pragmatics­ how language varies  depending on cultural/social influences o Pragmatics disorder­ right hemisphere damage, TBI­ difficult to process meaning/ sequence of words, such as sarcasm ­ ­  3 features of speech (page 18) o ­ what causes vocal abuse?; smoking, tumors, yelling ­ Feature of speech ­ What is it ­ Articulation ­ The way speech sounds are formed ­ How we move our mouths to speak ­ Fluency ­ Smooth flow of communication ­ Rate­ the speed we talk ­ Prosody­ rate and rhythm  ­ Voice ­ Sound produced when someone  speaks ­ Pitch­ listener’s perception of a voice ­ Intonation­ pitch movement ­ o Difference between articulation and phonology: Articulation is how speech  sounds are formed and phonology is the actual units of the speech sound o Examples of disfluency:  use of fillers (um and like), prolongations (getting  stuck on one letter or speech sound), repetition o What causes vocal abuse: smoking, tumors, yelling ­  Nonverbal communication (page 29) ­ Type ­ What it does ­ Artifact ­ How you look and how your environment is decorated s  ­ Music, art, architecture, furniture ­ Kinesic ­ Body language, gestures, facial expressions s ­ Can be explicit (clearly defined) or implicit (general and  subtle) ­ Space  ­ Proxemics­ how the distance between people affects their  and time communication  ­ Tactiles­ touching behaviors ­ Chronemics­ effect of time on communication ­  Different forms of nonverbal communication (page 21)­ sign language, posture, body  language, gestures, artifacts, kinesics, proxemics  Pitch vs. frequency­ o Pitch­ what the listener perceives; subjective to listener o Frequency­ the measurable aspects of sound; not subjective  Difference between hearing loss and ADP (page 30)­ o  ADP (auditory processing disorder)­ normal hearing but impaired  comprehension of speech; easily affected by noises, difficult holding  conversation o Hearing loss­ partial or total inability to hear ­ ­  Basic classification schemes of communication disorders ­ ­ Onset ­ Determines if the disorder is  acquired or congenital (born  with or acquired < 2 years of  age) ­ Severity ­ Mild to profound  ­ Etiology ­ Cause of the disorder ­ Speech ­ Articulation or fluency of voice ­ Language ­ Receptive or expressive abilities ­  Dysarthria, Apraxia­ acquired motor disorders, could be the result of aphasia  Basic prevalence (%) data of communication disorders across the lifespan (page 35)­  how many people area affected by these disorders; how much roughly do different  age groups experience hearing loss  Difference between criterion­referenced and norm­referenced assessment  o Norm­referenced­ based off of a large population; measured by a standardized test and compared to others in the age group o Criterion­reference­ evaluates client’s strengths and weaknesses; does not  compare scores to a large population or to others in the age group  Dynamic assessment­ test, teach, test method; teaching is not done in norm­ or  criterion­referenced assessment; explores a client’s ability to modify behavior and  improve speech problems such as disfluency  Difference between screening and assessment o Screening­ does not diagnose, but suggests possibility of a problem o Assessment­ diagnoses the problem; longer/more in depth than screening ­  Chapter 2 key terms (make sure you know these!!)­ ­ Speech, communication, and  ­ ADP and hearing loss language  ­ Prevalence ­ Generate and dynamic ­ Criterion­referenced and  ­ Components of language norm­referenced assessment ­ Classification schemes of  ­ Dynamic assessment communication disorders ­ Screening and assessment ­ Nonverbal communication ­ ­ Chapter 4  Language development through the lifespan­ Table 4.1 (page 60) o Dr. Tibi mentioned to study this chart and be able to identify a major delay in  speech development if given as a question on the test (: o Example: a 5­year­old child has an MLU of 2.2 morphemes. Is this abnormal? ­ Yes, because the number of morphemes should correlate with the age  Language characteristics and red flag signs of ASD (page 78­80) o Examples: problems with social communication, restricted/repetitive patterns  of behavior, etc. o Causes of ASD­ no known cause, but it is primarily biological; high serotonin  levels and abnormal cerebellum and temporal lobe development   Traumatic brain injury (TBI)­ cerebrovascular accident or stroke, congenital  malformation, convulsive disorders, or encephalopathy (infection/tumors)  PCF (phonetically consistent forms)­ consistent vocal patterns;   How many words should be on the child’s lexicon on age 2? – ­ 150 words  Fast mapping (page 64)­ when the child infers the meaning of a word from context;  typical in older children  MLU (mean length of utterance) (page 65)­ o What should the MLU of a child of 2 be? – ­ 1.5 to 2; the MLU should correlate with age ­ calculated by language sample of child divided by 100  Gender preference for communication disabilities? –Males are more at risk  What types of communication disorders are more prevalent in males? –Autism   Difference between SLI (specific language impairment) and LD (learning disability)* o Those with SLI do not show perceptual difficulties; they do not misinterpret  information they receive as those with LD do *** ­ I ­ Characteristics ­ Nonverbal m intelligence p a i r m e n t ­ S ­ Deficits in language  ­ Typical, but  L development with no obvious  deficits in  I sign of anatomical/physical  nonverbal tasks cause ­ L ­ Impaired development of  ­ May have  D listening, speaking, reading, or  perceptual  writing, and also with motor  difficulties of  learning and coordination;  incoming stimuli reflect difficulties with central  NS ­ Hyperactivity/hypoactivity is  common ­  Language test tasks­ figure 4.5 (page 92) o Examples: grammatical completion, receptive vocabulary, defining words, pragmatic functions, etc. ­  Chapter 4 key terms (make sure you know these!!)­ ­ ASD (autism spectrum disorder)  ­ Fast mapping ­ TBI (traumatic brain injury) ­ MLU (mean language utterances) ­ Lexicon ­ Language test tasks ­ PCF (phonetically consistent  ­ Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) forms) ­ ­ Chapter 5  Literacy­ reading and writing   Dyslexia­ difficulty in reading, interpreting, or decoding words or letters  Phonics­ sounds correlating to the alphabet  Difference between phonological and phonemic awareness o Phonological awareness­ ability to differentiate between words, syllables, or  onsets; assessed through tests of reading, spelling, verbal working memory,  and rapid automatized naming (RAN) o Phonemic awareness­ ability to differentiate phonemes within a word;  example­ separating the word “cat” into 3 separate phonemes  Signs that the child is at early risk of reading disabilities­ figure 5.3 (page 115)  Morphological awareness (page 117)­ knowing the smallest units of meaning in the  language; example: are corn and corner related?  Emergent literacy­ language development from 0­5 years of age o Writing begins early in emergent literacy through scribbling and drawing ­  Chapter 5 key terms (make sure you know these!!)­ ­ Phonics  ­ Phonemic awareness ­ Literacy ­ Emergent literacy ­ Phonological awareness ­ Dyslexia ­ Morphological awareness ­ ­ ­ Short answer examples:  o Give an example of a phonological awareness task? o Causes of autism spectrum disorder?  ­ No specific cause, but 60% of the time, there are genetic  influences ­


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