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UNLV / Nutrition / NUTR 223 / What is the composition of fructose?

What is the composition of fructose?

What is the composition of fructose?

Description

School: University of Nevada - Las Vegas
Department: Nutrition
Course: Principles of Nutrition
Professor: Damon mccune
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: nutrition, 223, and Carbohydrates
Cost: 25
Name: Ch. 4 The Science of Nutrition Lecture Notes
Description: Carbohydrates (10 pages)
Uploaded: 09/30/2016
10 Pages 143 Views 0 Unlocks
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Liver

  • Responds to hormones (insulin and glucagon) from pancreas & uptakes/releases stored glucose into the blood
  • Insulin is secreted by beta cells
  • stimulates glucose transporters to help take glucose (stimulating storage)
  • Stimulates liver to take up glucose & convert to glycogen
  • Glucagon is produced by alpha cells
  • stimulates liver to break down glycogen to glucose.(glycogenolysis)
  • -stimulates breakdown of body proteins to amino acids to make new glucose (gluconeogenesis)
  • Hook up blood glucose regulation diagram

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Glycemic Index

  • A food's potential to raise blood glucose
  • Ranking System (usually 1 to 100)
  • Fast brededown = ( High GI)
  • Slow breakdown = (Low GI)
  • food such as carrots can range breakdown levers because each person is different
  • Developed for people with diabetes

Don't forget about the age old question of What context did Bayer design his universal alphabet?

Glycemic load (GL)

  • accounts for serving site of individual foods & amount of carbohydrates in a serving
  • Glycemic load =
  • GI & GL remain controversial

Don't forget about the age old question of What refers to diffusion of water across a membrane towards the side with the lowest water concentration?

Role of Carbohydrates (CMO)

  • 4 cal/ g pr lca;/g
  • Both fats & Carbohydrates supply energy for daily activity (movement) -
  • Gluse if many important for:
  • energy during exercise
  •  preferred energy source for brain
  • light /slow movement exercise
  • most energy from fat
  • moderate exercise
  • -almost half from fat & carbohydrates

Ketosis  

  • Fat breakdown during fasting
  • excess ketones inc. blood acidity & can be fatal & cause ketoacidosis
  • one of the first ketones we produce is acetone
  • sufficient energy from carbs prevents ketone production
  •  diabetics do not have enough insulin produced
  • Reducing glucose = reducing water in body
  • muscle mass reduces = metabolic rate slows

Don't forget about the age old question of Name the 3 dimensions of risk perception.

Complex carbs Man Have Health Benefits

  • Fiber may reduce risk of colon cancer, diverticulosis, heart disease, type 2 diabetes & helps prevent intestinal problems.

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Fiber Adequate Intake (AI)

  • 25 g/d for women, 38 g/d for men
  • 14 g for every 1,000 kcal/day
  • have an adequate fluid intake with high-fiber diets (prevent constipation)

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Carbohydrates

  • RDA: 130 g /day (brain)
  • AMDR: 45%-65% of daily calories
  • Focus on fiber-rich carbs

Dietary sources of sugars

  • Natural sugars such as milk, fruits, veggies & grains
  • occur in fiber sources/micronutrients
  • Added sugars
  • added during processing or preparation
  • No chemical difference from natural sugars

Alternative sweeteners (stevia, setenda, aspartame)

  • Nutritive sweeteners
  • contain 4 kcal/g
  • slow-absorbing sugar alcohols::2-3 kcal/g.
  • non-nutritive (alternative)
  • Provide little or no energy
  • -safe for adults, children, diabetics

Fun Fact

  • Each artificial sweetener was discovered by accidents
  • Chlorinated sugars are sweeter
  • In 1976, Tate & Lyle, a British Sugar company searched for ways to blend sucrose (sugar) with lab chemicals.

Disorders related to CHO digestion.

  • Diabetes, Hypoglycemia. Lactose intolerance
  • Diabetes: chronic disease that involves uncontrolled blood glucose/cannot regulate within normal limits
  • 7th leading cause of death in US
  • 29.1 mil Americans (9%)
  • 2 main forms: Type 1 - Body does not produce insulin (~5%)Type 2 - body cells become resistant to insulin (95%)

Complications of Diabetes

  • If not controlled, diabetes can lead to: blindness, seizures, stroke, kidney failure, nerve disease, cardiovascular disease.

Hypoglycemia

  • Fasting blood sugar falls to lower than normal levels
  • causes: excessive insulin production
  • types:-Reactive - Panoness secretes too much after meal
  • Fasting

Lactose intolerance

  • Body does not produce sufficient lactase
  •  common after 2 yrs. of age.
  • ~70% of admits will lose Ability to digest lactose as they age
  • More common in Afiam, Hispanic,(Native American & African American

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