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EXAM 1 Study Guide for Nutrition and Health

by: Jacqueline Tkachuk

EXAM 1 Study Guide for Nutrition and Health 11:709:255

Marketplace > Rutgers University > Nutritional Science > 11:709:255 > EXAM 1 Study Guide for Nutrition and Health
Jacqueline Tkachuk

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These notes cover topics from carbohydrates, proteins, diabetes and blood glucose, chemistry of nutrition, nutrition science, policies, amino acids, and malnutrition.
Nutrition & Health
Dr. Miller
Study Guide
nutrition science, foundations of nutritional science, amino acids, Proteins and Enzymes, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Diabetes, Chemistry, malnutrition
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacqueline Tkachuk on Friday September 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 11:709:255 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Nutrition & Health in Nutritional Science at Rutgers University.

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Date Created: 09/30/16
Study Guide for EXAM #1 What is Nutrition? -See Figure: Contribution of Other Disciplines to Core Knowledge What is a nutrient? -helps sustain individual, animals, trees, etc. What are the different classes of nutrients? 1. Micronutrients: a. Less than 1 gram per day b. Vitamins c. Minerals 2. Macronutrients: a. More than 1 gram per day b. Water c. Carbohydrates d. Proteins e. Lipids (fats and oils) What is an essential nutrient? -if you don’t consume it, you die (need it to survive) What is a non-essential nutrient? -helpful, but not needed to survive (used to grow and reproduce) What is a conditionally essential nutrient? -ex: choline (chocolate) -the body generally produces these nutrients unless in a case where there is a physiological deficiency where your body needs to take supplements What is the most essential nutrient? (time frame) -water (it helps you survive for the longest amount of time) -oxygen is the “seventh” nutrient What is meant by nutritious? -it is edible, something can be more or less nutritious Is access to nutritious food a human right? -yes, it is -It’s not WHAT you eat, it’s HOW MUCH you eat. Ex: dies soda (has water, provides hydration) -Is alcohol a nutrient? Yes Nutrition Science and Practice I.From Science to Public Policy -evidence-based II. The RCT (Randomized Control Trials) / (end of Ch. 1) -randomization (will tomatoes help with eyesight?) -who’s gonna be given tomatoes? -done experimentally III. How is Nutritional Status Assessed? -ABCD methods of nutritional assessment -A: Anthropometry -physical dimensions and composition -height, weight, circumferences -body composition (fat mass, lean mass, BMI) -B: Biochemical measurement -blood and urine -biological markers -C: Clinical Assessments -medical history -visible signs of illness -symptoms of disease or nutrition -D: Dietary Assessment 1. Retrospective dietary assessment -24 hr recall -food frequency questionnaire 2. Prospective dietary assessment -diet record taken over 24 hrs, done by individual -Tools -food composition tables & dietary analysis software IV. DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes) -represents populations 1. EAR (Estimated Average Requirement) -calculated from population 2. RDA (recommended dietary allowance) 3. AIL (Adequate intake level) 4. TUIL (tolerable upper intolerable level) V. EAR(population) vs RDA (individualized) -genetics, men/women, age, metabolism rd -see Fig 2-4, p 44 (Nutritional Sciences 3 Edition, From Fundamentals to Food) -EAR plus 2 standard deviations = RDA VI. EERs (Estimated Energy Requirements) -eating foods that give you energy VII. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines Ex: public school educational dietary program Ex: SNAP program (aka food stamps) -Emphases on healthy shifts Ex: from refined grains to whole grains Ex: from snacks w/added sugars to unsalted snacks Ex: from solid fats to oils Ex: from sugary drinks to water VIII. USDA A. Basic Four Food Groups (Pre-1992) 1. dairy 2. meats 3. fruit/vegetables 4. grains B. USDA Food Guide Pyramid (1992) -bottom of pyramid: breads, pastas -next level: fruits, vegetables -next level: dairies, meats -top: sweets C. USDA Food Guide Pyramid (2005) - “My Pyramid” -interactive, has stairs for exercise D. USDA My Plate (2011) -more customized based on height, weight, activity E. Healthy People 2020 -four primary goals that strive to improving equality and disparity IX. Questions: 1. What is a calorie? The amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius. 2. What is a kilocalorie? 1000 calories 3. What is a Calorie? SAME as kilocalorie or 1000 calories, found on food labels 4. How do we determine the Calorie content of a food? -bomb calorimeter (releases energy as heat) X. Calories from Different Macronutrients -Carbohydrates – 4kcal/gram -Protein- 4kcal/gram -Lipids- 9kcal/gram -Alcohol- 7kcal/gram Table 1.1 Calculating Caloric Content of a Typical Breakfast (from Nutritional rd Sciences 3 Edition, From Fundamentals Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Monosaccharides: 1 sugar unit -Glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharides: 2 sugar units Complex Carbohydrates 1. Oligosaccharides: (3-10 sugar units) a. Raffinose, stachyose 2. Polysaccharides: (>10 units) a. Glycogen, Starch, Dietary Fiber Sucrose vs. High Fructose Corn Syrup (Glucose + Fructose) -essentially the same -HFCS has a little more in fructose than in glucose giving it an even sweeter taste -humans don’t digest in oligosaccharides and it is not used for energy or nutrition Oligosaccharides in Mammary Glands -helps baby to be healthy (good bacteria) Polysaccharides -Starch, Glycogen, Dietary Fiber Starches: Amylose and Amylopectin 1. Amylose: has 1,4 alpha glycosidic bonds 2. Amylopectin: has 1,4 alpha and 1,6 beta glycosidic bonds Glycogen: Glucose storage in liver and muscle Starch Digestion: -salivary glands release alpha amylase which cuts amylose and amylopectin forming dextrins -Starch is digestible because of alpha 1,4 glycosidic bonds Fiber: -if you can slow down gastric emptying it will slow down the digestion and keeps food in stomach promoting satiety Gestational Diabetes: not due to a lack of insulin production but rather due to insulin resistance Secondary diabetes: brought on by medical conditions or diseases Type 2 Diabetes: starting to occur in younger people -insulin resistance -common to middle-age men and women -can be managed by diet, exercise, or glucose lowering medications -insulin receptors have difficulty binding to insulin resulting in fewer glucose transporter molecules that signal glucose uptake => this can lead to hyperglycemia Type 1 Diabetes: pretty rare -lack of insulin production -requires insulin pumped daily via injections -beta cells of the pancreas have been destroyed causing a lack of signaling of glucose transporters to move into the plasma membrane to bring in more glucose into the cell Type 3 Diabetes: -is Alzheimer’s disease part of what causes type 3 diabetes Amino Acids and Proteins Amino Acids -All are composed of an amino acid group, carboxylic acid, and a central carbon along with an R group that is what makes a particular amino acid specific -20 amino acids Essential Amino Acids i. Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine Nonessential Amino Acids i.Alanine, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, Serine Conditionally Essential Amino Acids i.Arginine, Cysteine, Glutamine, Glycine, Proline, Tyrosine ii.Essential for certain stages of human development PROTEINS A. Complete Protein: has all the essential amino acids and that they’re all in the right proportions -just because they’re essential doesn’t mean you need the same amount of all of them -proteins that have the right ratios of consumption -ex: milk and eggs: best complete protein (compare every other food to them) -call Eggs and Milk protein 1.00 on a scale where 1.00 is the most complete B. Incomplete Proteins: when combining foods, it’ll create a higher quality of complete protein C. Complementary Proteins -ex: Legumes and Grains creates complete protein D. Protein Synthesis 1. Cell Signaling 2. Transcription: DNA to mRNA takes place in the nucleus 3. Translation: mRNA to protein takes place in the cytoplasm E. Structure of Proteins 1.Primary Structure: peptide bonds (small chain of amino acids) -order of amino acids 2. Secondary Structure: portions of protein can be either: -weak bonds between carboxylic acid and amino groups create a folded structure -ALPHA HELIX -beta folded sheets 3. Tertiary Structure: alpha and beta folds are compressed together -composed of single polypeptide 4. Quaternary Structure: 2 or more of these folded proteins aka polypeptides put together Disaccharide Digestion -Enzyme Lactase cuts Lactose into monosaccharides -Enzyme Sucrase cuts Sucrose -Enzyme Maltase Cuts Maltose Protein Digestion 1. Production of Gastrin released in stomach which then releases gastric juice (HCL, pepsinogen, mucus) 2. HCl in gastric juice: i. denatures proteins ii. converts pepsinogen (proenzyme) to pepsin (protease enzyme) (hydrolyzes peptide bonds of proteins) 3. Partially digested proteins enter the small intestine which causes the release of: I. Secretin ii. CCK 4. Secretin stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate which neutralizes chyme 5. CCK stimulates the pancreas to release proenzymes (trypsinogen) into the small intestine 6. Pancreatic proenzymes (trypsinogen) are converted to active enzymes (trypsin) in the small intestine 7. These enzymes (trypsin) digest polypeptides into tripeptides, dipeptides, and free amino acids 8. Intestinal enzymes in the lumen of the small intestine and within mucosal cells complete protein digestion


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