Quiz 1 Study Guide
Quiz 1 Study Guide HLWL 1109
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Friday September 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HLWL 1109 at George Washington University taught by Philip W. Lucas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Health and Wellness at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Leslie Ogu HLWL 1109 Chapters 1-5 Study Guide for Quiz 1 NOTE: This is a compilation of the slides from class, not the chapters in the book, as the outlines are quite extensive. Keep in mind this quiz is also open source. I recommend having the outlines available along with this study guide to study and find information quickly. Circles of Sexuality History of Men and Women ➢ In prehistoric times, and even seen today, men typically have the “fight or flight” response to either engage the danger or run to bring the danger away from others ➢ Women usually have the “tend and befriend” response where they would befriend each other and discuss any issues they may be having Circles of Sexuality ➢ This relates to how different people in circles of sexuality interest with one another ➢ Sensuality: awareness, acceptance of, and comfort with one’s own body; physiological and psychological enjoyment of one’s own body and the bodies of others; awareness and enjoyment of the world as experiences through the senses: touch, feel, sight, and hearing ○ Ex: Body Image ■ Feeling attractive and proud of one’s own body ○ Ex: Fantasy ■ The brain gives people the capacity to have fantasies about sexual behaviors and experiences ■ Sometimes someone may “ooze” of sensuality because they give the vibe or feeling of desire ○ Ex: Desire ■ The need to be touched and held by others in loving, caring ways ● Also referred to as skin hunger ● Doesn’t necessarily mean sex; just contact ➢ Intimacy: the ability and need to experience emotional closeness to another human being and have it returned ○ Ex: Sharing ■ Sharing intimacy is what makes personal relationships rich, intimacy focuses on emotional closeness, no hysical closeness ○ Ex: Caring ■ Caring about others means feeling their joy and their pain. It means being open to emotions that may not be comfortable or confident ○ Ex: Risk-taking ■ To have true intimacy with others, a person must be open and share feelings and personal information ■ Theory: “Peeling the layers of an onion” ○ Ex: Vulnerability ■ To have intimacy means that we share and care, like or love, and take emotional risks, which makes us vulnerable ➢ Sexual Identity: a sense of whom one is sexually, including a sense of maleness or femaleness ○ Ex: Gender Identity ■ Knowing whether one is male or female. Sometimes a person’s biological gender is not the same as their gender identity. This is called being ransgender ○ Ex: Gender Role ■ Identifying actions and or behaviors for each gender ○ Ex: Gender Bias ■ Holding stereotype opinions about people according to their gender ○ Ex: Sexual Orientation ■ Whether a person’s primary attraction is to people of the other gender (heterosexual) or the same gender (homosexual) or both genders (bisexual) ➢ Reproduction and Sexual Health: attitudes and behaviors related to producing children, care and maintenance of the sex and reproductive organs, and health consequences of sexual behavior ○ Ex: Reproductive anatomy ■ The male and female body and the ways in which they function ○ Ex: Attitudes ■ A wide range, when it comes to sexual expression and reproduction ○ Ex: Sexual feelings ■ How we feel about our sexual health, and sexual intercourse ➢ Sexualization: the use of sexuality to influence control, or manipulate others ○ Ex: Flirting ■ Relatively harmless, however, it is usually an attempt to manipulate someone else ■ Sometimes, people are unaware that they are even doing it ○ Ex: Seduction ■ A more harmful behavior that flirting. It always implies manipulating someone else, usually so that the other person will have sexual intercourse with the seducer ○ Ex: Sexual harassment ■ An illegal behavior ■ Harassing someone else because of his or her gender ○ Ex: Rape ■ Forcing someone of the opposite or same sex to have genital contact with another ○ Ex: Incest ■ Forcing sexual contact on any minor who is related to the perpetrator by birth or marriage ■ Doesn’t have to just be minors Exploring Human Sexuality: Past and Present Takeaways from Chapter Reading ➢ Sex has been like a pendulum ➢ Despite it being like a pendulum, it seems to be an integral part of society ➢ How homosexuality has progressed throughout time ➢ Different religions and the emphasis on male-female relationships, as well as their roles ➢ How men and women are portrayed ➢ Some cultures have been believed to be conservative about sex and sexuality but had their times of changes ➢ How commonplace pornography was in certain eras ➢ How the price of the condom went down as sex seemed to increase ➢ How Jesus didn’t talk much about sex in the Bible ➢ The war on sexuality ➢ You have to get a blood test before marriage because men were giving women STIs ➢ Use of sex for pleasing the wives and for other reasons Video on Sexuality Between Races ➢ Japanese tend to be more inward and reserved about sexuality because of the culture ➢ To some Dutch, having sex should come when one is ready and have thought it through very well, considering the consequences and being knowledgeable ➢ In today’s society, a lot of parents and households are uncomfortable talking about sex, and having “the talk” ➢ People seem to have sex ed talks either in middle school and high school ○ Is there a wrong age to discuss it? ○ Is there a right age or time to discuss it? ➢ Who is the better parent to speak to per gender? ○ Some say girls to speak to their mothers, and the boys should speak to their dads ○ There are benefits in speaking to both ○ Maybe the parent they are most open with should do it What is Sexuality? ➢ A uniquely human trait? ➢ Mating rituals ➢ Laws, customs, fantasies, art based on sexuality ○ Laws include age of consent, sexual crimes, etc ➢ Sexologists - specialize in studying human sexuality ➢ Is America sexually repressed? ➢ Diversity in sexual expression The Impact of the Media ➢ Explicitly or subtly sexual visual media ○ Digitally altered models’ bodies and faces ○ Sexual content on television ➢ Changing patterns of social communication on the Internet Changes in Human Sexuality Over Time ➢ Ancient Mediterranean ○ Laws from growth of cities ○ Many sexual issues in writings and art ○ The intention of three ancient cultures influences modern Western society ■ Hebraic (Hebrews) ■ Hellenistic (Greek) Roman ➢ Ancient Asia ○ India ■ Marriage was considered a positive pursuit ■ Patriarchal society and female infanticide were commonplace ■ The Kamasutra and the nature of love ○ China ■ Yin and yang of sexuality ■ Importance of female orgasm ■ Homosexuality and polygamy ➢ Early Christianity ○ View of sexuality was to dominate Western thought for the next 2,000 years ○ General association ○ Celibacy and chastity were idealized ○ Sex for procreation only ➢ Middle Ages ○ 1050-1150 sexuality was liberalized ○ Entremetteuse - sexual teachers ○ Late 15th century - campaign against witchcraft, women’s insatiable “carnal lust” ➢ Islam ○ A new religion ■ Patriarchal society ■ Modesty: covering private parts of the body ■ Harems for wealthy men ■ Eunuchs (men who have been castrated) Note: There are additional places and cultures on the slides but this is where we stopped in class Personality Formation & Theories of Sexuality Theories About Sexuality Psychoanalytic Theory ● Freud (1856-1939) ○ Sex drive is a very important life force ○ Two controversial concepts ■ Personality formation ■ Psychosexual development Behavioral Theory ● B.F. Skinner (1953) ○ Operant conditioning ■ Reinforcement ■ Punishment ● Behavior modification: tool to change unwanted behavior ○ Aversion therapy Social Learning Theory ● Bandura (1969) ○ Basis in operant conditioning ○ External and internal events ○ Identification and imitation of same-sex parent in development of our gender identity ○ Peer pressure influence on our sexuality Cognitive and Humanistic Theories ● Cognitive theory ○ Individual differences in processing information ○ Behavior is a result of our perceptions and conceptualizations of our environment ○ Largest sex organ – the brain ○ We are sexually aroused by what we think is sexually arousing ● Humanistic theory ○ Self-actualization Biological and Evolutionary Theories ● Biological theory ○ Sexuality is controlled by our physiology, genetics ○ Sexual problems due to physiological causes; interventions include medications or surgery ● Evolutionary theory ○ Sexuality serves mainly to reproduce ○ Primary goal is to pass on one’s genes ○ Consider mate preferences from an evolutionary perspective Sociological Theory ● Sexual expression varies across societies ● Institutions influence expression of sexuality Feminist Theory ● Sexology is dominated by white, middle-class, male sexuality ● Sexuality used by men to maintain power over women ● Lack research on female orgasm, satisfaction Queer Theory ● Heterosexism and homophobia should be resisted ● Heterosexism is not the norm ● Sexual categories are cultural constructions Personality Formation ● Two drives (motivations): ○ Libido: life or sexual motivation ○ Thanatos: death or aggressiveness motivation ● Two divisions to personality: ○ Three levels of operations ■ Conscious ■ Preconscious ■ Unconscious ○ Three guiding identities ■ Id ■ Ego ■ Superego Levels of Operation ● Conscious: information in awareness ● Preconscious: information within recall, but not in awareness ● Unconscious: inaccessible Guiding Identities ● Id: seeks immediate satisfaction ● Ego: operates in reality; balances id and superego ● Superego: values and restrictions; conscious ● Psychoanalysis is required if ego does not balance id and ego ● Psychoanalysis brings unconscious thoughts into consciousness * Additional history on sexuality found on slides * Stopped here on PowerPoint Chapter 3: Sex and Communication The Importance of Communication ● The “ onion” theory of communication ○ Cultivates emotional intimacy, understanding, and love ● Good communication increases the probability the relationship will last ● Relationship problems often due to: ○ Poor communication ○ Unwillingness to acknowledge a problem or issue ● People want to communicate to: ○ Convey understanding ○ Maintain the image they have in the eyes of the other person Learning to Communicate ● The goals of communication ○ Get the job done: send the message ○ Relational goal: maintain a relationship ○ Identity management goal: portray our self-image ● Families and communication ○ Strategies often learned from families: negotiation, conflict avoidance, arguing, and interpersonal skills ○ Helps children develop social and emotional understanding of the world ○ Sometimes, we have situations where someone may not receive the affection and love in their family growing up, and that can affect them in relationships moving forward Types of Communication - Nonverbal ● Comprises the bulk of our communication ● Improved ability to interpret with age ● Is expressed in various cultural forms ● Demonstrate gender differences Types of Communication - Computer-Mediated Communication ● Reduces inhibitions ● Increased misunderstanding in the absence of nonverbal cues ● Can become compulsive Communication Differences and Similarities ● Communication and gender ○ Conversations with the opposite sex are typically harder than with same sex groups ● Genderlects: fundamental differences in how men and women communicate ○ Women tend to exhibit rapport talk and men tend to exhibit report talk ● Theories about gender differences ○ Biological, Psychological, and Social Roles Theories try to explain sources of differences Modes of Communication in Childhood ● Learn from: ○ Parents ○ Friends ○ Siblings ○ Relatives ○ Teachers Communication Differences and Similarities - Gender-Based Research ● Brizendine claimed women have higher speech quantity due to hormones during fetal development; not supported by other research ● Tannen’s critics claim approach is unidimensional, basing gender only on biological sex ● Many studies have found overall differences in many areas of communication are small Communication and Culture ● Individualistic versus collective cultures ○ Men and women from the U.S. disclose more personal information in their communication than men and women from some Asian cultures ● “Low-context” cultures v. “High-context” cultures Communication and Sexual Orientation ● Most communication research deals with heterosexuals ● Few communication differences have been found in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual intimate relationships ● As in heterosexual couples, differences reflect power in the relationship more than the biological sex of the communicator Sexual Communication - Body Image ● Couples who communicate about sexual issues report more relationship satisfaction ● Positive self-images and feeling good versus fears about body image and attractiveness ○ Body image affects how attractive we feel ■ Talking to your partner may help address issues ○ The media creates the “ideal body” ○ Self-acceptance, autonomy, self-efficacy, and resilience aid in maintaining good sexual relationships Watched video and stopped here on slides Lecture 8 slides of Chapter 4 were not uploaded as of today but will be uploaded separately
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