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Bio 101 Test 2

by: Vania Notetaker

Bio 101 Test 2 Bio 101

Vania Notetaker
Virginia Commonwealth University
GPA 3.5

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These notes are for the test 2
Biological Concepts
Rachell Hill
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vania Notetaker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 101 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Rachell Hill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Biological Concepts in Biology at Virginia Commonwealth University.

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Date Created: 09/30/16
Bio 101 Study Guide Test 2 What is every cell bordered by that has two layers and regulates what enters and exits the cell? What is the nature of the cell membrane? What are the functions of the cell membrane? What is the plasma membrane made of? What is the intercellular fluid? What is the extracellular membrane? Why is the plasma membrane called a fluid mosaic? Name the components of the plasma membrane in animal cells. What are integral proteins? What are peripheral proteins? What are transmembrane proteins? What structure determines whether a protein is peripheral or integral? What keeps proteins from popping out of the membrane? What are some functions of proteins? What do beta-blockers do? What happens when adrenaline binds to beta-receptors of cells? What is cystic fibrosis? What happens when one has cystic fibrosis? How do you test for cystic fibrosis? What are some common treatments for cystic fibrosis? What do the carbohydrate chains on protein do? What does cholesterol in the plasma membrane do? Do all cells contain cholesterol? What are glycoproteins? What are some functions of glycoprotein? What are some problems with cell surface having “fingerprints”? Why is it unlikely that a person will catch HIV from casual contact with infected individuals? What is diffusion? What’s a solute? What’s a solvent? Why does diffusion occur? Through diffusion where do compounds naturally move? What is osmosis? What type of transport is osmosis? What is a semipermeable membrane? What is responsible for most of the movement of fluid in and out of cells? Why do plant cells not burst when there is to much water in them? What is solute concentration? What is tonicity? Hypertonic Hypotonic Isotonic How do laxatives relieve constipation? What determines the direction of osmosis? What is passive transport? Two types of passive transport What is simple diffusion? What is facilitated diffusion? What is required for simple diffusion? What is required for facilitated diffusion? Why can’t facilitated diffusion occur without a carrier molecule? What is an Aquaporin? What is active transport? What is adenosine triphosphate (ATP)? What is special about ATP? When active transport uses energy directly from ATP to facilitate something what type of transport is it? What is Endocytosis? What are two types of endocytosis? What is phagocytosis? How is phagocytosis used? What is pinocytosis? What’s different about the two forms of endocytosis? What is a eukaryotic cell? What is a prokaryotic cell? What are mitochondria? What part of the body needs mitochondria the most? What part of the body needs mitochondria the least? Prokaryotic cells are either a _________ or a _________________. What are structure features of prokaryotic cells? What are all seen organisms? What is different about prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells? What is a nucleus? What is the nuclear membrane? What is the nucleolus? What are ribosomes? What is the rough ER? What is the smooth ER? Some ribosomes are _________ What is the Golgi apparatus? Which organ is likely composed of cells with the greatest amount of smooth ER? What are lysosomes? What is RNA? What is the endomembrane system? Tay-Sachs disease What is the endosymbiosis? What is the endosymbiosis theory? What is a plasma membrane? What is invagination? What is the support for the endosymbiosis theory? How are mitochondria and chloroplast similar? What is the cytoskeleton? What are the functions of the cytoskeleton? Three types of cytoskeleton What are microfilaments? What are intermediate filaments? What are microtubules? What are cilia? What are flagella? What is found in a plant cell but not an animal cell? What is a vacuole? What is a cell wall? What is chloroplast? What are plasmodesmata? What are tight junctions? What are desmosomes? What are gap junctions? How can lack of communication lead to cancer? How do cancer cells differ from other cells? What are biofuels and what are fossil fuels? What is energy? What is work? Where does energy come from? How is energy released? What is potential energy? What is kinetic energy? As energy is captured and converted what happens to it? What happens to the 99% of energy not captured and converted by plants during photosynthesis? What is thermodynamics? What are the laws of thermodynamics? What is entropy? How do living organisms use energy? What is an endergonic reaction? What is an exergonic reaction? How are endergonic and exergonic reactions linked? What molecule is used to power coupled reactions? What is ATP like? How do cells directly fuel their chemical reactions? What is recycling in cells? What are enzymes? How do enzymes work? What do enzyme active sites bind with? What are coenzymes? What do enzymes do to the activation energy? How do enzymes reduce activation energy? What is metabolism? With more enzymes what happens to the reaction rate? What about temperature? What about pH? What are inhibitors? What are activators? What is a competitive inhibitor? What is a non-competitive (Allosteric) inhibitor? What is a nonfunctioning enzyme? What is a phenylketonuria? Why do some adults get sick when they drink milk? What is food? Cellular currency What is currency exchange? What is cellular respiration? What are its three stages? What is aerobic cellular respiration? What stage of cellular respiration do some organisms solely rely on for energy harvest? Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain What from Glycolysis and Krebs cycle is need for the ETC? Plasma Membrane. Flexible, stable and materials constantly move in and out of it? Holds cell context in place, takes in food and nutrients, helps build and export molecules, allows interaction with environment and close by cells and regulates heat. A phosphobilayer made of hydrophobic heads on the outside and hydrophilic tails on the inside Watery fluid inside the cell Watery fluid outside the cell It is composed of several different molecules and their always moving around Phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrate chains (glycocalyx) Proteins bound to the hydrophobic interior of the phospholipid bilayer Proteins on either sides of the membrane, not bound to hydrophobic interior Proteins that can both exist in both the hydrophobic region and hydrophilic region of the bilayer The tertiary structure The hydrophobic and hydrophilic force keeps them properly oriented Structural support, recognition, communication and transport They bind to the beta-receptors stopping adrenaline from binding to it Heart beats faster and blood pressure increases When an individual inherits incorrect genetic instructions from both parents for making on type of transmembrane protein in lungs and digestive tract The transmembrane protein doesn’t allow proper enter and exit of chlorine ions causing a buildup of thick mucus on the lungs Measure salt concentration in sweat Manual moment of mucus using an inhalation vest, thumbing on chest and back so mucus can be coughed up They are fingerprints for cells, allowing other cells to recognize the cells It maintains the flexibility by preventing it from getting floppy at moderate temps. and rigid at freezing temps. Some have 25% while others like bacteria and plant have none Short branching carbohydrates Adhesion, lubrication, binding signs for signaling molecules Mismatched molecular fingerprints can cause difficulties in organ transplants HIV virus binds to CD4 markers that aren’t located on skin cells A form of passive transport that results in an even distribution of molecules Particle being dissolved What is dissolving the particle When there is a high concentration molecule bump each other until they distribute Down their concentration gradient Net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from lower solute concentration to higher solute concentration Passive transport Allows some compounds but not others to freely pass through Osmosis Cell walls Cells will gain or lose water relative to their surrounding in accordance with what the solute concentration is inside the cell as opposed to outside it Relative concentration of solute outside of the cell relative to the inside the cell Has a greater concentration of solute than the solution inside the cell Solution has lower solute concentration than the solution inside the cell The concentration of solute concentration than the solution outside the cell The high salt from the laxative into the intestines makes water move from surrounding cells into the environment The amount of “dissolved stuff” on either side of the membrane Spontaneous diffusion of molecules across a membrane Simple diffusion, passive transport Molecules pass firectly through the plasma membrane without the assurance of another molecules Molecules move across the plasma membrane with the help of a carrier molecule A concentration gradient A concentration and a protein channel (transport protein) Because most molecules are to big/charged (repelled by the hydrophobic tails) Allows some water to slowly get through the membrane without a carrier molecule Movement of molecules from a lower concentration with the help of ATP Molecules with a sugar molecule, an adenine and three phosphate with energy stored in it It can be used and recycled hundreds of thousands of times! Primary active transport Large objects are brought into the cell through this process Pinocytosis and phagocytosis Larger objects are engulfed by cells Amoebas and other unicellular protest as well as white blood cells consume other organism for food or defense Cells taking in dissolved particles and lipids The vesicles formed during pinocytosis are smaller then those during phagocytosis Has nucleus containing DNA Doesn’t have a nucleus, DNA is just in the center of cell and its been around for 3.5 billion years Extracts energy from food Liver, skeletal muscle and white blood cells Dermal cells and red blood cells don’t need it at all. Bacteria or single celled life form called Archaea Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, Circular DNA, cell wall and flagellas Eukaryotic but not all are multicellular. Membrane bound organelles Genetic control center, contains DNA Two bilayer on top of each other like double bagging groceries Area near center of the nucleus where subunits of ribosomes are assembled and RNA is made Construct protein Modifies protein that will be shipped to other locations Lipids are synthesized and alcohol, antibiotics and other drugs are detoxified Free standing in the cytosol Processing molecules synthesized in cell and packing of molecules destined for use elsewhere in the body Liver Break down cellular structure or foreign material that come into the cell and disposes waste Taken from DNA and used to make protein Everything except mitochondria and chloroplasts, produces and modifies molecules and also break down chemicals and cellular by- products Individuals inherits inability to produce a critical lipid digesting enzyme Ancestral eukaryote engulfs prokaryote and overtime it be comes an organelle in the eukaryote Explains presence of chloroplasts in plants and algae and mitochondria in plants and animals DNA resembling that of a bacteria Folding in of plasma membranes on itself and organelles forming Chloroplasts and mitochondria similar to prokaryotes in size; divide by fission, they have their own ribosomes, they have their own circular DNA which is more closely related to bacterial DNA than eukaryotic Resemble prokaryotes , divide by fission, has one ribosome Web of protein strands Support cell and cell shape and controls intercellular traffic flow and enables movement Microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules Help cell move and capture prey by forming quickly in the direction of movement and decomposing rapidly at their other end Provide support and structure to the cell Play structural role and facilitates movement of material inside the cell by serving as transport rails Beat swiftly often in unison moving fluid along and past cells Tail that move cells through fluid Cell wall, central vacuole, Chloroplasts Stores nutrients, degrades waste, accumulated poisonous material , contains pigments that help with reproduction and provide physical support Provide structure, gives cell increase water resistance provides some protection from predators The site of photosynthesis Channels in plant cells that are allows open allowing communication between cells possible Form a water-tight seal between cells ( important in intestines) Hold cells together but isn't water tight (skin tissues) Act like secret passageway and allows material to pass between cells Contact inhibitors will malfunction cause cell not to know when to stop divide causing a mass of cell called a tumor They have fewer gap junctions decreasing cell communication making it harder for them to know when to stop dividing Chains of carbon and hydrogen bonds with energy stored in them The capacity to do work Moving matter against an opposing force Suns energy is captured by photosynthesizing organisms and they pass it to organism in the form of food Breaking bonds Stored energy (chemical energy) Energy in moving objects (heat and light energy) Amount of energy available to do work decreases Reflected by into space, converts to heat and absorbed by land ocean and atmosphere Study of transformation of energy from one type to another 1.Energy can not be created or destroyed 2. Energy transfer leads to more disorder in the universe Measure of amount of disorder - bring about local increase in order (in themselves) through metabolic processes - build more ordered molecules using less ordered ones Stored energy- product contains more energy Energy is released - reactant contains more energy Exergonic reactions powers and endergonic reaction ATP Sun energy can be used directly for fuel work it must first be stirred in an ATP molecule When ATP is broken and energy is released it can becomes ADP which can be reused to make ATP by adding a phosphate ( this can happen hundreds of thousands of times) Catalyst (Speed up chemical reactions ) changes a substance without being changed themselves It has a complex shape with places in it called active sites where substrates can bind and reactions happen The substrate that matches the shape of the active site (lock and key) Molecules other than amino acids that facilitate the work of enzymes by binding with them Lower it -Stressing/bending/stretching chemical bonds- participate in reaction - create a micro habit conductive to the reaction Hold substrates in place so they can be modified Sum of all the chemical reactions a cell or larger living thing carries out Reaction rates increase with increased amount of enzymes until all enzyme molecules are bonded to a substrate As temperatures increase reaction rate increases until optimum temperature, after that enzymes denature or lose shape Reaction rate increases as pH reaches optimum level but enzyme function disrupted below or above it Reaction rate decreased Reaction rate increases Bind to active sites blocking substrates from site Do not compete for active sites, bind to another part of enzyme changing its shape Sequence of amino acid is incorrect disrupting active sites ( responsibility for large number of diseases and physiological problems Inability to break down the amino acid phenylalanine Lactase enzymes shape has be altered so it can't break down lactose Fuel (required for all activities of life) Universal energy source for living things From food molecules into ATP by cellular respiration Living organisms get energy from the chemical bonds in food. Glycolysis, Krebs cycle and electron transport chain (ETC) Requires fuel ad oxygen, potential energy stored in chemical bonds is released by breaking the bonds Glycolysis Takes place in the cytosol Produces 2 ATP Takes place in the mitochondria Produces 2 ATP Takes place In the mitochondria Produces 32 ATP Electrons that are need for the high yield energy harvest (ETC)


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