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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Samantha Bidinger

Exam 2 Study Guide Psych 1560

Samantha Bidinger

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About this Document

This is a study guide for the materials in exam 2 (chapters 4-6)
General Psychology
Lindsay DeVicchio
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Bidinger on Friday September 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1560 at Youngstown State University taught by Lindsay DeVicchio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at Youngstown State University.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Chapter 4 – States of Consciousness Consciousness: Awareness of sensations, thoughts, and feelings experienced; subjective understanding of environment and private internal world - Waking consciousness (awake and aware) - Altered states (sleeping and dreaming, drug use and medication) Stages of Sleep 1. Transition between wakefulness and sleep; low-amp brain waves 2. Slower and more regular wave pattern, momentary interruptions of sleep spindles 3. Slow brain waves w/ higher peaks, lower valleys of waves 4. Deepest stage, least responsive to outside stimulation REM Sleep Rapid eye movement sleep: Occupies 20% of an adult’s sleeping time, shallow sleep, when most dreams are able to be remembered - Increased heart rate, BP, and rate of breathing - Erections - Eye movements - Dreaming - Aids in learning and memory Rebound effect: REM-deprived sleepers spend significantly more time in REM sleep than normal Dreams Unconscious wish fulfillment theory: Dreams represent unconscious wishes the dreamers wish to see fulfilled (Freud) - Manifest content – info remembered and reported - Latent content – Underlying wishes of dreamer Dreams-for-survival theory: Dreams permit info that is critical for our daily survival Activation-synthesis theory: Brain produces electrical energy randomly during REM sleep (Hobson) Circadian Rhythms - Biological processes that occur regularly on an apporx 24-hr cycle - Controlled by suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) - Seasonal affective disorder: severe depression which increases during winter and decreases during rest of the year Hypnosis – trancelike state in which one is highly susceptible to the suggestions of others - Divided consciousness: Division or disassociation of consciousness into two components that are simultaneous Meditation - Technique for refocusing attention - Brings altered state of consciousness - Improves health due to biological changes produced Drug Use Psychoactive drugs: Drugs that influence a person’s emotions, perceptions, and behavior; results in an altered state of consciousness Addictive drugs: Drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence; withdrawal leads to nearly irresistible craving for the drug Stimulants – drugs that have arousal effect on CNS - Causes rise in HR, BP, and muscular tension - Caffeine, Nicotine, Amphetamines, Cocaine Depressants – Drugs that slow down the nervous system (ex. Alcohol) - Alcoholism is dependence Barbiturates & Rophynol - Muscle relaxers, anxiety meds - Barbiturates o Induce sleep, reduce stress o Sense of relaxation o Altered thinking, faulty judgement, and sluggishness - Rohypnol aka date rape drug Narcotics – Drugs that increase relaxation and relieve pain and anxiety - Morphine, Heroin, Methadone - Hallucinogens – Produces hallucinations, or change in perceptual process - Marijuana, MDMA, LSD Chapter 5 – Learning Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience Habituation: Decreased response to a stimulus Classical Conditioning  Ivan Pavlov  Neutral stimulus elicits a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response Neutral stimulus: Does not naturally bring about response of interest before conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): Naturally brings about response w/o having been learned Unconditioned response (UCR): Natural and requires no training Conditioned stimulus (CS): Previously neutral stimulus that has been paired w/ UCS; brings about response previously only caused by the UCS Conditioned response (CR): Follows a previously neutral stimulus after conditioning Extinction  Occurs when previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and disappears o Basic phenomenon of learning Spontaneous recovery: Reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response Operant Conditioning  Learning in which a voluntary response is either strengthened or weakened o Operating on our environment Thorndike’s Law of Effect: Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated Reinforcement: Stimulus increases probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated Reinforcer: Stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again Primary reinforcers: Satisfy biological need, works naturally Secondary reinforcers: Stimulus becomes reinforcing because of its association w/ primary Reinforcer Positive reinforcers: Added stimulus that brings about an increase in a preceding response Negative reinforcers: Unpleasant stimulus, removal leads to increase in probability that response will be repeated Punishment: Stimulus that decreases the probability that a prior behavior will reoccur Positive punishment: Addition of something Negative punishment: Removal of something Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement schedule: Reinforcing a behavior every time it occurs (use when first learning) Partial (intermittent) reinforcement: Reinforcing a behavior some of the time (use when behavior is beginning to be learned) Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforcement given only after a specific number of responses have been made Variable-ratio schedule: Occurs after a varying number of responses Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforcement only after a fixed time period has elapsed Variable-interval schedule: Time between reinforcements vary Shaping 1. Reinforcing any behavior similar to that of the behavior you want learned 2. Reinforce only responses closer to the behavior you want taught 3. Reinforced only desired response Behavior Modification 1. Identify goals and target behavior 2. Design a data recording system and record preliminary data 3. Select behavior change strategy 4. Implement program 5. Keep careful records of the program 6. Evaluate and alter the program if needed Cognitive Learning Theory  Study of learning focusing on the underlying thought processes  Assumed link between stimulus and response Latent Learning  New behavior is not demonstrated until an incentive is provided  Learning occurs w/o reinforcement Observational Learning  Learning by observing the behavior of another person or model  Mirror neurons fire when one observes another person taking part in a behavior Chapter 6 – Memory Memory: Process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information Stages: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval Sensory memory: Initial, momentary storage of info; lasts only an instant Iconic memory: Reflects info from visual system Echoic memory: Stores auditory info Short-term memory: Holds info for 15-25 seconds Chunk: Grouping of info that can be stored in short-term memory Rehearsal: Repetition of info that has entered short-term memory Elaborative rehearsal: Info is considered and organized in some way Mnemonics: Organizing info so that it is more likely to be remembered Long-term memory: Stores info on relatively permanent basis, may be difficult to retrieve Declarative memory: For factual information Procedural memory: For skills and habits aka nondeclarative memory Semantic memory: For general knowledge Episodic memory: For events occurring in particular time, place, or context Semantic networks: Mental representations of clusters of interconnected info Spreading activation: One memory activation triggers related memory activation - Neuroscience of memory: o Engram: Physical memory trace in the brain corresponding to a memory o Hippocampus: Plays large role in consolidation of memories o Amygdala: Involved w/ emotional memories - Memory at neuron level o Long-term potentiation: Certain neural pathways are easily excited while a new response is being learned o Consolidation: Memories become fixed and stable in long-term memory Working memory: Set of temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse info, uses cognitive resources, effectiveness can be reduced by stress Central executive processor: Involved in reasoning and decision making (visual store, verbal store, episodic buffer) Recalling Long-Term Memories Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Inability to recall info one realizes they know Retrieval Cues  Stimulus allowing us to more easily recall info that is in long-term memory Recall: Specific piece of info must be retrieved Recognition: When one is presented with a stimulus, and asked if they were previously exposed to it, or asked to identify it from a list Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit memory: Intentional or conscious info recollection Implicit memory: Memories people are not consciously aware of Priming: Exposure to a word or concept that makes it easier to recall related info Flashbulb Memories  Memories related to a specific, important, or surprising event that are easily recalled with vivid imagery o Source amnesia: An individual has a memory for something but cannot recall where it was encountered Constructive Processes in Memory  Process in which the meaning given to events influences memories o Schemas: Informational bodies stored in memory that bias the way new info is interpreted, stored, and recalled o Autobiographical memory: Recollection of own life experiences Forgetting  Memory failure is essential  Forgetting helps keep unwanted info for interfering w/ retrieving wanted info  Forget because of failure to encode Decay: Loss of info through nonuse Memory traces: Physical changes in the brain when new material is learned  Key processes in forgetting: Interference: Info in memory disrupts recall of other info Cue-dependent forgetting: Insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle info that is in memory Proactive and Retroactive Interference Proactive interference: Info previously learned disrupts recall of newer material (progresses in time) Retroactive interference: Material learned later disrupts retrieval of newer material (retrogresses in time) Memory Dysfunctions Alzheimer ’s disease: Progressive brain disorder leading to a gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities Amnesia: Memory loss that occurs w/o other mental difficulties Retrograde amnesia: Memory lost for occurrences prior to a certain event, but not for new Events Anterograde amnesia: Memory lost for events following an injury Korsakoff’s syndrome: Tendency to repeat same story (afflicts long-term alcoholics)


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