Notes for exam 1
Week 2 Quiz – Based on Chapter 1
Immigration- Is the most important factor in the spread of TB from lower-income countries to higher income countries
Liberia- According to the World Bank definition Liberia is considered low-income
Decrease in the under- 5 mortality rate of 65 per 1,000 children- Most important milestone achieved in global health over the last 50 years.
Low- Income Country- A country with gross national income per capita of $1,000 is classified by the World Bank
False Statement About Global Health
- Global Health focuses on individual level clinical care. True Statement About Global Health
- A global health concerns health problems, issues and concerns that transcend national boundaries.
- Global health involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences
- Global health refers to an area of study, research, and practice that aims to improve health in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
*******About 146,000 deaths occurred from measles globally in 2013********
Millennium Development Goals –
EAT, EDUCATE, ENVIRONMENT, EQUALITY AND EMPOWER 1. Between 1990 and 2015, halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. EAT
2. Achieve universal primary education
3. Ensure environmentally sustainability
4. Promote gender equality and empower women
Turkey- Represents an upper-middle- income country according to the World Bank Don't forget about the age old question of Sympatric speciation
Small Pox Features
- No reservoir for infection
- Survivors gained lifetime Immunity
- Severe Disease so must people stayed home causing few others to become infected
***** RANDOM FACT **********
Week 3 Quiz- Based
Top 3 causes of DALYS in sub-saharan Africa We also discuss several other topics like What are the four P's in marketing mix?
-Malaria, HIV/AIDS, lower respiratory infections
Life Expectancy At Birth- The average number of years a newborn could be expected to live, if current mortality trends were to continue for the rest of the newborns life. We also discuss several other topics like What are the most abundant elements in living things?
Maternal Mortality Ratio- The number of women who die as a result of preganacy and childbirth complications per 100,000 live births in a given year.
Denominator for infant mortality rate- 1,000 live births in a given year.
Beneficence- Assessing risks and benefits fulfills which ethical principle according to the Belmont Report.
- The participants were not treated, even though they were told they would be treated for “bad blood”
- The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral reach was created following the hearing.
- Study lasted 40 yrs.
Policy Making – Ischemic Heart disease was the leading cause of DALYS in high- income countries and contributed to 12.39 million DALYS in 2010.
Ethical Principles for Allocation of Scarce Resources
- Personal responsibility
- Health Maximization
Clinical Research protocol must satisfy
- Social value- fair subject- scientific validity
- NOT WRITTEN CONSENT
Using 076 regimen was an active control would most likely show that the short-course regimen was superior- the proponent of the short course AZT trials defended the study by stating this.
Week 4 Quiz
Train nurse staff to perform cesarean sections- Best strategy to combat the acute shortage of doctors who can perform cesarean sections in a low- income country.
Perceived ecological impact of the innovation- Least likely to influence adopting behavioral change according to the diffusion of innovations model
Community Mobilization- best represents the Tami Nadu Nutrition project If you want to learn more check out What the benefits of being an informed user?
Don't forget about the age old question of What factors influence price elasticity?
Models of Behavioral Change
- Stages of change model
- Health Belief model
- Diffusion of innovation model
- NOT A MODEL- Environmental model
FALSE STATEMENTS ABOUT SOCIAL ASSESSMENT
It focuses on the impact of the intervention and is not important in the implementation of the monitoring and management programs.
Sudan- A country that is most likely to have the highest private expenditure as a percentage of the total health expenditure.
Poor Sanitation- Least likely to represent social and cultural barriers on the polio vaccination in India.
Advertisements for high-protein baby formula- Best represents a culturally appropriate targeted intervention to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the Burundi case study context.
United States has a pluralistic health system
Building Blocks of WHO framework
- Service delivery
- NOT social and financial risk protection
Week 5 Quiz
By providing improved stoves in India and China what else can be done to encourage the uptake
- Encourage the development of competitive suppliers and market choice by promoting demand for better stove and fuels - Involve end users in needs assessment and design approaches - Establish national and local polices that encourage the change in stove and fuels.
Burden of Disease
- About 8.4% of the total burden of disease in low-income and middle income countries is due to poor water, sanitation, and hygiene, urban air pollution, and indoor air pollution. We also discuss several other topics like what is Economic problem?
- Most DALYS attributable to the poor sanitation, water and hygiene occur primarily in young children.
- There is tentative evidence linking indoor air pollution with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight. - False most deaths attributed to outdoors air pollution occur in adults less than 45 years of age.
Water-washed transmission of infection- Person- person transmission because of lack of water for hygiene
Colon cancer is least likely to attributed to poor sanitation, water, and hygiene.
Constructing a community- based water system, along with promoting hygiene- Is the most cost effective intervention to improve health in rural villages in a country like Nepal.
Improved access to water for hygiene purposes would have the greatest impact on- Scabies
Top 3 environment factors leading to disease in low/middle income countries
-Unsafe water, hygiene and excreta disposal
- Indoor air pollution
- Urban air pollution
NOT UNHEALTHY URBAN LIFESTYLE
TRUE- Indoor air pollution can lead to a variety of respiratory problems
Potential Barrier to using improved sanitation systems in low/ middle income countries
- Least likely Lack of NGO involvement
- Lack of knowledge of options
- Local laws
- Lack of skill in the construction and installation of toilets
Week 6 Quiz
Early adolscents is defined as Ages 10-14
Anxiety disorders that are leading causes of DALYS are among Females ages 15-19
Least likely related to the social determinants of health Breast cancer.
Delay obtaining the services of a traditional birth attendant Does not fall under” the three delays” of childbirth
Oral Rehydration Therapy- Most cost effective intervention in low resource settings to treat diarrhea and prevent complications for mortality.
Three Leading Causes of Death among adolescents globally -Road injury
Sub-Sahara Africa- Region with the largest percentage decline in under-5 mortality since 1990.
Top three Direct Causes of maternal mortality in and middle income countries are
- Unsafe abortion, obstructed labor, and sepsis
Intervention is most critical for preventing maternal mortality establishing emergency obstetric services.