ANT 304 Exam 2 Study Guide
ANT 304 Exam 2 Study Guide ANT 304
Popular in Intro Archaeol Stds: Prehist
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sena Sarikaya on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Valdez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Intro Archaeol Stds: Prehist in Anthropology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Class Lecture Week 5 09/19 Primates are not specialized 1. stereoscopic vision w/ overlap to give 3D vision 2. erect posture 3. nails not claws 4. generalized dentition heterodot (mult. shapes) homodot = reptiles mastication 200 lb of pressure per sq. inch 5. apposable thumb humans can touch thumb to every fingertip primates only touch sides of fingers 6. live birth fewer offspring more time & effort to rear 7. Homeothermia maintain body temp. if you’re cold > eat, shiver, etc. 09/21 Paleoindians: earlies Native American in New Word Siberian route most scientists agree 3 Fundamental Qs still w/ us When did they first come? What tools? How did they make their livelihood? What is the ultimate ancestry of 1 Nat. Am.? 100,000 y.a. > no evidence 45,00015,000 y.a. > not always best evidence 2 competing hypotheses PreClovis & Clovis PreClovis: ppl in Am. 40,000 y.a. Clovis: ppl in Am. 15,000 y.a. artifacts not diagnostic below layers of 15,000 y.a. there ARE artifacts below 15,000 y.a. BUT hard to figure out not secure evidence ppl come from Bering Land Bridge Paleoindians known as Big Game Hunters ate vegetables, etc. too but mainly large animals following food resources hunted bison antiquis & mammoth Christie Turner: University of Arizona; looking @ biological similarities btwn Siberians & N. Americans is there a connection? teeth of Nat. American & Siberians used 4,000 individuals looking for sinodonty shovel shaped incisors stronger teeth only occurs in N. Asia & Americas he predicts pop. moved out of Sib. into Am. 14,000 y.a. supports Clovis hypothesis Penn., near Pittsburg = Meadowcroft rock shelter sec. dates back to 12,000 y.a. possibly btwn 1920,000 y.a. contaminated w/ fossil fuel mat. Chile = Monte Verde 12,000–13,000 y.a. tremendous preservation b/c was covered by bog > everything stayed wet wooden framework how did ppl get down there @ such an early date? 11,50011,000 y.a. distinct culture in plains in N. America Clovis culture distinct spear point lanceolate shape parallel flaking fluting @ bottom (thins base) upper part is sharp bottom part NOT sharp attach bottom to shaft wrap in sinew shaft put in spear atlatl spearthrower extending the arm cover more distance accuracy & force increases tool kits had to be portable following game to resharpen tool, pressure off flakes bite down edge of spear point quicker, faster might swallow so dangerous Class Lecture Week 6 09/26 Clovis culture contin. flourished for 500 years 11,50011,000 y.a. vanished abruptly replaced w/ other pop. Clovis disappears @ same time as big game animals Megafaunal Extinction bison antiquus, mastodon, mammoth overkill hypothesis Paleoindian hunters overkill few predators to paleoindian predators issues w/ hypothesis: small pop. of paleoindians not enough to make herd die already going extinct climate change hypothesis warming, ice retreating habitats shrinking issues: climate changes happened in past so why was the last one different? seasonal contrasts hypothesis especially hard for young animals long gestation periods (when young die, long time before new births) forests, lakes, desserts, grassy plains occur after 9,000 y.a. 8,000 y.a. modern geography in place in America Archaic huntinggathering culture/ groups take advantage of surrounding/ environment come together @ peak harvest (pecans) celebrations, feasts spouses arranged girls become women boys become men when resources not enough for 1015 groups to come together > split up track animals this period’s ppl learn most about plants (and animals) true around world, underrated, important group trends extinction of megafauna so ate instead… white tailed deer ( & small animals) aquatic birds, season birds fish, shellfish less motility understand what to exploit in sedentary positions movement toward sedentary settlement first cities, first settlements Alaska to tip of Gulf of Mexico bison belt continued grass land closest groups to surviving huntinggathering groups huntinggathering lasted until European contact for most places In Mexico some huntinggathering but more complex societies costal advantage bison kill sites: layers of bison bone then layer of just sediment (3 or 4 years of no activity) then layers of bones again driving bison off cliff specialized life ways specialized tools (more tools not less) ex. harpoons in NW but not in S emphasis on gathering in huntinggathering milling tools: grinding food mano + metate mostly for gathered foods but also mutlifunx. ex. Spaniards historical accounts pulverized mice & dipped in fire for protein packs pestle + mortar excavation in Utah & SW coprolites: feces shows seasonality, last meal, lithic remains rodent bones brought to lab to be brought “back to life” 09/28 archaic important b/c humans better understand their environment ppl start to adapt foundation of all societies that follow Late Prehistoric lasted until European contact refined tools more bone artifacts bow & arrow introduced pottery introduced implies ppl are less mobile agriculture & horticulture corn, bean, squash, potato, tomato, cotton new world items domestication relationship btwn humans & animals & plants interdependence @ first maybe to protect from other animals (rats) before plants ripen not originally intentional > byproduct ex. wolves artificially selected/ domesticated ex. hairless dog for eating in Mesoamerica political organization political organization: management of affairs of public policy of a society some form in all societies maintains social order reduces social disorder 4 basic forms bands (informal/ decentralized) tribes (informal/ decentralized) chiefdoms (centralized) states (centralized) band: small autonomous group; least complicated pol. org. ex. nuclear families come together if environment provides > bigger groups democratic no one can dictate who to marry/ what to hunt no private ownership age & sex = only differences all adults come to consensus on a decision no power diff. btwn M/F ex. child sacrifice to other band for conflict resolution tribes: large collection of small groups leadership = informal series of elder > group decision some form of food production herding or farming ex. Malaysian Big Man & generosity in terms of power chiefdom: ranked society, centralized every member has position in hierarchy based on rel. to chief chief could be hereditary or not chief = true authority distributes land recruit members into military services controls all productive activities redistribution of products chief can amass wealth to pass on to family state: most formal; civilization permanent gov’t legitimized force to regulate affairs of cit. & other states found only in societies w/ numerous diverse groups & social classes bring together under common rule divided in social classes economic funx & wealth distributed unequally market economy surplus good & services intense specialization of labor in any society social control involved in pol. org. internalized keep ppl from committing certain acts not b/c of fear of punishment but b/c built into conscience karma, personal shame expect to be pun. even if no will know externalized sanction: institutions designed to create conformity & social norms positive or negative positive = incentives to conformation ex. title or award formal explicitly regulated behavior in particular way ex. military decoration is pos. & formal informal spontaneous ex. cheering @ a game is pos. & informal ex. angry finger gestures is neg. & informal Textbook Notes Ch. 4 & 5 Ch. 4 pg. 117122 I. Paleoamericans Paleoamerican: earliest ppl in the Americas; descendants = Native Am., First Nations of N., Central, S. Am. entered region where animals had never made human contact earliest… Monte Verde Cactus Hill Schaefer Mammoth Site lived during Pleistocene (and very early Holocene) A. Clovis & Related Groups Clovis: early Paleoindian culture in Americas bifacially flaked/ fluted stone spear points = Clovis point thrown w/ atlatl kill & butchery sites of mammoth, etc. no ambiguous artwork except for few geometric designs on bone & ivory Blackwater Draw Locality 1(New Mexico) & Dent (Colorado): kill/ butchery sites; source of Clovis name hunted big game but also plants & small animals deer, rabbit, bird, alligator, etc. highly mobile b/c big game hunting Dietz site: where Clovis repeatedly camped as they move from one resource rich area to another other sites of prehist. quarries > stone raw materials obtained & knapped occasionally stored materials bone rods stone point unfinished stone points, etc. stored either to have artifacts available when group returns or ritual deposits Eastern U.S. less mobile Clovis b/c richer resources (forests) Shawnee Minisink: Pennsylvania; habitation site yielded fish & plant remains broad diets besides fish & meat Sloth Hole: mastodon kill site ivory points & bone tools rare b/c of preservation issues indicates organic tech. more widespread than apparent in arch. record El Bajio: North Mexico, Sonora; campsites quarry for stone raw materials knapping locales in Central/ S. Am. Clovis evidence rare most lively Clovis points in S. Am. in Venezuela & Chile nonClovis groups in C./S. Am. ex. Quebrada Santa Julia: costal Chile campsite; 11,000 BC extinct horse, stone tools nonClovis flutes spear points ex. Quebrada Jaguay: Peru; 12,000 BC stone raw material from Andes fish & shellfish rock shelters & openair contexts in Brazil highly mobile, short term occupation Paleoamerican in S. Am. characterized by spear points, too ex. fishtail point B. Later Paleoamericans some differ in chronological period some differ in geographical region Folsom: Paleoamerican culture after Clovis; 10,800 BC 9,800 BC hunt extinct bison U.S. plains & Rocky Mountains fluted spear points smaller & thinner than Clovis Debra L. Friedkin Site: Texas; Folsom & Clovis making stone points Folsom site: New Mexico; hunting extinct bison; kill/butchery site some sites have deer rabbit, mountain sheep Lindenmeier: Colorado; series of campsites variety of daily activity bones of extinct bison O.V. Clary Site: Nebraska: later Paleoamerican site; winter habitation hide working food processing hide clothing manufacture lived several months bottom of valley (protection from strong winter winds) later Paleoamerican = wide variety of subsistence & settlement strategy Quebrada Tacahuary: costal Peru; focus on maritime resources (seabirds & fish) Guitarrero Cave: Andes (N. Peru); evidence of later Paleoamerican in Andes shortterm occupation in later Archaic Period yields evidence for cordage & textiles woven from plant materials Caveran da Pedra Pintado: Brazil; hearths, bird & snake bones, fruits, Brazilian nuts, fish, tortoise, shellfish, red pigment drops red pigments for rock art (earliest in S. America) Ch. 5 pg. 128131 I. Hunting Gathering Foraging, and Farming A. The End of the Ice Ages abundance of animal bones @ Pleistocene sites must have detailed knowledge of plant foods also evidence is sparse b/c of preservation issues analysis of stone grinding tools yielded plant starches ex. cattail & fern > flour ex. Kostenki & Dolhi Vestonice sites rapid dog domestication w/ gray wolves protect campsites from other animals help track/hunt animals pack animals to move/ transport meat or hides for shelters domestication: changes over time in features of wild plants & animals that made species ore attractive to humans selected genetic changes human manipulation ex. sheep more docile change in horns ex. wheat & barley seeds stay on plant when ripe instead of falling domestication = key economic transition altered social org., social relationships, behaviors btwn humans pg. 146151 B. The New World Paleoamericans = huntergathererforager followed by Archaic or Preceramic Archaic groups… used more foods that needed processing a. North America forests, parries, mountain ranges, deserts, coasts, rivervalley North Am. East & Mid Midwest deer turkey, beaver, squirrel, ducks, geese, eels, catfish, bass nuts, hickory, chestnut, pecan, walnut, acorn berries, fruits, seeds nuts are important b/c oils & fat and can be stored squash domesticated @ first used only for containers, floats, fishnets exploited seed producing plants bulk processing = innovation processing large quantities of nuts North Am. Southwest cactus fruits, agave, mesquite beans, wild grass seeds, pine nuts ground stone tools > flour b/c climate is dry more preservation sandals nets split twig figurines rabbit skins not many wild plants domesticated domesticated maize (corn) introduced from Mexico b. Mexico/ Central America tropical jungle, coasts, highlands, mountains, deserts deer, wild pig, rabbits, birds, turtles, shellfish, fish cactus fruits, nuts, squash, gourds, lima beans, Mexican plum, foxtail millet, teosinte teosinte = type of grass > domesticated thought @ first to be domes. for kernels but seeds were scarcely found so other parts of plants must have been used stalk rich in sugar so maybe chewed and spit stalk could be eaten as a green vegetable stalk could be made into beer earliest evidence for domesticated maize & squash from phytoliths & starch grains found on ground stone stools ex. Xihuatoxtla Shelther: SW Mexico; natural distribution of teosinte ex. Guila Naquitz Cave: highland Mex; earliest maize cobs; not natural distribution of teosinte implies transport of domestic maize more ties to locales in landscape b/c planting charcoal, phytoliths & pollen evidence suggest “slash & burn” cutting down & burning vegetation (like forests) so ashes fertilize the soil Tehuacan Valley: highland Mex; incorporated maize agriculture & squash permanent villages become more common esp. on coast but inaccessible b/c deeply buried introduction of new tech.= pottery pg. 153 C. Why Food Production: food production economies = base of politically complex societies food production based on domestication of plants & animals appeared independently in 8 diff. areas Middle East = wheat, barley, chick peas, lentils, peas, sheep, goats, cattle, pigs China= rice, millet , pigs, chicken, water buffalo, yaks New Guinea= sugar cane, nut tree, banana, tubers, breadfruit Africa = African cattle, guinea rice, millet, teff (grain), sorghum, ensete, yams Eastern North Am. = sunflower, marsh elder and sumpweed (for seeds), squash Mexico/ Central Am. = squash, maize, beans, chilies, avocado, turkey S. Am. = potato, sweet potato, quinoa, guinea pigs (for food), llama, alpaca (pack animals) agricultural surpluses = fuel of early soc./ pol. complex societies pg. 159161 D. Complexity in the Archaeological Record food production > surplus > accumulation of wealth > exchange for labor/ exotic goods/ feasting/ social demands when surplus concentrates in hands of few > less egalitarian soc. /pol. complexity complicating factors in examining arch. past… preservation & recovery how arch. defines the terminology used diff. theoretical frameworks a. Social Complexity social complexity: no longer egalitarian in social structure status & rank diff. btwn ppl relationship still based on kin groups shift to nonegalitarian b/c indiv. & families gain greater resources shift not well identified partly b/c generation of ppl, not small moments in time complex societies have elites burials w/ abundant or exotic grave goods larger more set apart residence in villages direct labor of others settle disputes accumulation of agricultural surplus/ exotic material authority ritual, ceremony b. Political Complexity political complexity: social classes have replaced kin groups kingdoms, state, empire 1 or few ruling elites exception = Indus Valley in S. America did not expand w/ warfare not single ruler expectation = Mapungubwe & Great Zimbabwe territory acquired by trade not warfare social association of agricultural surplus & sometimes divinity least of features has big disadvantage… not all pol. complex societies develop same set of features recognized when V. Gordon Childe tried to set 10 criteria Class Lecture Week 7 10/03 political organization cont. sanction ARE NOT laws sanctions are in all societies disputes argue a compromise negotiation/ mediation: mutual and satisfactory agreement no outside party sometimes in bands/ tribes a 3 party involved but has no power in chiefdoms/ states a 3 party is picked adjudication: a binding issued decision obligated to follow that decision execution of war = responsibility of state in decentralized pol. systems, war is NOT a method to relive pop. pressure or other conflicts farming & pastoral pop. have war most common/ prominent states are ever expanding rarely fight for food & water fighting for power & influence brings questions of legitimacy in decentralized systems everyone makes decisions loyalty as system becomes more complex > like sates coercion for social control extreme ex. police states short lived legitimacy: right for pol. leaders to rule based on what is believed to be important form of support for pol. system can’t separate religion from laws acts believed to be sinful are illegal belief in supernatural reflected in gov’t ex. Aztec ex. “In God We Trust” on currency Case Study: TaP’enK’eng (SE China Coast) Neolithic revolution: plants & animals domestication slow process (1000s of years) early Chinese legend’s greats hero = Shen Nung inventor of agriculture cultivated plants & made pottery wooden agriculture instituted marker @ noon redistribution ppl rested @ ease, cared for mothers (but not for fathers), lived w/ deer, wore what they wove hunting became insufficient b/c can’t feed everyone > domestication from eating animals > cultivating plants domesticated = independently done in China st 1 & greatest herbalist tasted 100 diff. grasses died b/c of deadly grass different mechanism imply independent process/ invention ex. foxtail, millet, taro, yam in China TaP’enK’eng has cord marked pottery decorative design fragile heavy thick, grainy creamy to dark brown shades body of vessel cordmarked but not rim implies very little motility horticulture 1 as gardens area that is permanently humid marine resource river, lagoon, coast progressive fisherman there long enough to make observation about how to plant things watch how animals eat to eat similar things
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