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ANT 304 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Sena Sarikaya

ANT 304 Exam 2 Study Guide ANT 304

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Anthropology > ANT 304 > ANT 304 Exam 2 Study Guide
Sena Sarikaya

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This study guide is a compilation of class lecture notes and textbook notes pertaining to Exam 2. Class lecture notes are from 09/19 to 10/03. The textbook notes focus on specific pages from chapte...
Intro Archaeol Stds: Prehist
Dr. Valdez
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Studyguide, Intro to Archaeology, Archaeology, textbook notes, Lecture Notes, prehistoric, Prehistoric Archaeology
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sena Sarikaya on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Valdez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Intro Archaeol Stds: Prehist in Anthropology at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Class Lecture Week 5 09/19 ­Primates are not specialized 1. stereoscopic vision ­w/ overlap to give 3D vision 2. erect posture 3. nails  ­not claws 4. generalized dentition ­heterodot (mult. shapes) ­homodot = reptiles ­mastication ­200 lb of pressure per sq. inch 5. apposable thumb ­humans can touch thumb to every fingertip ­primates only touch sides of fingers 6. live birth ­fewer offspring  ­more time & effort to rear 7. Homeothermia ­maintain body temp. ­if you’re cold ­> eat, shiver, etc. 09/21 ­Paleoindians: earlies Native American in New Word ­Siberian route ­most scientists agree ­3 Fundamental Qs still w/ us ­When did they first come? ­What tools? How did they make their livelihood? ­What is the ultimate ancestry of 1  Nat. Am.? ­100,000 y.a. ­> no evidence ­45,000­15,000 y.a. ­> not always best evidence ­ 2 competing hypotheses ­Pre­Clovis & Clovis ­Pre­Clovis: ppl in Am. 40,000 y.a. ­Clovis: ppl in Am. 15,000 y.a. ­artifacts not diagnostic below layers of 15,000 y.a. ­there ARE artifacts below 15,000 y.a. BUT hard to figure out ­not secure evidence ­ppl come from Bering Land Bridge  ­Paleoindians known as Big Game Hunters ­ate vegetables, etc. too but mainly large animals ­following food resources ­hunted bison antiquis & mammoth  ­Christie Turner: University of Arizona; looking @ biological similarities btwn Siberians  & N. Americans ­is there a connection? ­teeth of Nat. American & Siberians ­used 4,000 individuals ­looking for sinodonty ­shovel shaped incisors ­stronger teeth ­only occurs in N. Asia & Americas ­ he predicts pop. moved out of Sib. into Am. 14,000 y.a. ­supports Clovis hypothesis ­Penn., near Pittsburg = Meadowcroft ­rock shelter ­sec. dates back to 12,000 y.a. ­possibly btwn 19­20,000 y.a. ­contaminated w/ fossil fuel mat. ­Chile = Monte Verde ­12,000–13,000 y.a. ­tremendous preservation b/c was covered by bog ­> everything stayed wet ­wooden framework ­how did ppl get down there @ such an early date? ­11,500­11,000 y.a. distinct culture in plains in N. America ­Clovis culture  ­distinct spear point ­lanceolate shape ­parallel flaking ­fluting @ bottom (thins base) ­upper part is sharp ­bottom part NOT sharp ­attach bottom to shaft ­wrap in sinew ­shaft put in spear ­atlatl  ­spear­thrower ­extending the arm ­cover more distance ­accuracy & force increases ­tool kits had to be portable  ­following game ­to resharpen tool, pressure off flakes ­bite down edge of spear point ­quicker, faster ­might swallow so dangerous   Class Lecture Week 6 09/26 ­Clovis culture contin.  ­flourished for 500 years ­11,500­11,000 y.a. ­vanished abruptly ­replaced w/ other pop. ­Clovis disappears @ same time as big game animals ­Megafaunal Extinction ­bison antiquus, mastodon, mammoth ­overkill hypothesis ­Paleoindian hunters overkill ­few predators to paleoindian predators ­issues w/ hypothesis: ­small pop. of paleoindians not enough to  make herd die ­already going extinct ­climate change hypothesis ­warming, ice retreating ­habitats shrinking ­issues: climate changes happened in past so why was the  last one different? ­seasonal contrasts hypothesis ­especially hard for young animals ­long gestation periods (when young die, long time before  new births) ­forests, lakes, desserts, grassy plains occur after 9,000 y.a. ­8,000 y.a. modern geography in place in America ­Archaic ­hunting­gathering culture/ groups  ­take advantage of surrounding/ environment ­come together @ peak harvest (pecans) ­celebrations, feasts ­spouses arranged ­girls become women ­boys become men ­when resources not enough for 10­15 groups to come together ­> split up ­track animals ­this period’s ppl learn most about plants (and animals) ­true around world, under­rated, important group ­trends ­extinction of megafauna so ate instead… ­white tailed deer ( & small animals) ­aquatic birds, season birds ­fish, shell­fish ­less motility ­understand what to exploit in sedentary positions ­movement toward sedentary settlement ­first cities, first settlements ­Alaska to tip of Gulf of Mexico ­bison belt ­continued grass land ­closest groups to surviving hunting­gathering groups ­hunting­gathering lasted until European contact for most places ­In Mexico some hunting­gathering but more complex societies ­costal advantage  ­bison kill sites: layers of bison bone then layer of just sediment (3 or 4 years of no  activity) then layers of bones again ­driving bison off cliff ­specialized life ways ­specialized tools (more tools not less) ­ex. harpoons in NW but not in S ­emphasis on gathering in hunting­gathering  ­milling tools: grinding food ­mano + metate ­mostly for gathered foods but also mutli­funx. ­ex. Spaniards historical accounts  ­pulverized mice & dipped in fire for protein packs ­pestle + mortar ­excavation in Utah & SW ­coprolites: feces ­shows seasonality, last meal, lithic remains ­rodent bones ­brought to lab to be brought “back to life” 09/28 ­archaic important b/c humans better understand their environment ­ppl start to adapt ­foundation of all societies that follow ­Late Prehistoric ­lasted until European contact ­refined tools ­more bone artifacts ­bow & arrow introduced ­ pottery introduced ­implies ppl are less mobile ­agriculture & horticulture ­corn, bean, squash, potato, tomato, cotton ­new world items ­domestication ­relationship btwn humans & animals & plants ­interdependence ­@ first maybe to protect from other animals (rats) before plants ripen ­not originally intentional ­> byproduct ­ex. wolves artificially selected/ domesticated ­ex. hairless dog for eating in Mesoamerica ­political organization ­political organization: management of affairs of public policy of a society ­some form in all societies ­maintains social order ­reduces social disorder ­4 basic forms ­bands (informal/ decentralized) ­tribes (informal/ decentralized) ­chiefdoms (centralized) ­states (centralized) ­band: small autonomous group; least complicated pol. org. ­ex. nuclear families come together ­if environment provides ­> bigger groups ­democratic ­no one can dictate who to marry/ what to hunt ­no private ownership ­age & sex = only differences ­all adults come to consensus on a decision ­no power diff. btwn M/F ­ex. child sacrifice to other band for conflict resolution ­tribes: large collection of small groups ­leadership = informal ­series of elder ­> group decision ­some form of food production ­herding or farming ­ex. Malaysian Big Man & generosity in terms of power ­chiefdom: ranked society, centralized ­every member has position in hierarchy ­based on rel. to chief ­chief could be hereditary or not ­chief = true authority ­distributes land ­recruit members into military services ­controls all productive activities ­redistribution of products ­chief can amass wealth to pass on to family ­state: most formal; civilization ­permanent gov’t ­legitimized force to regulate affairs of cit. & other states ­found only in societies w/ numerous diverse groups & social classes ­bring together under common rule ­divided in social classes ­economic funx & wealth distributed unequally ­market economy ­surplus ­good & services ­intense specialization of labor ­in any society social control involved in pol. org. ­internalized ­keep ppl from committing certain acts not b/c of fear of  punishment but b/c built into conscience ­karma, personal shame ­expect to be pun. even if no will know ­externalized ­sanction: institutions designed to create conformity & social  norms ­positive or negative ­positive = incentives to conformation ­ex. title or award ­formal ­explicitly  ­regulated behavior in particular way ­ex. military decoration is pos. & formal ­informal ­spontaneous ­ex. cheering @ a game is pos. & informal ­ex. angry finger gestures is neg. & informal Textbook Notes Ch. 4 & 5 Ch. 4 pg. 117­122 I. Paleoamericans  ­Paleoamerican: earliest ppl in the Americas; descendants = Native Am., First  Nations of N., Central, S. Am.  ­entered region where animals had never made human contact  ­earliest… ­Monte Verde ­Cactus Hill ­Schaefer Mammoth Site ­lived during Pleistocene (and very early Holocene) A. Clovis & Related Groups ­Clovis: early Paleoindian culture in Americas ­bifacially flaked/ fluted stone spear points = Clovis point ­thrown w/ atlatl ­kill & butchery sites of mammoth, etc. ­no ambiguous artwork ­except for few geometric designs on bone & ivory ­Blackwater Draw Locality 1(New Mexico) & Dent (Colorado): kill/ butchery  sites; source of Clovis name ­hunted big game but also plants & small animals ­deer, rabbit, bird, alligator, etc. ­highly mobile b/c big game hunting ­Dietz site: where Clovis repeatedly camped as they move from one resource rich  area to another ­other sites of prehist. quarries ­> stone raw materials obtained & knapped ­occasionally stored materials ­bone rods ­stone point ­unfinished stone points, etc. ­stored either to have artifacts available when group returns or ritual  deposits ­Eastern U.S. less mobile Clovis b/c richer resources (forests) ­Shawnee Minisink: Pennsylvania; habitation site ­yielded fish & plant remains ­broad diets besides fish & meat ­Sloth Hole: mastodon kill site ­ivory points & bone tools ­rare b/c of preservation issues ­indicates organic tech. more widespread than apparent in arch.  record ­El Bajio: North Mexico, Sonora; campsites  ­quarry for stone raw materials ­knapping locales ­in Central/ S. Am. Clovis evidence rare ­most lively Clovis points in S. Am. in Venezuela & Chile ­non­Clovis groups in C./S. Am. ­ex. Quebrada Santa Julia: costal Chile campsite; 11,000 BC ­extinct horse, stone tools ­non­Clovis flutes spear points ­ex. Quebrada Jaguay: Peru; 12,000 BC ­stone raw material from Andes ­fish & shellfish ­rock shelters & open­air contexts in Brazil ­highly mobile, short term occupation ­Paleoamerican in S. Am. characterized by spear points, too ­ex. fishtail point B. Later Paleoamericans ­some differ in chronological period ­some differ in geographical region ­Folsom: Paleoamerican culture after Clovis; 10,800 BC­ 9,800 BC ­hunt extinct bison ­U.S. plains & Rocky Mountains ­fluted spear points ­smaller & thinner than Clovis ­Debra L. Friedkin Site: Texas; Folsom & Clovis ­making stone points ­Folsom site: New Mexico; hunting extinct bison; kill/butchery site ­some sites have deer rabbit, mountain sheep  ­Lindenmeier: Colorado; series of campsites ­variety of daily activity ­bones of extinct bison ­O.V. Clary Site: Nebraska: later Paleoamerican site; winter habitation ­hide working ­food processing ­hide clothing manufacture ­lived several months ­bottom of valley (protection from strong winter winds) ­later Paleoamerican = wide variety of subsistence & settlement strategy  ­Quebrada Tacahuary: costal Peru; focus on maritime resources (seabirds & fish) ­Guitarrero Cave: Andes (N. Peru); evidence of later Paleoamerican in Andes  ­short­term occupation ­in later Archaic Period yields evidence for cordage & textiles woven from plant materials ­Caveran da Pedra Pintado: Brazil; hearths, bird & snake bones, fruits, Brazilian  nuts, fish, tortoise, shellfish, red pigment drops ­red pigments for rock art (earliest in S. America) Ch. 5 pg. 128­131 I. Hunting Gathering Foraging, and Farming  A. The End of the Ice Ages ­abundance of animal bones @ Pleistocene sites ­must have detailed knowledge of plant foods also  ­evidence is sparse b/c of preservation issues ­analysis of stone grinding tools yielded plant starches ­ex. cattail & fern ­> flour ­ex. Kostenki & Dolhi Vestonice sites ­rapid dog domestication w/ gray wolves ­protect campsites from other animals ­help track/hunt animals ­pack animals to move/ transport meat or hides for shelters  ­domestication: changes over time in features of wild plants & animals that made  species ore attractive to humans ­selected genetic changes ­human manipulation ­ex. sheep more docile ­change in horns ­ex. wheat & barley seeds stay on plant when ripe instead of falling ­domestication = key economic transition  ­altered social org., social relationships, behaviors btwn humans pg. 146­151 B. The New World ­Paleoamericans = hunter­gatherer­forager followed by Archaic or Preceramic ­Archaic groups… ­used more foods that needed processing a. North America  ­forests, parries, mountain ranges, deserts, coasts, river­valley ­North Am. East & Mid Midwest ­ deer turkey, beaver, squirrel, ducks, geese, eels, catfish, bass ­nuts, hickory, chestnut, pecan, walnut, acorn ­berries, fruits, seeds ­nuts are important b/c oils & fat and can be stored ­squash domesticated ­@ first used only for containers, floats, fishnets ­exploited seed producing plants ­bulk processing = innovation ­processing large quantities of nuts  ­North Am. Southwest ­cactus fruits, agave, mesquite beans, wild grass seeds, pine nuts ­ground stone tools ­> flour ­b/c climate is dry more preservation  ­sandals ­nets ­split twig figurines ­rabbit skins ­not many wild plants domesticated ­domesticated maize (corn) introduced from Mexico b. Mexico/ Central America ­tropical jungle, coasts, highlands, mountains, deserts  ­deer, wild pig, rabbits, birds, turtles, shellfish, fish ­cactus fruits, nuts, squash, gourds, lima beans, Mexican plum, foxtail  millet, teosinte ­teosinte = type of grass ­> domesticated ­thought @ first to be domes. for kernels but seeds were  scarcely found so other parts of plants must have been used ­stalk rich in sugar so maybe chewed and spit ­stalk could be eaten as a green vegetable ­stalk could be made into beer ­earliest evidence for domesticated maize & squash from phytoliths &  starch grains found on ground stone stools ­ex. Xihuatoxtla Shelther: SW Mexico; natural distribution of  teosinte ­ex. Guila Naquitz Cave: highland Mex; earliest maize cobs; not  natural distribution of teosinte ­implies transport of domestic maize  ­more ties to locales in landscape b/c planting ­charcoal, phytoliths & pollen evidence suggest “slash & burn” ­cutting down & burning vegetation (like forests) so ashes fertilize  the soil ­Tehuacan Valley: highland Mex; incorporated maize agriculture &  squash ­permanent villages become more common  ­esp. on coast but inaccessible b/c deeply buried ­introduction of new tech.= pottery pg. 153 C. Why Food Production: ­food production economies = base of politically complex societies ­food production based on domestication of plants & animals appeared  independently in 8 diff. areas ­Middle East = wheat, barley, chick peas, lentils, peas, sheep, goats, cattle, pigs ­China= rice, millet , pigs, chicken, water buffalo, yaks ­New Guinea= sugar cane, nut tree, banana, tubers, breadfruit ­Africa = African cattle, guinea rice, millet, teff (grain), sorghum, ensete,  yams ­Eastern North Am. = sunflower, marsh elder and sumpweed (for seeds),  squash ­Mexico/ Central Am. = squash, maize, beans, chilies, avocado, turkey ­S. Am. = potato, sweet potato, quinoa, guinea pigs (for food), llama,  alpaca (pack animals) ­agricultural surpluses = fuel of early soc./ pol. complex societies  pg. 159­161 D. Complexity in the Archaeological Record ­food production ­> surplus ­> accumulation of wealth ­> exchange for labor/  exotic goods/ feasting/ social demands ­when surplus concentrates in hands of few ­> less egalitarian ­soc. /pol. complexity ­complicating factors in examining arch. past… ­preservation & recovery ­how arch. defines the terminology used ­diff. theoretical frameworks a. Social Complexity ­social complexity: no longer egalitarian in social structure  ­status & rank diff. btwn ppl ­relationship still based on kin groups ­shift to non­egalitarian b/c indiv. & families gain greater resources ­shift not well identified ­partly b/c generation of ppl, not small moments in  time ­complex societies have elites ­burials w/ abundant or exotic grave goods ­larger more set apart residence in villages ­direct labor of others ­settle disputes ­accumulation of agricultural surplus/ exotic material ­authority ­ritual, ceremony b. Political Complexity ­political complexity: social classes have replaced kin groups  ­kingdoms, state, empire ­1 or few ruling elites ­exception = Indus Valley in S. America ­did not expand w/ warfare ­not single ruler ­expectation = Mapungubwe & Great Zimbabwe ­territory acquired by trade not warfare ­social association of agricultural surplus & sometimes divinity  ­least of features has big disadvantage… ­not all pol. complex societies develop same set of features ­recognized when V. Gordon Childe tried to set 10 criteria  Class Lecture Week 7 10/03 ­political organization cont. ­sanction ARE NOT laws ­sanctions are in all societies ­disputes ­argue a compromise  ­negotiation/ mediation: mutual and satisfactory agreement ­no outside party ­sometimes in bands/ tribes a 3  party involved but has no power ­in chiefdoms/ states a 3  party is picked ­adjudication: a binding issued decision  ­obligated to follow that decision ­execution of war = responsibility of state ­in decentralized pol. systems, war is NOT a method to relive pop. pressure or other  conflicts  ­farming & pastoral pop. have war most common/ prominent ­states are ever expanding ­rarely fight for food & water ­fighting for power & influence ­brings questions of legitimacy ­in decentralized systems everyone makes decisions ­loyalty ­as system becomes more complex ­> like sates ­coercion for social control ­extreme ex. police states ­short lived ­legitimacy: right for pol. leaders to rule ­based on what is believed to be important ­form of support for pol. system  ­can’t separate religion from laws ­acts believed to be sinful are illegal  ­belief in supernatural  ­reflected in gov’t ­ex. Aztec ­ex. “In God We Trust” on currency Case Study: Ta­P’en­K’eng (SE China Coast) ­Neolithic revolution: plants & animals domestication ­slow process (1000s of years) ­early Chinese legend’s greats hero = Shen Nung ­inventor of agriculture ­cultivated plants & made pottery ­wooden agriculture ­instituted marker @ noon ­redistribution ­ppl rested @ ease, cared for mothers (but not for fathers), lived w/ deer, wore  what they wove ­hunting became insufficient b/c can’t feed everyone ­> domestication ­from eating animals ­> cultivating ­plants domesticated = independently done in China st ­1  & greatest herbalist ­tasted 100 diff. grasses ­died b/c of deadly grass ­different mechanism imply independent process/ invention ­ex. foxtail, millet, taro, yam in China ­Ta­P’en­K’eng has cord marked pottery ­decorative design ­fragile heavy ­thick, grainy ­creamy to dark brown shades ­body of vessel cord­marked but not rim ­implies very little motility ­horticulture 1  as gardens ­area that is permanently humid ­marine resource ­river, lagoon, coast ­progressive fisherman ­there long enough to make observation about how to plant things ­watch how animals eat to eat similar things


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