Professor Clavin Test 2 study guide
Professor Clavin Test 2 study guide HIST 1378
Popular in US History since 1877
Popular in History
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cameron Corredor on Tuesday March 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1378 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Matthew Clavin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 245 views. For similar materials see US History since 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/31/15
Professor Clavin Test 2 study guide Note The study guide will begin with all of the ID Terms he has given us over the past weeks followed by his in class notes and ended with some things to keep in mind when studying the essay questions such as important ideas and things to keep away from ID Terms gt Roosevelt Corollary The addition to the Monroe Doctrine that was made by President Theodore Roosevelt when they created the Panama Canal It basically said that on top of being the guardian of the New World but also basically said that all Latin American countries should quotbehave and not try to attack one another or themselves due to the fact that all of the countries south of the United States of America need order If they refuse to uphold order in their countries then the US would have to step in and reinstate order in the same country gt Treaty of Versailles It redrew the world s map by creating buffer zone and smaller nations in order to bring order into Western Europe Yugoslavia and Poland are created and Germany loses all colonies as well as millions of acres of land in both the East and the West Germany also is not allowed a military in any form unless it was a miniscule security force They also had to pay the bill for WWl which was around 50 billion dollars as well as getting forced under the War Guilt Clause where Germany s leaders had to take full responsibility for WWl The League of Nations also came into existence as an international child that would hopefully grow up to become a defender of the world Sadly the treaty directly led to WWll since it humiliated Germany and put them on the edge waiting for anything to take them to the point of another war The treaty also ruined the US reputation of being a good guy by showing us off as a nation of opportunists since we refused to join the League of Nations not giving it the power it needed to be a force of strength gt Red Scare An overreaction towards the possibility of communism invading America Race Riots were something that were looked upon as being a result of communism trying to in ltrate America as well as Labor strikes all over America February 1919 was the largest strike that shut down the Paci c Ocean trade in Seattle More strikes broke out and it wasn t much of a problem of the nation but more of a problem of communism September of 1920 on the 16th marked the day thatJP Morgan s nancial headquarters were bombed killing hundreds of people The Government responded to this by creating the FBI in order to destroy communism and keep America safe J Edgar Hoover and the Attorney General Palmer led the Palmer raids where suspected communists were bombed and quotweeded outquot One of their targets were homosexuals but this was strange since Hoover was known by most of the media as being a homosexual himself A group known as the ACU American Civil union was created in order to help the people such as immigrants that were being singled out by the Palmer Raids The entire Red Scare scandal basically showed that America is better at upholding and spreading Democracy to other places than keeping it strong at home ModelT lt introduced mass production the assembly line and took America from horse and buggy to gas engine led ModelTs took about 110th of the time to build than other cars and Ford led the industry in many economic advances He created 8 hour shifts as well as 5 wages This took his factories to unbelievable heights that consisted of hundreds of employees happily working together towards the greater good of the company The ModelT also featured itself in a multitude of styles but almost always in exclusively black After 19 years Henry Ford had built over 15 million ModelTs The car was a family outing that made traveling from anywhere 10x faster and the ModelT was an allterrain vehicle that could handle no roads to snow roads Nearly every American family owned a ModelT and it wasn t even the most pro table car due to GM s customizability in their vehicles as well as their exclusive designs But the ModelT was the face of the 20 s that really showed the high standard of living in America The ModelT was the basis of all future cars and car producers and more importantly the ModelT reached out to the everyman with a cheap and democratic vehicle Scopes Trial Religion was arguably under attack in the 1920 s America was more or less founded on Protestant beliefs and has always unofficially been a Protestant nation Traditionalists began to desire to protect the next generation by passing laws in order to keep evolution outside of schools Every educated person knew for a fact that evolution was 100 possible so keeping a teachable subject outside of schools in the American South was a crime The ACLU American Civil Liberties Union put out a message for a bold and daring teacher to go against the South and eventually a 24 year old teacher named John Scopes answered the call going directly into Dayton Tennessee Scopes was jailed for using a book with evolution in it and the ACLU hired Clarence Darrow to defend Scopes in trial When the Traditionalists nd out about this opposition they hire William Jennings Bryan to take Scopes and Darrow down So in 1925 thousands of people and hundreds of journalists came with radios to broadcast the trials and it was basically a Carnival outside that mocked all theories on evolution by showing off monkeys doing embarrassing and amusing actions for money Things started looking bad for Scopes as the days went on and Darrow was denied his calls for scienti c testimonies by the obviously biased judge Darrow then decided to do something that no one else had thought of and called Jennings Bryan to the stand as an expert on the bible Darrow s plan was then to ask Bryan a list of questions and then have him answer them all as literally as he could using only the bible as his source of information Bryan looked like a crazy person and was the laughing stock for the rest of America for years to come While he still won the case due to an obvious bias by the judge this trial was still a large stepping stone in helping the ideas of science modernization and secularization become the status quo in America All of the laws banning evolution were also outlawed after this trial and it would sometimes be called the Monkey Trial Bonus Army In the summer of 1932 hundreds of war vets walked onto Washington DC demanding their payment for their services in the armed forces but would be forced out by the army The draft was called selective service since some people would become soldiers while others became workers Regardless all service men missed out on possible pay during their time working for the army and when they came back demanded their compensation from the Government They would be denied by Congress and desperation would begin to take its toll One man in particular Walter W Waters became obsessed with a legislation over the demands of the vets Waters called for a walk on DC while a meeting was happening which would lead to the creation of the Bonus Army Originally it was the Bonus Expeditionary Force as a play on the American Expeditionary Force Bonus marchers came from all over America and swarmed both White House and Congress lawns The US army began to ready for what seemed like a possible revolution and by the time the Bonus Army arrived at DC with around 10000 people the army was ready June 4 Waters came with his full edged force of walkers and protestors and the House passed the proposed bill within two weeks The Bonus Army then took Anacostia a small tent city in DC This place seemed rather strange to the rest of America since boxing was a big entertainment point as well as race not being important to the vets Roy Wilkens a NAACP reporter con rmed these reports for the rest of America June 17th 1932 a vigil was maintained by thousands of vets as the heated debate went on but the bill was defeated All seemed lost but Waters got the Bonus Army to sing America and convinced everyone to stay with this rallying cry On July 16th Congress ed their chambers as an evacuation was called upon the marchers Waters urged for cooperation but someone threw a brick and everything went off Two vets were shot and the Bonus Army ed the scene The Bonus Army was then chased down and when they tried to retreat to Anacostia the US Army burned it to the ground Hoover saw these res and slept that night as the Bonus Army was dispersed When FDR was elected he sent a lot of these men to rehabilitation camps in the Florida Keys and around the same time a hurricane hit The vets would only get their money after America had joined WWII in the G Bill of Rights june 1944 New Deal FDR s grand plan to deal with the depression and would been seen as one of the most important aws he passed during his presidency and in the rst 100 days too The parts we need to know are the following new organizations Federal Emergency Relief Administration This was a way to give money to the states that would then disperse the money to the people Civil Works Administration The creation ofjobs through de cit spending 4 million jobs were made to construct roads schools and other much need infrastructure hospitals airports etc Public Works Administration Similar to the CWA things would be built for public uses such as homes schools and bridges Civilian Conservation Corps Around 3 million guys were used to build conservation projects such as dams parks forest sites and the regrowth of trees Agricultural Adjustment Administration Gave the federal government the authority to regulate the agricultural sector of the economy They would pay farmers money to not over produce their crops and in the 1930 s over 10 million acres of cotton elds were burned as well as 6 million pigs and 3 million cows being slaughtered Tennessee Valley Authority It was an electri cation project to spread electricity through the South with powered dams in the Tennessee Valley Area These rst one hundred days of FDR s presidency would push America into a new light that abandoned laissez faire principals and increase the power of the federal government While the New Deal did a lot it did not solve the Great Depression issue only pull America through it until WW Social Security Act Another signi cant law passed by FDR At the beginning of his service FDR had a lot of enemies from both spectrums of the political machine Conservatives would call him evil for employing big government calling him a communist while the far left would criticize him for not doing enough to help the people One of his attackers was the governor of Louisiana Huey Long who also created what was known as the Share Our Wealth program It was a system that would tax the rich so the state could build things for the poor and it was working well until Long was assassinated Francis Townsend this time a supporter of FDR inspired the quotTownsendquot clubs which were places where the elderly could go to get help This sensation takes America by storm and leads to a desire for a pension system to aid the elderly after they retire FDR responds by signing the Old Age Survivors and Disability Insurance act 3 years later It basically provided money for the elderly that lacked money Social Safety Net provide nancial aid when someone close or necessary to you dies and was insurance payment for those that lose their jobs by means that they couldn t control What it DIDN T DO was care about anyone s healthcare put everyone s money into an equally distributed pool you get back what you put in so poor get little while the rich get a lot and it did not cover agriculture government or domestic servants All of this goes to show that while America seems like such a great place we are severely behind the curve of the world and are still conservative in our liberal actions gt Appeasement It means to please someone out of fear Hitler was a man that faced appeasement once he was seen as real threat that he was He was jailed during an attempted takeover of the German nation and was let free due to their fear of what he would do if he had to serve his entire sentence Hitler would later retake Germany in a non violent rebellion and become the supreme commander He would then pull Germany from the League of Nations as well as announce that he would have an army of millions within years English and French delegates would then ask Hitler to come meet with them for an agreement of peace and Hitler said no you guys have to come to Munich They would go and only get him to agree that he wouldn t take any military actions People thought it was a victory but it was only more people bending to his will Hitler would later begin invading other countries in Western Europe where at rst they would defend themselves but then simply surrender to his might It is easy to prove that the Appeasement of Hitler and his actions led to not only his conquest but was a large contribution to WWII as a whole gt D Day June 6th 1944 Also known as the Battle of Normandy and it was the largest amphibious assault in the history of earth Over 3 million soldiers prepared on the coast of Britain and it was joked that so many soldiers gathered near the English Channel that the island was beginning to tilt Dwight D Eisenhower led the soldiers in battle and rallied them with a speech leading into carpet bombing of the French coast with paratroopers being dropped behind enemy lines This was followed up with the storming of the beach with a quarter million soldiers that would attack in waves upon waves The rst two waves of Allied soldiers were mowed down and we were only able to begin taking a foothold on the French coast after the Nazi forces either ran out of bullets orjammed their guns We would take the beaches in less than 24 hours and DDay would be seen as the tipping point of WWII in regards to the European front and serve a huge psychological blow to the Nazi forces Chapter 21 Roosevelt turns America into the world s police man and we held this tradition for many years to come Woodrow Wilson continues these ideas and takes America into multiple South American and Paci c Island rebellions as well as help America be important in WWI regardless of us only participating in a small amount of the ghting In the 4 years of WWI the Russian Czars the German Empire the AustrioHungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire all fall Two major causes of WWI Imperialism All of the force and violence used to slaughter and take what they please Empires pushed until the pushing was too much and everyone rebelled Nationalism The belief that one nation was better than everyone else lead a lot of young soldiers into a battle they had nothing to do with in the rst place WWI was between the Triple Entuent England Russia and France and the Axis Powers Germany Austria and Ottoman quotThe boys will be home by Christmasquot was a popular quote that every said in WWI and it was proven to be untrue when trench warfare became the name of the game with dugout trenches being placed all across the European countryside quotAll quiet on the Western Frontquot captures the essence of the Great War due to its ability to capture the destruction of towns bodies and people s spirits Vladimir Lenin leads a rebellion in Russia with communism as his source of power and eventually put Marxist Communism into power in 1917 creating the USSR Lenin actually loves America in everything except for its terrible capitalism Lenin called for all troops to be pulled from the war to aid in the people s rebellion and claimed that they would kill capitalism in the upcoming years America makes a killing during the war by funding both sides and don t actually choose a side since we aren t sure who to join Woodrow Wilson actually issues neutrality until 3 things happen 1 Our main trade is with Great Britain and France mostly 2 Germany was terrifying in submarine warfare that began taking down some of our merchant ships that killed Americans This pushed more people towards attacking the Germans as retaliation 3 The Zimmerman Telegraph is intercepted which stated that Germany would help Mexico take back the land that America stole from them and the media blew this up quotI hate this war and the only thing I care about is the peace I will bring at the end of itquot Wison Government takes over the economy Labor unions reent from going on strikes the Government creates the Committee of Public Propaganda to back up our efforts political repression breaks out and many things German and Austrian are banned or changed and the Espionage Act was passed in June of 1917 that was backed up by the Sedition Act in 1918 giving the Government the ability to jail people for up to 20 years No American civilians died in WWI and the Paris Peace Conference with America France and Great Britain and WWI was claimed at the time to be the war to end all wars Wilson has 14 points but the only 3 that are important are the spread of capitalism the spread of democracy and the insolation of the League of Nations America then refuses to join the League of Nations and it is pretty much a failure in all aspects of the word The Tulsa Oklahoma race riot led to about 300 blacks are murdered as well as an entire neighborhood being burned down and with all of this chaos along with the Red Scare Harding runs for president with the quote quotLet s return to normalcyquot Chapter 22 In the 1920 s America s economy was unmatched in economic growth as well as it lasted for almost an entire decade until the crash in 1929 Due to our awesome economy we begin to pay attention to cultural issues such as prohibition This was a new era of consumption due to the spread of electricity Appliances are taken off of the shelves almost faster than we can create them heavy weight boxing breaks out Babe Ruth is a thing and Hollywood hits the stage as something amazing The large cultural con ict is going to be between modernists and traditionalists over the use of alcohol With it banned people began to go to secret clubs in order to get their drinks and prohibition brought about the use of organized crime Since alcohol was banned gangs began to sell it for black market prices and these gangs are usually comprised of immigrants looking to make some quick money for their easy work Al Capone was the most famous gangster and he killed around 100 other gangsters in Chicago in the Valentine s Day Massacre proving that the 18th amendment failed and hurt America Gender became a larger thing too as women began to drop their traditional Victorian era roles and explore their life as free humans were known as appers back in the day This was mostly due to women becoming more and more educated as time went on Birth control becomes more natural as the birth rate drops causing men to freak out Among all of this a movement known as Americanization erupted through the Ku Klux Klan as they moved on to oppose all groups that didn t fall under their correct American rule Their HQ was located in Indiana Religion is also a huge issue that is being rivaled by knowledge opening the oor for the future Scopes Trials Chapter 23 amp 24 Experts said that by the late 1920 s nothing could stop our economic growth and that it was all uphill for us so we started to put all of our money into companies and use credit as a means of important payment But then in the summer of 1929 experts began to become scared due to the fact that people began to spend less and less Average pay plummeted as credit began to catch up with employers and banks began to shut their doors Over the fall of 1929 over 13 million shares were sold for practically nothing Banks were burned to the ground and executives began to commit suicide Afterwards 16 million shares were sold and taken down from around 50 to about 1 Unemployment went from 3 to 9 in 1930 and then 16 in 1931 On top of that almost all jobs were cheap parttime jobs that were extremely dangerous It was called the quotGreat Depressionquot due to it being both nancially destructive but also making the whole of America depressed for the next 11 years This was because Americans would blame themselves for the problems that happened instead of the government like people do recently Herbert Hoover became the man that followed the American dream and would live to tell the tale from lower class to engineering at Stanford to Presidency Hoover became an International European Charitor leading to him underestimating the strength of the Great Depression and the failure of his call for Americans to be charitable towards one another While some broke records in their donations it was still almost nothing towards xing the issue This begins to move the blame towards Hoover but he sticks to it Historians plead with Hoover to try getting off the gold standard but he refuses This leads to people beginning to attack Hoover calling newspapers quotHoover sheetsquot tents houses quotHoover Townsquot and empty pockets quotHover Flagsquot Hoover decides to go into the next presidency with the slogan quotChange is around the cornerquot The only change he brought was getting Congress to give the rich company owners 15 billion dollars outraging the civilians to no extent This among many other things with the Bonus Army would lead to FDR s election FDR decided to take America to new heights and stepped up the role of American Presidency since all of the way back to Abraham Lincoln He was a rich healthy navy vet that couldn t walk due to a rare neurological disorder But his charisma was enough to carry him far and beyond the normal levels of a president Gave his quotThe only thing you need to fear is fear itselfquot speech at his inaugural address He would follow that up with the rst of his many quotFireside Chatsquot which is where FDR would sit down and talk into a radio in order to reassure the American people that their president was with them FDR asked all of the banks to shut their doors for a few days in order to stop the withdrawals and when they opened up a week later the citizens began to stimulate their pockets and make deposits at the polite request of their President FDR Chapter 25 amp 26 FDR was almost impeached in 1937 because he wanted to add 6 more judges to the Supreme Court since all of the current judges were taking out pieces of his New Deal This was unconstitutional since FDR was trying to go against checks and balances This gained him the title of the quotImperial Presidentquot A decade after the crash FDR said the because of the jobs alcohol lack of war and ability to keep away Fascism he said quotI sense a deep happiness that Americans are truly happyquot WWI had around 10 million dead soldiers and 7 million dead civilians where WWII had around 25 million dead soldiers and 50 million dead civilians meaning that roughly 75 million were lost globally WWII brought many new terms such as Genocide Concentration Camps and Nuclear warfare Estimated that about 6 million were killed for their faith and the other 6 million were killed for other reasons Fascism is the belief that you are born to serve the state that your nation is the best and only worthy nation and that all outsiders should have to fend for themselves Fascism is also characterized by a crazy leader that is different from a dictator in that the people actually want them as their leader Hitler Mussolini Franco Hirohito and Tojo Mussolini promised Italy the rest of the world as a second Julius Caesar and took Ethiopia while the League of Nations did nothing to stop them Hirohito and Tojo invade Manchurian China similarly to Mussolini and the League of Nations still does nothing Franco led a vicious Civil War in Spain that took the nation for him and his allies through warfare And Hitler did his Hitler thing All of this shows that America s returned to its isolation based roots More about Hitler he was an AustrianHungarian that was German by decent that loved his home nation more than anything After it s humiliation in WWI and the aftermath he took to the head of the National Socialist Workers Party in order to rally Germany in an attempt to become the great nation they used to be This Nazi party created their Storm Troopers an elite force of soldiers as well as dug their hands into the media in an attempt to overthrow the Republican Government in a Coup de tat It failed and the Nazi leaders were jailed It was in jail where Hitler created his corrupt ideas as well as the birthplace of his book also known as the Nazi bible Mein Kampf Hitler would then be released in an attempt to please him but he would eventually lead the Nazi party to the nonviolent takeover of Germany Hitler would take Germany to new heights of power and create the Gestapo as his personal police force and begin to target Jews as people of interest In March of 1939 Hitler invaded Prague Czechoslovakia and signs a peace treaty with the USSR that he would later break He then invaded Poland later that year in June Britain and France realize the mistakes they made at the Munich conference and declare war against Germany Hitler invades Northern Europe in 1940 forcing Denmark and Holland to surrender in less than 2 weeks Germany then would invade France after Britain loses a quarter million to desertion in the Battle of Dunhurst and they suffer a great loss in moral France would submit within two weeks and the Nazis would be upon Paris by midJune The French leaders would sign multiple treaties to admit defeat in the same place that the Treaty of Versailles was signed Hitler and his Nazi forces were so powerful in combat due to not only their sheer numbers but also their Blitzkrieg tactics which was to rush your opponent with a nonstop siege of re and bombs eventually forcing them into submission Britain was the next target of Nazi re and they took a beating But their leader Winston Churchill refused to surrender and gave a speech to inspire not only the nation of England but the entire world stating that they would never give in and ght to their very last breath After 3 to 4 months of attack German planes begin to be shot out of the sky in an attempt to end to assault This was only possible thanks to Britain being the rst nation to perfect radar and they repelled the invaders proving that the Nazi forces could be stopped The Nazis would attack the Jews in their own country through the Gestapo and the Storm Troopers sending them to ghettos and eventually Concentration Camps Kristallnacht or quotNight of the Broken Glassquot was a night where Jews were thrown out of their houses and sent to these Concentration Camps after losing all of their possessions through force such as their golden teeth jewelry and other valuables On June 22ncl in the summer of 1941 the Nazi army needed to show that they were still strong and invaded Russia The attack came as a surprise but the Russian military and civilians de ed the invaders through an unbreakable will quotScorch Earthquot tactics where if you had to retreat you would burn everything before leaving and use of the terrain and weather to the Russian advantage The winter eventually came with abnormally low temperatures around 41 degrees and all of these things stacked together led to thousands upon thousands of soldiers deserting the German forces At the beginning of WWII FDR had issued a Declaration of Neutrality in order to keep us out of the thick of things and we begin to escape the Great Depression Despite our new economic success many citizens call for us to end all relations with Japan due to their fascist status FDR cracks in the summer of 1941 and forces Congress to issue an end to all trade with Japan This angers and humiliates them and they respond with an attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7th 1941 that consisted of a rst wave attack against our naval eet and a second wave against our air troops Congress would make the War Industries Board which would tell people to help create war tools such as jeeps or ghter jets instead of cars or engines A scienti c organization was also created to advance America in scienti c warfare as well as millions of dollars being printed to back up the needs of the economy By a year into the war America was producing more war tools than everyone else in the world We started with quotIsland Hoppingquot across the Paci c Islands in order to liberate the Japanese taken lands After the pinned Japan back to their main land we went to Northern Africa in order to take away some of the power from the Nazi forces as well as getting a foothold for our ground troops somewhere near Europe This angers our European allies but we persist and enter the mainland at our own pace Hitler commits suicide in April 1945 in fear of having to pay for his crimes escaping through a cowardly route that ultimately destroyed the morale of the Nazi army After Russia nally defends themselves it leads to VE Day Victory Europe Day FDR passes away around the same time in the spring and Harry Truman takes his place learning quickly about the Atomic Bombs we have After a few months we move to take down Japan once and for all and Truman advises that we use the Atomic bombs instead We eventually pick Hiroshima as our target and on August 6 we bomb this Japanese population center and kill off 80000 civilians and do the same thing in Nagasaki a few days later to 75000 civilians This was an atrocity against humankind and Japan surrenders on August 9th in fear of their pure destruction It was said that we used this bomb in order to keep many of our main land troops from dying estimated around 100000 before the bomb and 1000000 after the bomb This was also a ex of our power towards the USSR showing that we mean business Harry Truman was quoted for saying quotI didn t lose an ounce of sleepquot This was an extreme low point for America as a whole as we entered the nuclear era Tist question 1 gt Make sure you include the changes to Laissez Faire in America as the American Government grew more powerful and took control of the xing their nation Japan Germany Spain and Italy all turn to fascism to ght against those that humiliated them Russia turned to communism and became the USSR under Lenin Open with a contrast of the three basics and then close with one as well Tist question 2 gt Both WWI and WWII opened up a lot ofjobs for females as well as brought us very close together in an equality standard Race also became less of an issue for at home similar to the female situation and after the war the vets were more closely connected by actions than by race look to the Bonus Army Unions took a break from rioting and took to the factories to help with the wars
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