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VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY / Biology / BIOL 318 / What were the two main rules mendel found when doing his experiments?

What were the two main rules mendel found when doing his experiments?

What were the two main rules mendel found when doing his experiments?

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School: Virginia Commonwealth University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology: Evolution and Biodiversity
Professor: Turbeville
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology: Ecology and Evolution, evolution, Hardy Weinberg, and Ecology
Cost: 50
Name: Evolution: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Hello All, This is a study guide for Exam 1 that will be given this Thursday on Oct 6th. It has practice questions from all subject covered in class, however it does not cover information that will be
Uploaded: 10/01/2016
12 Pages 69 Views 3 Unlocks
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Evolution Exam 1 Study Guide  


What were the two main rules mendel found when doing his experiments?



Fill in the blanks: Diversity is explained through _______ and ________. Short Answer: Explain the Barro Colorado Island Experiment.

Short Answer: Describe natural selection.

MC: An allele is different variations of a(n)

a. Chromosome

b. Codon

c. Gene

d. Enzyme  

True or False: Using the scientific method a hypothesis can be accepted. True or False: Microevolution is evolution below the population level. True or False: Macroevolution is above the species level.

Short Answer: What are the differences between Empirical and the theoretical approach?

MC: ______ and _______ are the two explanations for phenomena.

a. Natural and Multi-natural  


What is the order of the central dogma?



b. Super Natural and Natural  

c. Super Natural and Neutral  

d. Multi-natural and Super natural

Match the scientist to their contributions:

Fill in the blank:  

Biometricians- Karl Pearson and ___________

Mendelians-__________ and William Bateson

MC: What were the two main rules Mendel found when doing his experiments?  A. Law of dependent assortment and Law of Division


Where does genetic variation come from?



B. Law of independent assortment and Law of Segregation

C. Law of Segregation and Law of Dependent Assortment

D. None of the above

Short answer: Why did Mendel use pea plants? Don't forget about the age old question of What are the factors that affect demand?

Short answer: Why would blending inheritance result in the loss of variation? Short answer: What would this mean for natural selection?

Fill in the blank: Law of ________- Alleles at different __________segregate  independently when being transferred to a _______.

MC: What is the order of the central dogma?

a. Protein????RNA????DNA

b. DNA???? Protein???? RNA

c. RNA???? DNA???? Protein

d. DNA???? RNA???? Protein

Short answer: Where does genetic variation come from?

Short Answer: Explain and give examples for the two general types of natural  selection?

Short Answer: What is the difference between an adaptation and an  exadaptation? If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of homicidality?

MC: Unstable Equilibrium is:

a. 2 conditions at equilibrium: 1) It doesn’t change 2) if it is displaced the  system will return to its original state.

b. 2 conditions when at equilibrium: 1) It doesn’t change 2) if it is displaced  then the system will not return to the original position.  

c. 2 conditions when at equilibrium: 1) It is stable 2) if displaced then it will  move to a difference equilibrium.  

d. Combo of 3 types. When at this point it doesn’t change, depending on which  way it is disturbed depends on where the equilibria lands. Hardy- Weinberg is  mixed!

MC: Mixed Equilibrium is:

a. 2 conditions at equilibrium: 1) It doesn’t change 2) if it is displaced the  system will return to its original state. If you want to learn more check out What is the cause of alzheimer's disease?

b. 2 conditions when at equilibrium: 1) It doesn’t change 2) if it is displaced  then the system will not return to the original position.  

c. 2 conditions when at equilibrium: 1) It is stable 2) if displaced then it will  move to a difference equilibrium.

d. Combo of 3 types. When at this point it doesn’t change, depending on which  way it is disturbed depends on where the equilibria lands. Hardy- Weinberg is  mixed!

MC: Which of the following in not a HWE assumption?

a. Gene flow is occurring

b. Natural selection is not occurring

c. Mutation is absent

d. None of the above

Short answer: Give an example of a point mutation:

True or False: Insertion- Deletion: block of amino acids deleted or inserted also  known as InDels.  

True or False: Selfing is a form on inbreeding

MC: Inbreeding can be ________ for a population because it exposes  ____________ mutations at a _________ rate!

a. Good, dominant, lower

b. Bad, dominant, higher

c. Bad, recessive, lower

d. Bad, recessive, high

Short Answer: What is the major difference between the HWE model and WF model?  True or False: Genetic drift and selection both increase genetic diversity. True or False: The neutral theory started with influences of the molecular clock.Don't forget about the age old question of When will an attitude predict behavior and, conversely, when will an action cause an attitude?

Hello All,  

This is a study guide for Exam 1 that will be given this Thursday on Oct 6th. It has  practice questions from all subject covered in class, however it does not cover  information that will be taught on Tuesday Oct 4th. Remember that these exams are  75% from lecture and 25% from the book so study both. The exam will have a variety of  multiple choice, fill in the blank, matching, short answer and essay questions. To be  fully prepared also review:

*ALL mathematical equations and how to do them

*Material from the book

*Any mechanisms

Good luck studying!

-Jayda

Evolution Exam 1 Study Guide Key  

Fill in the blanks: Diversity is explained through time and space.

Short Answer: Explain the Barro Colorado Island Experiment.

All trees in an island in Panama bigger than waist height were counted and it  was found that there were about 240,000 trees and more than 300 species.  Questions about the trees and their origin can now be asked: Why are there so  many species? Where did the species originate? How did the trees/ seeds get  there? The point of the questions is to put together a timeline for evolution. Don't forget about the age old question of Define karma.

Short Answer: Describe natural selection.

The evolutionary process by which beneficial alleles increase in frequency over  time in a population due to increase survival and reproduction success of  individuals carrying those alleles. Natural selection is the consequence of  variation, inheritance and different survival.

MC: An allele is different variations of a(n)

a. Chromosome

b. Codon

c. Gene

d. Enzyme  

True or False: Using the scientific method a hypothesis can be accepted. False  True or False: Microevolution is evolution below the population level. False True or False: Macroevolution is above the species level. True

Short Answer: What are the differences between Empirical and the theoretical approach?

Data and it’s interpretation drives the empirical approach; however a  mathematical representation drives a theoretical approach. With a theoretical

approach math models are used to make predictions and explanations.  Empirical and theoretical approaches often “dove tail” and one cannot be used  without the other. 

MC: ______ and _______ are the two explanations for phenomena.

a. Natural and Multi-natural  

b. Super Natural and Natural  

c. Super Natural and Neutral  

d. Multi-natural and Super natural

Match the scientist to their contributions: We also discuss several other topics like What are the three layers of the meninges?

Fill in the blank:  

Biometricians- Karl Pearson and Francis Galton

Mendelians- Hugo de Vries and William Bateson

MC: What were the two main rules Mendel found when doing his experiments?  A. Law of dependent assortment and Law of Division

B. Law of independent assortment and Law of Segregation

C. Law of Segregation and Law of Dependent Assortment

D. None of the above

Short answer: Why did Mendel use pea plants?

He used pea plants because they were easy to manipulate, regenerate quickly  and because they were easy to grow. Peas were also good to use because the  experiment could be repeated easily and because the data was quantitative and  easily studied.

Short answer: Why would blending inheritance result in the loss of variation?

If genetic material is linked then the particles that don’t maintain their  properties and variation is lost. Example: If you cross white and red flowers  you will get pink offspring, and the pink offspring will have pink offspring as  well.  

Short answer: What would this mean for natural selection?

No variation = no variation on which selection can act on.

Fill in the blank: Law of independent assortment- Alleles at different loci  segregate independently when being transferred to a gamete.

MC: What is the order of the central dogma?

a. Protein????RNA????DNA

b. DNA???? Protein???? RNA

c. RNA???? DNA???? Protein

d. DNA???? RNA???? Protein

Short answer: Where does genetic variation come from?

1. Recombination  

2. Mutation – The ultimate cause of genetic variation. It generates new  variations in organisms. Causes of mutation can be chemical or physical  (Example: Radiation). If mutations are not in the germ lines then the  mutation cannot be inherited. Basic cause of mutation is cells comes  from DNA replication errors.

Short Answer: Explain and give examples for the two general types of natural  selection?

1. Viability Selection- Selection on traits affecting survival surrounding the  environment. Example: Speed of herbivores to run away from predators. 2. Fecundity Selection- Selection on traits directly affecting reproduction.  Example: Production of sperm

Short Answer: What is the difference between an adaptation and an  exadaptation?

Adaptation- A trait that increases an organism’s fitness. Trait must be variable, genetically based (able to be inherited) and affect fitness.

Exadaptation- A trait currently having one function, but which evolved to have another.

MC: Unstable Equilibrium is:

a. 2 conditions at equilibrium: 1) It doesn’t change 2) if it is displaced the  system will return to its original state.

b. 2 conditions when at equilibrium: 1) It doesn’t change 2) if it is displaced  then the system will not return to the original position.  

c. 2 conditions when at equilibrium: 1) It is stable 2) if displaced then it will  move to a difference equilibrium.  

d. Combo of 3 types. When at this point it doesn’t change, depending on which  way it is disturbed depends on where the equilibria lands. Hardy- Weinberg is  mixed!

MC: Mixed Equilibrium is:

a. 2 conditions at equilibrium: 1) It doesn’t change 2) if it is displaced the  system will return to its original state.

b. 2 conditions when at equilibrium: 1) It doesn’t change 2) if it is displaced  then the system will not return to the original position.  

c. 2 conditions when at equilibrium: 1) It is stable 2) if displaced then it will  move to a difference equilibrium.  

d. Combo of 3 types. When at this point it doesn’t change, depending on which  way it is disturbed depends on where the equilibria lands. Hardy- Weinberg is  mixed!

MC: Which of the following in not a HWE assumption?

a. Gene flow is occurring

b. Natural selection is not occurring

c. Mutation is absent

d. None of the above

Short answer: Give an example of a point mutation: ACT????TCT

True or False: Insertion- Deletion: block of amino acids deleted or inserted also  known as InDels. False  

True or False: Selfing is a form on inbreeding. True

MC: Inbreeding can be ________ for a population because it exposes  ____________ mutations at a _________ rate!

a. Good, dominant, lower

b. Bad, dominant, higher

c. Bad, recessive, lower

d. Bad, recessive, high

Short Answer: What is the major difference between the HWE model and WF model?  WFM is HWE without an infinitely large population.

True or False: Genetic drift and selection both increase genetic diversity. False  True or False: The neutral theory started with influences of the molecular clock. True

Hello All,  

This is a study guide for Exam 1 that will be given this Thursday on Oct 6th. It has  practice questions from all subject covered in class, however it does not cover  information that will be taught on Tuesday Oct 4th. Remember that these exams are  75% from lecture and 25% from the book so study both. The exam will have a variety of  multiple choice, fill in the blank, matching, short answer and essay questions. To be  fully prepared also review:

*ALL mathematical equations and how to do them

*Material from the book

*Any mechanisms

Good luck studying!

-Jayda

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