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Study guide of Bioenergetics

by: Alexandra Graham

Study guide of Bioenergetics Bio 1103K

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Bio 1103K > Study guide of Bioenergetics
Alexandra Graham
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Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration
Intro to Bio
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Graham on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1103K at Georgia State University taught by Sylvester in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro to Bio in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Study guide for Exam 2: Bioenergetics  First law of Thermodynamics: Conservation of Energy (energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can transform) o Reason why both sides of a reaction have to have equal energy  Second Law: Entropy in an isolated system INCREASES over time Entropy: energy in a lower form; disorder; randomness Chemical Energy: energy contained in molecules and released by chemical reactions (a form of potential energy)  Exergonic Reaction: reactants have more energy than products; no energy needs to be put in for the reaction to take place  Endergonic Reaction: products have more energy than the reactants; energy DOES need to be put in for the reaction to take place Energy Carrier Molecules: high energy, unstable molecules that are synthesized at the site of an exergonic reaction (FAD, NAD+, ATP) ATP:  Adenosine triphosphate  Nitrogen-containing base, ribose, 3 phosphates  Energy currency of the cell Coupled Reaction: links an exergonic and endergonic reaction in a loop; provide energy for each other Catalysts: molecules that speed up the rate of a reaction without being used up or changed ENZYMES  Biological catalysts that regulate reactions in cells  Very specific functions  Enzyme activity is regulated o Competitive inhibitors (poisons)  Bind to activation site  Turn off enzyme permanently—BAD!! o Non-competitive inhibitors  Binds to a second activation site, which changes the shape of the main activation site so that substrate can’t bind  Can be switched on and off  PRODUCT FEEDBACK LOOP- too much product will turn off enzymes  This is why the non-competitive inhibitor of an enzyme is often its product (threonine makes isoleucine, and isoleucine is its noncompetitive inhibitor!  Enzymes that accept non-comp. inhibitors are called allosteric PHOTOSYNTHESIS Two parts: light reactions and Calvin Cycle Water + CO2 yields glucose and O2 IMPORTANT THINGS:  Thylakoid: membrane within chloroplast where light based reactions happen  Stroma: liquid interior of chloroplast  Stromata: holes in leaves that bring in air but also let out water  Chlorophyll: temperature-dependent pigment molecules in chloroplasts that absorb light o Chlorophyll a: absorbs red and blue light, reflects green; does the most work o Chlorophyll b: absorbs whatever red and blue light A missed o Carotenoids: yellow or orange; absorb green light LIGHT REACTIONS: PS 2) chlorophyll soak up energy (sunlight) and send it to the reaction center where an electron is ripped from sunlight; electron gets charged and moves to primary electron receptor  Indirectly makes ATP through electron movement ETC 2) ATP created as electron continues to move  Kinetic energy harvested as electron moves to pump hydrogen from stroma into thylakoid PS 1) election is re-energized and sent along ETC 1) electron moves through chain and is turned into NADH Then… chemiosmosis!  Energy of the electron movement creates H+ gradient, H+ leaves through ATP synthase which generates ATP! CALVIN CYCLE: 3 STEPS 1) Carbon fixation a. Rubisco (enzyme) binds carbon to RuBP (a 5 carbon sugar), combines both into a 6 carbon sugar that immediately breaks into two 3-carbon sugars (PGA!) 2) Synthesis of G3P a. Need to make PGS more reactive, so electrons from NADH and energy from ATP convert PGA into G3P 3) Regeneration of RuBP a. 6G3PS… one leaves and is used to make sugar, the other 5 GSP stay in cycle b. 5G3P + energy yields 3RuBP c. Therefore it takes two turns of the Calvin Cycle to make one glucose (because only 3 carbons per G3P) BAD THING!!! PHOTORESPIRATION:  Sometimes rubisco will bind 02 instead of C02 to RuBP  Wasteful and expensive! Bad! Only 1 PGA made per cycle! CELLULAR RESPIRATION Purpose of CR: making ATP so we can stay alive O2 comes in, CO2 goes out WHERE STUFF HAPPENS  Mitochondria matrix: citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)  Inner membrane: electron transport chain  Intermembrane: pump (electrochemical gradient)  Outer membrane: regular ol’ membrane for stuff to diffuse through  Cytoplasm: glycolysis Glycolysis (C6H12O6 + 2ATP yields 2G3P yields 2 pyruvate + 4ATP + 2NADH)  Present in every living thing  Evolved when there was almost no O2 in the atmosphere  Insufficient to support a eukaryote’s metabolism  Feeds into CR GYLYCOLYSIS STEPS 1) Energy investment stage a. Glucose (non-reactive molecule) + 2ATP yields fructose biphosphate (very reactive!) 2) Energy harvesting stage a. Fructose bisphosphate breaks down into 2G3P b. 2G3P yields 2 pyruvate + 4 ATP + 2NADH i. Breaking of G3P bonds gives an electron to NAD+ to form NADH If O2 is available, pyruvates move to… CELLULAR RESPIRATION STEPS 1) Pyruvate breakdown a. 2 pyruvate move from cytoplasm to mitochondria and coenzyme A attaches to them, knocking off a carbon i. That carbon floats off into the ether b. Pyruvates + coenzyme A = acetyl CoA (2 carbons and CoA) 2) Krebs cycle (purpose is to generate electron carriers) a. Krebs cycle yields NADH + FADH2 + 2ATP + 4CO2 b. Acetyl CoA combined with a 4 carbon molecule to form 6 carbon citric acid, and CoA is released c. Enzymes break acetyl group into 2CO2 and more 4 carbon molecules for future use i. This is where all the CO2 we breathe out comes from d. BUT MOST IMPORTANTLY, FAD and NAD+ pick up electrons and H from the pyruvates, becomes NADH and FADH2 3) Electron Transport Chain a. Complex 1: electron taken from NADH and used to fuel a proton pump that creates an electrochemical gradient of H (by taking the H from NADH too!) NAD+ goes back to Krebs b. Complex 2: electron taken from FADH2 and the H2 is taken and pumped to create a gradient. FAD goes back to Krebs. c. Complex 3: electrons move through, nothing really happens d. Complex 4: BIG MONEY i. Energy depleted electrons bind to O2 ii. O2 heads out into the world and, because of its new negative charge, immediately binds with 2H to form H2O! iii. Meanwhile, H in the intermembrane (where the gradient is) want to move out of the gradient and go through ATP synthase a. As H moves through ATP synthase, ATP synthase spins and squeezes ADP and phosphate together to form ATP iv. Makes 32 ATP per glucose!! FERMENTATION If there is NO O2 available after Glycolysis, pyruvate moves to FERMENTATION!  Doesn’t produce energy but DOES replenish NAD+  Happens in cytoplasm  Usually only happens in cases of physical stress 1) Pyruvates reorganized in lactic acid (the stuff that makes your muscles sore) 2) In the process the electron from NADH is used, re-creating NAD+


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