Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide GEOG 2120
Popular in World Regional Geography
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World Regional Geography Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: Essentials of World Regional Geography Class Formal Region: A region bound by common characteristics (North East) Functional Region: A region bound by interconnectivity (a metropolitan area) Perceptual Region: A region that is determined by how we perceive something Warm Air is low density and low pressure so it rises. Low density air can hold more moisture because molecules are spaced out. Warm air converges counterclockwise in northern hemisphere. Cold Air is high density and high pressure so it sinks. High Density air cannot hold as much moisture. Dense heavy air sinks down and spirals out in a clockwise rotation in northern hemisphere. Air moves from high to low pressure Land heats up and cools much more quickly than water. Front: cold air movers towards warm air and it rises. Warm air then cools when it rises and it sinks back down because it is high pressure. It then becomes warm and low pressure again. Convection: Short Daytime thunderstorm. Hot air rises, cools and precipitates. Stage 1: High birth and death rates (pre modern agrarian society) Stage 2: Crude Death Rate drops and Crude Birth Rate remains same because of improved health and knowledge of disease/ sanitation (Urbanizing/Industrializing) Stage 3: Birth Rate Decreases and matches Death Rate (Material Industrial Age) Stage 4: Advanced Post Industrial Society (higher death rate than birth rate at end of stage 4) Stage 5: Everybody is old and population is shrinking, lack of work force, excessive health care expenses Most rapid population growth is second half of stage 2 and first half of stage 3 1.1 (Contemporary Geography) Geography: discipline that studies spatial patterns in the human and physical world Physical geography includes natural environment processes across Earth's surface Human Geography is the study of the distribution of people and their activities Maps are relatively small representations of much larger areas of Earth's surface (features or patterns on the surface of the Earth). You can map where a language is spoken or where a nationality is. You can map tangible and intangible like median income. GIS systems combine maps and aerial and satellite images with data relevant to the area (like income) Small scale maps show larger areas of Earth's surface with fewer details (1:250,000) Large scale maps show smaller areas of Earth's surface with more details (1:10,000- 1:250,000) Isoclines show points of equality on maps (contour lines that show altitude. Isotherms show equal temperatures. Isobars show lines of equal pressure and more lines shows greater change in pressure). Isoclines never cross Absolute Location is the precise position of places on Earth's surface (most universally accepted means of determining absolute location is by calculating latitude and longitude) Latitude tells us how far north or south of the equator we are (1 degree of latitude = 69 miles). Nautical mile=1.15 miles (minute of latitude). Second = 0.0192 miles Longitude measures position east or west of an imaginary line drawn from north pole to south pole that passes through Greenwich, London Longitude lines are not parallel like latitude lines 24 time zones each 15 degrees of longitude International Date line passes through middle of a time zone (each half is a day apart) Physical distance is measured in miles or kilometers but relative distance is the time it takes to get from one place to another Friction of Distance: the increasing cost and time to cover distance between places (as costs increase with distance, interactions decrease) Friction of distance decreases with technological improvements but is also affected by physical obstacles (mountains/oceans), political factors (borders/conflict) and cultural factors (different languages) Region is an area of Earth's surface with physical and human characteristics that distinguish it from other places 1.2 (Globalization and Localization) Globalization: the increasing level of interconnection among people and places throughout the world Localization: established local identities that existed prior to intrusion of globalizing forces 1.3 (Regions and Natural Environments) Natural environment has played a crucial role in determining human movement (length of growing season, amount of water available, soil types and mineral bearing rocks) Earth contains four natural environments 1 solid earth environment (lithosphere): this environment receives energy from Earth's interior and causes crust to slide past one another and create earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain chains and continental movements Earth's surface is composed of about 12 major and several minor plates Divergent plate boundaries: plates move apart, openings occur and rocks erupt as molten lava and then adds to the plate when it solidifies (mid-Atlantic) Convergent plate boundaries: collisions cause one plate to be pushed upward forming mountains and another is subducted (when a plate is forced beneath another). Andes Mountains Transform plate boundaries: plates move horizontally against each other. Parallel but opposite directions (this causes earthquakes but usually without volcanic eruptions like San Andreas Fault) 1 earth-surface environment: interactions between atmosphere/hydrosphere with lithosphere produce rain, glacier ice, wind and ocean waves and shape hills, valleys, cliffs and beaches Weathering: the action of atmospheric forces (through water circulation and temperature changes) on rocks at Earth's surface that breaks the rocks into fragments, particles and dissolved chemicals Erosion: the wearing away of rocks at Earth's surface by running water, moving ice, the wind, and the sea to form valleys, cliffs and other landforms Deposition: The dropping of particles of rocks carried by rivers, wind or glaciers when they stop flowing, blowing or melting, respectively Soil: Weathered rock material that develops by the actions of water, animals and plants into a basis for plant growth 1 atmosphere-ocean environment: this environment receives incoming solar energy and produces weather/climate Climate: the long term atmospheric conditions of a place Greenhouse effect: the natural process of heating Earth's atmosphere. Solar rays of short wavelengths reach the surface and are absorbed and reradiated as long wavelength (heat). This radiation is partially absorbed by and heats the lower atmosphere, which contains water vapor and carbon gases. When humans add to the carbon gases, they enhance this process, raising temperatures above natural levels. Orographic Lifting: hilly areas, usually facing oceanic moisture sources cause uplift of air and enhanced precipitation levels (air cannot hold water when it rises because it cools and clouds form). Wet side of mountain is westward side and has low pressure air. Dry side of mountain is called rain shadow (leeward side) and has high pressure air. Tropical climate: climatic environment typical of the tropical zone and having high temperatures all year round Temperate climate: the climates of mid-latitudes, in which there are summer- winter temperature contrasts without the extremes of lengthy hot or cold periods Polar Climate: climate typical of the polar regions; extremely cold all year 1 ecosystem environment: plants convert solar energy into food for animals Ecosystem: the total environment of a community of plants and animals, including heat, light and nutrient supplies Biome: a world scale ecosystem type (5 types: forest, grassland, desert, polar, ocean) Natural resources: material present in the natural environment and recognized by humans as of practical worth Renewable resources: a resource that is replaced by natural processes at a rate that is faster than its usage (solar energy and water) Nonrenewable resources: a natural resource that is used up once it is extracted; coal or metallic minerals Natural Hazard: a natural event, such as a volcanic eruption, earthquake, tornado, hurricane or flood that interrupts human activities by causing extensive damage and deaths Human impacts on environment include draining of marshes, deforestation and protection of coastal lands Desertification: processes that destroy the productive capacity of an area of land Global warming: the process by which average temperatures in Earth's atmosphere rise over a period of several decades or centuries, leading to the melting of ice masses and a rising sea level Chlorine gas emmision has created a hole in the ozone layer Kyoto Protocall: statement adopted by the United Nations Convention on Climate Change in 1997 setting targets for reducing primary greenhouse gases Examples of ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions: biofuels such as ethanol, better batteries for electric cars, cars running on natural gas, investment in solar and wind energy, carbon tax and cap & trade systems 1.4 (Regions and Human Geography) Culture is learned behavior Cultural geography: the study of spacial variations in cultural features such as material traits, social structures, languages or belief systems Language: the means of communicating among people by speaking, writing and signing World language: a language that aids communication among people of varied languages, often at first used for trade, but later for varied purposes Religion: an organized system of practices that seeks to explain our purpose on Earth and may include a set of values and/or worship of a divine being Universalizing religion: a religion that seeks to be global in its application, such as Islam and Christianity (ethnic religions are linked to a particular ethnic group and usually limit membership to that group) Ethnic group: a cultural group whose members are defined by such characteristics as common origin, religion, language, customs or physical features Ethnocentrism: judging other ethnic groups harshly because they have different traits and practices Race: A biologic stock of people with similar physical characteristics , or a group of people united by a community of interests Class: hierarchies within societies created by an emphasis on such criteria as ethnicity, race, religion, material wealth, education, perceived birthright and other social characteristics Gender: the cultural implications of being male or female, with particular reference to the inequalities suffered by females in human society Women tend to occupy jobs such as nursing, secretarial work and teaching (lower status)as opposed to doctors, engineers, corporate executives and elected politicians (higher status) Gender Inequality Index ranges from 0 (perfect equality) to 1 (perfect inequality). Increasing women in the workforce will boost GDP of many countries 1.5 (Regions and Population) Population density: the number of people per given area Population distribution: the spread of people in a region, incorporating areas of high, medium and low density Half the world's population is living in expanding urban areas Urban area: an area with a high density of people, buildings, transportation linkages, and human activities of a high economic, political and cultural order. Urban areas dominate population distribution in materially wealthy countries Rural areas: land outside urban areas often having an economic emphasis on farming, mining and/or forestry. Such areas may dominate population distribution in materially poorer countries Megacity: a city with 10 million inhabitants or more Primate city: a city that contains a large proportion of the urban population of a country, often several times the population of the second city Rate of natural population increase or decrease = Crude Birth Rate (CBR) - Crude Death Rate (CDR) CBR: The number of live births per 1,000 population CDR: The number of deaths per 1,000 population Total Fertility Rate: average number of births per woman in her lifetime Infant Mortality: the number of deaths per 1,000 live births in the first year of life Migration: the long term movement of people into or out of a place Population doubling time: number of years taken to double the population of a country (70/growth rate) 1.6 (Regions and Politics) Political geography: the study of how governments and political movements influence the human and physical geography of the world and its resources Country: a self-governing political unit having sovereignty within its borders and recognition by other countries Country governments promote and protect their people in world affairs and may join other country governments in mutual trading or defense agreements Nation: a group of people who share a common identity, a sense of unity and a desire for self-governance (not all nations have states: Basques, Kurds and Palestinians). People see themselves as distinct from other groups Citizenship is legally determined by government Nationalism: a pride in one's national identity and the belief that one's national interests are more important than all other interests (personal, local, regional, global) as well as other nation's interests Indigenous People: The first inhabitants of an area or those present when the area is taken over by another group Capital city: the city in which the central government functions are concentrated; sometimes the largest city, but often one that is specially designed for the purpose Nation State: State that is almost entirely filled with the nation (people) Governance: the coordination and regulation of human activities at different levels of geographical scale, often outside the power of sovereign countries Intergovernmental Organization (IGO): a group of country governments working together (UN, EU) Non-Governmental Organizations NGO: groups of people who act outside government and major commercial agencies, mainly in advocacy roles such as delivering aid and lobbying for particular causes United Nations goal is to prevent and stop wars between countries by serving as a forum of dialogue and by promoting cooperation in international law and security, social progress, human rights, environmental protection and economic development 1.7 (Regions and Economics) Economic Geography: the study of spatial aspects of material wealth and poverty, the use of resources, and the production of goods The economic development of countries is commonly measured by two statistics of income -Gross Domestic Product (GDP): the total value of goods and services produced within a country in a year -Gross National Income (GNI): The total value of goods and services produced within a country in a year, together with income from labor and capital working abroad, minus deductions for payments to those living abroad Purchasing Power Parity: The measure of GNI or GDP that is based on internal country costs of living rather than external exchange rates related to the US dollar (more meaningful comparisons of living costs). -countries with higher income: GNI PPP < GNI because living costs are high -countries with lower income: GNI PPP > GNI because living costs are low A country's economy can be divided into 4 groups -primary sector: the sector of an economy that produces output from natural resources, including mining, forestry, fishing and farming -secondary sector: the sector of an economy that changes raw materials from the primary sector into useful products, thus increasing their value, as in chewing gum or parts for airplanes -tertiary sector: The sector of an economy concerned with the distribution of goods and services, including trade, professions and government employment -quaternary sector: the sector of an economy that specializes in producer services, including financial services and information services Free Market (capitalist system): the economic system that is based on competition and pricing of goods determined by the market. It is the basis of capitalism but market freedom is often reduced by government and the actions of major producers Communist countries overproduced some goods while under producing others and only members of communist party became rich but most families remained modest Protectionism: governmental policies that focus on government controlled industry and the protection of domestic products through tariffs, quotas and red tape Multinational Corporations: a corporation that makes goods and provides services in several countries, but directs operations from headquarters in one country (multinational corporations place production facilities in countries outside their homelands to take advantage of cheaper labor, land, energy, and to avoid tariffs, stringent work standards and environmental laws in their home countries Outsourcing: a business or government agency contracting with a company to produce a good or perform a service it once produced or performed for itself (low wages, knowledge, experience and infrastructure are all important to minimize costs) Offshoring: the shifting of a job to another country Offshore Financial centers: places of low tax rates, few regulations, and secrecy where individuals and businesses move their financial assets to save money 1.8 (Geography, Development and Human Rights) Development: the process by which human societies improve their quality of life, including economic, political and environmental aspects Human development: a broader view of development that focuses on people rather than economic change Human Development Index (HMI): a measure of human development based on income, life expectancy, adult literacy and infant mortality. Sri Lanka have higher HMI rank than GDP rank because they invest a lot in education and health care (Gulf countries are opposite) Sustainable human development: a level of development in which resources are exploited at a rate that is sustainable for future generations Developed countries encouraged developing countries to move from agriculture to more production and service industries but this is a challenge because developed countries are still dependent on the colonial economic system Core country: a materially wealthy country that plays a major part in controlling world economic processes Peripheral country: a materially poor country that is dependent on the world economy and materially wealthy countries Import substitution: a policy in which countries develop manufacturing industries to fulfill internal market demands, often protected by high tariffs to exclude foreign competition (colonized countries who resented colonial times chose to do this but they were still poor) Formal economy: the economic sector in which workers have recognized or licensed jobs, receive agreed upon wages and pay taxes. Informal economy is where workers act outside formal sector (developing countries) Responsible growth: Emerging countries: 2002 World Summit on sustainable development term meaning that development policies should link economic growth, environmental sustainability and social equity As middle class grows, people care more about political freedom and corruption Human rights: the rights that should be part of the normal human experience, including justice, a decent standard of living, personal security and freedom of thought and speech Political rights: the right to vote and participate in one's own government Social rights: the rights to have a job and earn a living with basic material standards Cultural rights: the rights to protect one's cultural traditions World Region: 9 world regions each with a number of countries linked by cultural, political economic and environmental conditions Chapter 2: Europe Class Almost every country is near an ocean or river Europe has very high latitude (situation) and has a lot of islands and peninsulas (site) Alps are highest and most prominent mountain range The mountains in the far north are mountains Mt. Elbrus is in the caucuses and is highest mountain in Europe (Mt. Blonc is highest mountain in Europe if you do not count Russia) Coastal plain is flat land in northern Europe near the coast (below 1,000 feet in elevation) Cs (Mediterranean climate): long hot dry summer, winters are moderate and it rains Glaciers are biggest fresh water storage in the world Gulf Stream: warm water originates near Caribbean brings milder temperatures to southwestern tip of Ireland (melting ice in Greenland could stop this stream and cause a cooling of the UK) Wind in temperate latitudes flow from West to East in general Eurasian plate is migrating towards south, African plate is raising towards north (divergent plate) and there are earthquakes, growing mountains and active volcanoes Iceland is between divergent plates and forms from molten lava coming up from below ground Decaying animals provide nutrients to the soil, river flooding gives us good soil conditions because rivers contain nutrient rich sediment. Erosion (rain/wind washes material down the mountain, it fills valley with nutrient rich material) Tributary: A river that leads into a larger river Distributary: A rivet that flows out of the main river into a delta that leads to the ocean Danube: originates in Germany and flows from West to East and empties into the Black Sea (1,771 miles long) Rhine River: Originates in Switzerland (in the mountains) and flows for 820 miles through Austria, Liechstein, France, Germany and the Netherlands. It flows out at Rotterdam in Netherlands. Major tributary of the Rhine is the Rhur (135 miles long) and it is one of the most industrially active valleys in the world Drainage basin is the area that drains into the river (rain in that region flows into the Rhine) Urbanization: rate at which a place is becoming more urban Percent urban: percent of population that is urban Europe has an aging population (increased taxes and welfare/ lots of countries in Europe have high taxes) Most large cities have a significant minority % of foreign born Historically 1-2 source areas dominated (2000s immigration trends are diversifying urban geographies) Europe is very close to other regions of the world (more so than any other region) Western Europe has most people, money, politically power World cities are cities that dominate in influence and connectivity (London and Paris are most important) London is most globally connected and politically powerful European city London grew before WW2 and then declined after WW2, then decades of minor fluctuations Rise in aging population means higher/taxes for people who are working when number of workers is smaller Refugees come largely from conflict areas and are often young (younger population could bring in new ideas and innovation). Immigrants would put pressure on public schools. Birth rates are higher among foreign born population Single tier pension: flat pension rate (legislation in UK to support aging population and rising expenses 2.1 (European Influences) From the late 1400s to the mid-1900s, European empires colonized or forced other world regions into trading relations with European countries English, French, Spanish, Portuguese languages and Roman Catholic and Protestant variations of Christianity spread around the world through trade, religious missions and political control European discoveries and interactions abroad stimulated an interest in scientific and technological advancement at home (laws and motion of gravity, theory of relativity, railroad, steam engine, automobile, 2.2 (Distinct Physical Geography) Europe has mountains (Alps), earthquakes and volcanoes in the Mediterranean, uplands, plains Around young mountains are hilly plateaus of older rocks that once formed mountain ranges (ranges were worn down by erosion and then raised again by faulting) Estuary: A wide river mouth that experiences changes in tidal water level and quality (where river meets seas) Fjord: A formerly glaciated valley that was flooded with ocean water after the sea level rose in the post glacial age Rhine River is used heavily for transportation and is the world's busiest waterway (20% of world's chemical industry output occurs along the river and pollution issues are continuing to be resolved) No part of Europe is more than 320 miles from the ocean Oceanic temperate climate: The climate of the western margins of midlatitude continents, in which cool, moist air from the ocean brings precipitation and moderate air temperatures (Western Europe) Subtropical winter rain (Mediterranean climate): A climate that is characterized by summer drought and winter rains Continental Temperate Climate: The climates of continental interiors in mid- latitudes. They are often drier and have greater extremes of summer and winter temperatures than the climates of coastal areas in these latitudes (Eastern and Central Europe) Europe is experiencing receding glaciers and rising temperatures Loess: Fine grained and fertile soils developed from windblown deposits Huge demands for wood to construct ships and for charcoal used in smelting iron resulted in the removal of most natural woodland by around 1600 Soil eroded in hilly areas but in flatter areas, cultivation methods were adopted that maintained the soils and their productivity over many centuries The Industrial Revolution and the spread of factory concentrated production led to widespread pollution of the rivers and air (many governments are trying to improve quality of river water) Smoke fog has decreased due to legislature prohibiting coal burning Acid Deposition: dry or wet acidic deposition of acidic material from the atmosphere, often resulting from sulfur and nitrate gases and particles emitted into the air from coal combustion in power plants Black Triangle: A heavily polluted industrial area straddling the Polish, Czech and German borders 2.3 (Distinctive Human Geography) In comparison to other regions of the world, Europe's population is rapidly aging and is urbanized 3 major groups of Indo-European language family (Romance, Germanic, Slavic) Christianity became significant in Europe after the Romans adopted it as their empire's official religion in AD 381 When Roman empire broke in 2, it left a Western Europe centered in Rome (Roman Catholic) and an Eastern Europe centered in Constantinople (Eastern Orthodox) Jews have lived in Europe since Roman times, first along the Mediterranean and then eventually in small groups everywhere else, especially East Central Europe In middle ages, Islam spread into the Balkan Peninsula with the Ottomans and into the Iberian Peninsula with the Moors Europe's population is decreasing in most Mediterranean and East Central European countries and increasing only a little in most Western and Northern European countries The highest densities of population in Europe are in the urbanized industrial belt that runs southeastward from central Britain through northern France, Belgium and the Netherlands and into Germany (50) Low population densities in mountainous areas such as the Alps, Apennines, Greek mountains, Pyrenees and areas of extreme climate In 1800s, Industrial revolution occurred and cities grew tremendously and new towns (suburbs) were built at a certain distance from large cities after end of WW2 Gentrification: the movement of higher income groups to occupy and improve residences in older and poorer parts of cities (occurred among older couples and young professionals and created pedestrian only traffic and higher order services). 1970s. In 1980s, economic activity spread from city centers to suburbs and beyond 1789 French Revolution caused the idea of a nation to emerge (many countries are not truly nation states) Irredentism: The desire to gain control over lost territories or territories perceived to belong rightfully to a group; associated with nationalism Genocide: The systematic extermination of an ethnic group, nation, or racial or religious group At the end of WW2, the Soviet Union moved into most of the countries of East Central Europe and fostered communism Communism: A system in which the workers govern and collectively own the means of economic production Communists believed that capitalists used their riches to manipulate their governments in order to protect, even increase their privileged positions in society and keep the majority of society, especially the working class, powerless and in relative poverty Democratic Centralism: The practice of sole governance by the Communist Party, the political party of the working class, because it is believed that only the Communist party is the only true representative of the people State Socialism: The Communist Party actively running the political, social and economic activities of the people Planned Economy: The communist practice of the government, rather than the free market, deciding what goods and services need to be produced within a country North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): A military alliance of non- Communist European countries and the United States, founded in 1949 to counter the military threat of the Soviet Union. In recent years, former Communist countries have joined the alliance, and Russia has formed a partnership with NATO Imperialism: The practice of extending the rule of an empire over foreign lands Colonialism: The system by which one country extends its political control to another territory to improve local conditions and/or economically exploit the human beings and natural resources of the subordinate territory Industrial Revolution: The period of the late 1700s and early 1800s when increasingly complicated machines and chemical processes, fueled by inanimate power sources such as water and coal, replaced traditional ways of making goods by hand with simple tools. The mass production of goods resulted, as did the need for raw materials. The industrial revolution began in England and then spread to other areas of Europe and the world Productive Capacity: The total amount of goods a country's industries can produce during a given period Producer Goods: Industrial goods used by other industries to make consumer goods (steelmaking, heavy engineering and chemicals were replaced by motor vehicles, consumer goods in non-Communist Europe) Agglomeration Economies: The total economies achieved by a production unit because of a large number of related economic activities in the same area Geographic Inertia: Once capital investments are made in factories and infrastructure that give a region agglomeration economies, production will continue there for a period of years after other areas emerge with lower production costs Deindustrialization: A rapid fall in manufacturing employment and the abandonment of factories in a once important industrial region (occurred in Europe in 1970s and 1980s and many people lost their jobs) After the fall of communism in 1991, Europe began receiving oil and natural gas via pipeline from Russia's vast supplies, although its countries are concerned about the future level of control this might bring After WW2, service jobs such as those in retailing, wholesaling, education, health care and government grew in importance as the European countries became richer and instituted strong social welfare programs 2 main growth areas are producer services (service industries that are involved in the output, including market research, advertising, accounting, legal, banking and insurance industries) and tourism Productivity: The measure of the amount of product generated or work completed per hour of labor Concentration: Agricultural production carried out on fewer and larger farms and limited to smaller areas of higher productivity Intensification: In agriculture, the increased output of crops or livestock per area unit of land Specialization: The concentration on fewer commercial products within a farming region Market Gardening: The commercial production of high cash value, especially fruit and vegetable crops such as table grapes, raisins, oranges, grapefruits, apples and lettuce Agribusiness: the large scale commercialization of agriculture that places farming within the broader context of inputs of seeds, fertilizer, machinery and the outputs of processing, marketing and distribution To provide stable food supply, European governments subsidize farmers Extensification: In agriculture, the production of fewer livestock or crops from the same area (CAP to encourage farmers to produce less in order to reduce surpluses 2.4 (Geographical Diversity) Western Europe UK, France and Netherlands were most powerful and influential colonial powers Western European countries still import raw materials from the countries they colonized and produce finished goods to sell back Countries in this region rank high in health, education and income standards East Germany and West Germany unified because of weakening economies of Communist Europe and Soviet Union. People wanted to move from east to west Northern Europe Denmark and Sweden were powerful empires that controlled much of northern Europe (1600s and early 1700s) Fishing and wood products are important industries in Northern Europe Mediterranean Europe Spain and Portugal spread Roman Catholicism and Spanish and Portuguese around the world After deaths of Salazar in Portugal and Franco is Spain, they became more democratic and outward looking Italy has strong regionalization and is the most industrialized of the Mediterranean countries Italy has strong commercial goods and high tech industries Mediterranean Sea is very polluted (Mediterranean Action Plan was implemented to solve these problems) East Central Europe These countries were Soviet Satellite states (directly controlled by Soviet Union) and emerged as nation states in late 1900s and early 2000s After WW2, Communist economic policies were imposed on most countries in East Central Europe (standard of living improved by encouraging industrialization, by providing jobs for everyone, tech improvements) These countries struggled to develop their economies after fall of Soviet Union (breaking up monopolies owned by the state, providing productive jobs, and cleaning up the environment) Yugoslavian countries struggled the most and many people worked in countries like Germany Serbia tried to contain Yugoslavia because they did not want to lose their Serbian population to other states. 2.5 (Contemporary Geographic Issues) Benelux: An acronym for Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. The term was coined in recognition of the close working relationship these countries have with one another European Union: Name adopted by the European community in 1993, suggesting both an expansion to other European countries following the end of the cold war and the possibility of a future closer political freedom Many EU members may not be able to pay for social programs and stimulate their economies as they see fit because of regulations limiting their debt and budget deficits Integration requires removal of entry barriers meaning it is more likely foreigners may take local jobs and demand cultural rights Supernationalism: The idea that differing nations can cooperate so closely for their mutual benefit that they can share the same government, economy, social policies and even military Devolution: the process by which local peoples desire less rule by their national governments and seek greater authority in governing themselves Separatism: The desire by an ethnic group for independence Ethnic Cleansing: The process by which one ethnic group removes other ethnic groups from a territory either through expulsion, extermination or forced assimilation (holocaust) Decolonization: The process by which mainly European countries enabled their colonies to become independent countries (many European countries received immigrants from their former colonies) Guest worker: A foreigner who has permission to reside in a country to work but is not a citizen of that country Drug of Immigration Britain youth unemployment is 20% Foreign workers bring in far more than they take out Eric Hanushek states that if Britain improved their public school systems, wages would increase Immigration is not a solution to the debt problem Britain needs Millions more Immigrants to reduce strain of ageing population Office for Budget Responsibility states Britain's expenditure on state pension, social care and health care will rise from 14% to 20% Immigration has positive effect on public debt (more workers) Flat rate pension system and raising retirement age are mitigating actions that have been taken Refugee Surge Brings Youth to Ageing Europe In 1990, 12.7% of population was 65 or older, in 2015 it was 17.6% 81% of 689,000 people seeking asylum in EU countries were under 35 years old Although there are benefits like alleviating issue of declining workers and innovation, there are costs like providing refugees with housing, health care, education Some countries have objected to taking refugees on religious/cultural grounds (they don't want Muslims) Poles are Largest Foreign Born Contingent 831,000 Polish born people out of 8.6 million foreign born people Number of births from mothers born outside UK was 27% of all births (new record) 5.6 million (1 in 12) foreign citizens in the UK Chapter 3: Russia and Neighboring Countries Class Russia has significant latitudinal expanse and longitudinal expanse Russia covers 11 time zones but the government recognizes 9 144.3 million people (Population Reference Bureau) Lots of mountains on the Pacific border in the Eastern part of Russia Vast majority of Russia is in Eurasian plate Ural Mountains are ancient (1,500 miles long). Mostly low elevation (1,000- 1,500 ft.). Ural separates Europe from Asia Central mountains provide precipitation and ice and snow melt for dry areas in the region Pockets of cold air are blocked by mountains and can sit there causing very cold Russian winters Eastern Russia is part of Pacific Ring of Fire (geologically active) Iron, Nickle, Copper in the Eastern part of Russia Areas around Caspian Sea have a lot of oil Soil variety in East because of relief Ob river is 2,290 miles long and flows from south to north in Western Siberia (north of Kazakhstan)and empties into Gulf of OB -Irtysh tributary and river is used to transport lumber and grains. Natural gas region in the north but river freezes Dhan river is 1,160 (western most river in Russia). 800 miles are navigable. It empties into Black Sea (flows from north to south). Problem with winter ice Volga is Russia's most important river. 2,300 miles long and 2,000 of that is navigable. Flows from north to south into the Caspian Sea. Lots of manmade channeling. 2 problems are sedimentation (sediments build up and make river shallower/too shallow for ships) and pollution (due to heavy traffic) Russia has significant steel and metal production industry. Timber/Lumber. Iron, Gold, Diamonds. One of world's largest deposit of coal. Lots of oil around Caspian and in the north. World's largest reserve of natural gas. Canada and Russia argue that Arctic Ridge because each wants to explore Arctic waters State has rights over resources on surface, in water, on sea floor & under sea floor (other states may not exploit without permission of state). 200 nautical miles from baseline or continental shelf argument Human Geography Soviet moved a lot of people around. They tried to Russify places with less Russians. They moved Russians for industry Centralized Planning: lack of geographic logic, and influences in production, resource use & jobs Russia is divided into Oblasts and internal republics (areas where many Non Russians lived) Yeltson came after Gorbachev and was very corrupt There is a lot of organized crime in many parts of the economy Supranational: organization of independent state members where states relinquish their authority to the organization Members of CIS have not given up sovereignty to organization (not supranational) Caspian Sea is a landlocked sea with no outlet (water evaporates) All fresh water has salt in it and landlocked seas are more salty than other seas (salt stays behind when water evaporates) Caspian Sea is located in a depression (low elevation) Northern part of Caspian is dry (anything coming up from the south is blocked by large mountain ranges) Northern half of Dagestan is arid but in southern mountains there is a lot of rain and snow (west and south) 6 species of Sturgeon in Caspian (largest producer of caviar (overfishing/pollution have threatened the sturgeon Other important fish: salmon, perch, herring & carp Lots of oil and gas fields in the north and west regions (main economic driver) Overland transport is more expensive than shipping (pipelines blown up because of conflicts) Tension between Russia and Turkey because Turkey wants to be a regional leader US supported oil pipeline that goes from Baku, Azerbaijan to Tbilisi, Georgia to the Turkish port of Ceyhan Physical Geography Caucasus Mountains are rugged/steep slopes Many peaks over 15,000 ft Many isolated valleys that has had a significant impact on human geography Georgia Georgia has every altitude zone that you can have (very proud of wine/inventor of wine) Georgia has hydropower (they want to be energy self-sufficient) Warm moist air from Black Sea cannot cross over Caucuses (much warmer than Russia) Rivers are the Kura (originates in mountains in south and goes north into Georgia then drops east into Caspian. It has created a large valley through central Georgia) and the Rioni (in the West, salt filled, swampy delta, great agricultural land Resources: timber and wood products, lots of minerals and iron, steel and aircraft production, machine tools, agriculture Georgia wants to expand tourism industry Currently energy importer Georgians are (3/4) of population but there are almost 100 different ethnic groups. 4 million population (PRB) Russia controls Abkhazia and South Ossetia (but it is part of Georgia) (Ajaria is least problematic of the 3) Abkhazia (.24-.33 Sunni Muslim and over 50% orthodox Christian. Cultural suppression during Stalin years. Speak Abkhaz. They are Abkhaz people) Ajaria: ethnically Georgian and mostly Sunni Muslim (speak dialect of Georgian). No strong separatist movement South Ossetia: they are referred to as Alans (Iranian people speaking Persian and were pushed into Caucasus Mountains by Mongols in 13th century). Mostly orthodox Christian. Like Abkhazia, USSR created South Ossetia as an autonomous region Conflict between Russia and Georgia (begins August 8, 2016) Russians were conducting military exercises on Russia, Georgia border Georgia was considering joining NATO and Russia did not like that idea Russia wants to dominate in the region and does not want to worry about US ties to Georgia US involved with regions of North and South Ossetia Dagestan (Republic) Largest of Russia's caucuses territories A lot of agriculture and people in the mountains (abundant rain/snow) 30 different ethnic groups (each has a strong identity) Historic lack of intermarriage Rugged mountains contribute to ethno-cultural diversity Farming/Livestock, Fishing/Caspian Sea (most significant Oil & Gas Chemicals), key transport routes West Ongoing Antagonist relationship with Russia Mostly Sunni Muslim Chechnya (Republic) Socio-Political system was clan based (clans controlled areas) People are Sunni Muslims Nakh people Suppressed by USSR Lots of mixing of clans and different ethnic groups 1940s: forced migration of hundreds of thousands (maybe 200,000 died). 1930s: liquidated tens of thousands Class Update With the end of the USSR. The Chechens declared independence Groznyy is capital of Chechnya and is big transshipment center (major oil refining center, huge natural gas fields). Transshipment between Black Sea and Caspian Sea Russia invades Chechnya and strong resistance Declaration that said war with Chechnya was over (however there is still a lot of instability) Conflict spilled over into Dagestan, Ingushetia and other territories Moscow Theater (2002): Chechnyans stormed theater during performance and took hostage of viewers. Gas pumped into theater that killed many Russians Beslan (2004):Chechnyans took over a school in North Ossetia (Russians intervened but many students and teachers were killed) Global War on Terror: excuse for Russia to act in extreme ways Dzhokhar Dudayev: Chechnyan man who was part of Soviet Military. He then became leader of Chechnya. (He was talking on a satellite phone and Russians tracked where he was and sent a missile against him) 3.1 (New World Regional Order) Commonwealth of Independent States: A political and economic organization created in 1991 by 11 republics of the Soviet Union. Members include Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Georgia became the twelfth member in 1993. The CIS coordinates relations between member countries, including issues involving economics, foreign policy and defense matters 3.2 (Distinct Physical Geography) Northern plains of Europe spread eastward from Poland into Belarus, Ukraine and European Russia until it ends against the Ural mountains The Caucasus Mountains, between the Black and Caspian seas, are part of this line of mountain ranges that extends through the Elburz Mountains of northern Iran to the Tien Shan and Pamir Mountains along the southern borders of the Central Asian countries Continentality: Especially cold winters and hot summers resulting from locations on landmasses that are far from the moderating effects of large water bodies such as oceans (Eastern Siberia is most extreme) Precipitation declines with greater distance inland (parts of southern central Asia are arid) Boreal means high latitude (Most of Russia is DC in Western Russia and EC in Siberia) Steppe Grasslands: Temperate grasslands typical of the transition between forest and arid areas of temperate continental interior climatic environments Black Earth Soils: Highly fertile soil type in which organic matter accumulates near the surface, commonly beneath temperate grassland communities Brown Earth Soils: Fertile soil type in which plant matter replenishes nutrients in the upper layers, commonly forming beneath temperate deciduous forest. Temperate regions have best soils. Northern Coniferous Forest (taiga): A forest composed of coniferous trees (firs, pines, cedars) common in the northern parts of temperate continental interior climatic environments. World's largest forest Podzol soils: Soils of low fertility in which plant nutrients are removed by water passing through. Commonly develop beneath temperate coniferous forest and on sandy soils Tundra: Ecosystem type occurring in cold polar environments and consisting of low shrubs (near arctic ocean) Permafrost: Permanently frozen ground extending several hundred meters below the surface in Siberia and Northern Canada. In summer, water in the surface active layer, 50 to 100 cm deep, melts 3.3 (Distinctive Human Geography) People of Russia and neighboring countries have had to cope with a dramatic transformation from rigid and inflexible Communist political and economic systems to more dynamic and uncertain democratic and capitalist systems Cultural Diversity Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians are Eastern Slavs and Russia adopted Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which tied them to Constantinople Poles, Lithuanians and Austrians ruled Russian lands from 1300s to 1800s and during this time, Belarusians and Ukrainians developed separate identities from Russians Russification: Policies directed at making non Russians into Russians by encouraging or forcing non Russians to adopt Russian cultural characteristics such as the Russian language Russian ties with Ukrainians and Belarusians were reestablished in the early 1800s, when the Russian Empire extended West (many Ukrainians fear Russian domination and cultivate their ties with the West) Southern Caucuses Georgian is Caucasian language family, Armenian is Indo-European language family and Azerbaijan is Ural-Atlantic language family Armenia and Georgia are catholic while Azerbaijan is Shia Islam Soviet Secular policies influenced Azerbaijan to adopt Latin alphabet for Azerbaijani, people drink wine and women are not veiled Central Asians Kazakhs emerged as a distinct people in the 1400s from a mixture of Turkic and Mongolian nomads of Central Asia Kyrgyz trace their ancestry to Mongolia and after 800s, they mixed with Turkic tribes from south and west Turkmens trace their ancestors back to Oghuz tribes that inhabited Mongolia and southern Siberia around Lake Baikal. In the 700s, these tribes migrated into Central Asia and assimilated Turkic and Persian tribes Uzbeks are Turkic people who moved into the lands now knows as Uzbekistan in the 1500s. Uzbeks prospered greatly from the Silk Road and wear clothing made with fine fabrics, color and ornamentation Tajiks probably acquired their name from an old Arab tribe. The Tajik language is a Persian language and was not distinguished from Farsi until the Soviets designated it as a unique language Most Central Asians are Muslims Women's Roles Communist ideology professed that Women were equal to men During Soviet times, women moved into professions normally held by men in other societies (medicine, engineering, construction) Women achieved equality in their careers but usually not at home (women took on traditional household roles like housework and childcare Population Slavic countries and Southern Caucuses are decreasing in population and Central Asia is increasing in population Russia has many more women over 60 than men as a result of WW2 and Stalin's persecutions In Western Russia, birth rates are low, death rates high and the population is aging quickly (yet numbers show less decline because Russians are emigrating to Western Russia from the North, Siberia and former Soviet republics Economic decline has been a major cause of population decline in Slavic countries. Lots of alcoholism In Central Asia, death rates are very low and fertility rates fell from 6 to just less than 3 between 1970 and 2012 In Russia, highest densities are in Western Russia and it is somewhat high in southern region of Russia along Trans-Siberian highway to southern end of lake Baikal and Vladivostok In Caucasus region, most people live in plains and a few live in mountains In Central Asia, there are few people in arid and mountainous zones and areas of higher densities in irrigated lowlands High concentrations of Russians live in Estonia, Latvia, Northern and Eastern Ukraine, and Northern Kazakhstan Many new countries see Russian minorities as threats (Turkmenistan ended dual citizenship for Russians in June 2003 and many Russians had to sell their property at low prices because they could not own property) Of 19 million Azerbaijanis, most live in Iran and only 8.1 million live in Azerbaijan (Armenia similar situation) Georgia and central Asian countries have large minority populations Urban Patterns and Linkages Russia, Ukraine and Belarus are the most urbanized, while Moldova and most of the Central Asian countries with their traditional way of life are the least urbanized Stalin's 5 year plan emphasized industrialization and centralization (urbanization increased to 48% in 1959 and 70% in 1990s) Since breakup of Soviet Union, suburbs have increased, particularly around Moscow, as congestion and pollution of inner cities pushes people out. Increased shopping centers and private housing with market economy Evolving Politics Soviet union, founded in 1922, had many successes, but internal problems caused it to disintegrate in 1991 Russian empire traces roots back to Principality of Muscovy which began expanding in the 1400s under Ivan III (Romanov family took over in 1613 and their dynasty lasted until 1917) In late 1917s, Bolsheviks, a group of communists known as Reds, overcame their enemies and created USSR under Lenin Communist Soviets were against religion because clergy supported political leaders who oppressed common people Soviet protection from German Nazis and their expansion allowed them to enter territories of Eastern Europe Rigid governmental structure and policies caused the economy to eventually decline by the 1970s (Gorbachev became leader of Soviet Union in 1985 and tried to reform his country's political and economic system) His 2 concepts were Glasnot(informal openness/government informing citizens) and Perestroika (economic restructuring: he believed it was necessary to separate economics from politics, allow more local control and introduce free market practices. Problems occurred because lack of capitalist banking and financial system meant cash could not flow easily. Companies had to cut costs and laid off workers, increasing unemployment) Closed Economies opening up Communist policies were successful in the early decades of the Soviet Union but caused the country to disintegrate Five Year Plan: A comprehensive economic planning scope in the former Soviet Union. They were followed from 1928 until 1991 (farmers were like factory workers and family farms were merged together) Command Economy: Soviet practice whereby the government ran the economy, owned all industries and set quotas, favoring heavy industry over production of consumer goods Central Planning: The Soviet Union practice in which the government decided how many goods and services were needed in society, and gave instructions for their production almost without cost considerations Soviet Union fell behind Western Europe and the US because its rigid economy could not adapt to change Soviet weaknesses: absence of competition caused inefficient and wasteful use of fuel, guarantee of jobs caused high labor costs and low wages caused low productivity, inefficient central planning. All caused poverty/lack of resources 2 issues with economy after disintegration were outdated (independent republics had to update their factories, attract foreign investment, engage in global economy and develop service industries) and countries' economies were greatly linked Soviet Union created dependency of Soviet countries on Russia and transportation networks are geared towards Russia (Ukraine needs oil from Russia, Georgie supplied Russia 90% of tea/citrus fruits and Central Asia provided cotton/oil Russians below poverty line fell from 40% in 2000 to 14% in 2010 Virgin Lands Campaign: Soviet Campaign that began in the 1950s that promoted farming in lands that had not been farmed before. They were usually in Central Asia deserts with poor quality soil and insufficient water/heat In mid 2000s, Russia received a lot of foreign investment in their agriculture and arable land Individual incentive, mixed with collectively owned land and farm machinery that was better integrated into the economic system, proved to be more effective than the private farms that lacked machinery and needed to be run as individual businesses 3.4 (Geographic Diversity) Slavic Countries Russia contains substantial portions of world's natural resources and thus has significant economic potential Ukraine is only slavic country (other than Russia) to be independent before 1990s (became part of USSR in 1992) Xenophobia: A fear if foreigners (common among Russians) Political Units fall into 2 units 1 Administrative Units: 6 federal territories (krays), 49 regions (oblasts) and 2 federal cities (Moscow and St. Petersburg). They were created to administer the large country 1 Autonomous Units: 21 republics, 1 autonomous region (oblast) and 10 autonomous districts (okrugs). They craft many of their own laws and govern themselves somewhat differently than the rest of Russia. As a way of controlling the country, the Soviets intentionally created boundaries for republics that left ethnic groups out of their intended territories and included Russians in them Heartland: The area of a country that contains a large percentage of the country's population, economic activity and political influence (West of Urals) Hinterland: The areas of a country that lie outside the heartland. The hinterland usually has a relatively small percentage of a country's population, economic activity and political influence compared to the heartland, though it may be well endowed with natural resources (Pacific Region, Siberia, Arctic Region and Kaliningrad oblast on Baltic Sea Many factories in obscure parts of Russia were shut down because subsidies ended when Soviet Union fell Southern Caucasus Armenia and Georgia are both very mountainous and Azerbaijan is mountainous in the West Azerbaijan has a lot of petroleum Ethnic conflicts ensued after 1991 and damaged these countries' economies All three countries have worked to reduce their dependency on Russia by greatly altering and increasing their industrial and service sectors (Azerbaijan opens oil pipeline to Turkish port of Ceyhan) In 1924, Soviet government created an autonomous territory within Azerbaijan known as Nagorno-Karabakh. It was 94.4% Armenian but became 76% Armenian by 1979. War broke out and it is now run by Armenians Central Asia 5 countries were part of a land called Turkestan (loose confederation of tribes). In 1800s, Russian empire took control of this area and made borders for the 5 countries Following independence in 1991, GDPS in these countries dropped considerably before slowly improving. Infrastructure has caused these countries to rely on Russia. They also supply raw materials and buy finished goods from Russia All 5 countries produce oil, natural gas and cotton (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan do not have large fuel reserves) Region is dry but rivers originate in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan and flow to lowlands of the other countries 3.5 (Contemporary Geographic Issues) Chechnya tried to gain independence but Russia fought them to preserve republic Closer relations with China led to the signing of a friendship treaty in 2001. The treaty is significant because it sets aside decades of tension caused mostly by border disputes and allows for cross border trade (Russia sends oil/military supplies to China) Russian government forced companies like BP, ExxonMobil and Royal Dutch Shell to forfeit much of their investment in Russian oil and natural gas companies, often at great loss (industry is profitable in Russia and they use it as tool) Russia supported South Ossetia separating from Georgia and fought against Georgia Russia has human rights issues like lack of juries, gulag labor camps, murdered journalists(worse in Central Asia) Environmental Problems include oil spills from pipelines breaking, mining factories, shrinking Aral Sea as a result of Soviets taking water for agriculture Chapter 4: East Asia Class Shenzhen is where lots of factories are that produce many consumer goods Admiral Cheng Ho (1405-1433) (Chinese empire funded exploration) By late 1430s all Naval expeditions banned/records destroyed Environmental degradation in China Cultural ties include Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism and Chinese writing system; but important linguistic and religious diversity Cities are booming, populations are aging, birth rates are low Chinese believe Taiwan should be part of China (Taiwan wants to stay independent) Southeast Region: Mild/Moderate climate and rain every month Beijing is quite dry (agriculture is possible because of rivers) Many rivers originate in Tibetan Plateau Fujian Co
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