PSYC 2740 Study guide 1
PSYC 2740 Study guide 1 2740
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mary Kay on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2740 at University of Denver taught by Garrido, Edward in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
PSYC 2740 Study guide 1 Flawed or clever thinking? • Standard view ◦ People think in order to find the truth Thinking suffers from mistakes and shortcomings (e.g. laziness and motivated biases) • Alternate view ◦ People think to argue with others and convince them of their side, rather than figure out the truth alone. Shortcuts and heuristics actually work well. (SoCalled) Errors and Biases • Two types of information ◦ Statistical information and case history • Confirmation bias: Tendency to search for information that confirms one’s beliefs ◦ Ignore information that disconfirms it. • Illusory correlation: tendency to overestimate link between variables that are related only slightly or not at all. • Base rate fallacy: ignore or underuse base rate information ◦ Be influenced by distinctive features of the case being judges • Gambler’s fallacy and the hot hand ◦ Hot hand: luck will continue ◦ Gambler’s fallacy: chance event is affected by previous events and will “even out" • False consensus effect ◦ Overestimate the number of people who share one’s opinions, attitudes, values, and beliefs • False uniqueness effect ◦ Underestimate the number of people who share one’s prized characteristics or abilities. • Perseverance of theories ◦ Theory perseverance: once a conclusion is drawn, it is only changed by overwhelming evidence. • Statistical regression ◦ Tendency for extreme scores or be savior to be followed by others closer to average. • Illusion of control ◦ A false belief that one can influence events • Counterfactual thinking ◦ Imagining alternatives to past or present events or circumstances First instinct fallacy Upward and fawn ward counterfactuals. Are most people really just kind of stupid? • People make many cognitive errors ◦ Not random; quite predictable • More important decisions ◦ Deliberate system is used and less errors occur • Reducing cognitive errors ◦ Debasing: deliberate recessing ◦ Metacongnitin: reflection Emotion Introduction • Charles Booher: dealing with spam ◦ Reacted to barrage of spam by threatening to kill company employees sending it • Brad Turotte reacted to getting spam in a much different way ◦ Used the emails to write songs and was able to make money. What is emotion? • Key concepts ◦ EmotionL conscious evaluative reaction to some event ◦ Mood: feeling state that is not clearly linked to some event ◦ Affect automatic response that something is good or bad ◦ Conscious emotion: powerful and clearly unified feeling state (E.g. anger or joy) Some important Emotions • Happiness ◦ Measured by affect balance: frequency of positive minus frequency of negative emotions ◦ Life satisfaction: evaluation one’s life compared to some standard ◦ Objective versus subjective roots of happiness. • Increasing happiness ◦ Exercise and good health might impact longevity • Happy all the time ◦ Happy people: more likely to get married and have children ◦ Extremely happy people: actually less healthy, more rigid, and prone to overlook danger. • Anger: emotional response to a real or imagined threat or provocation ◦ Approach and avoidance tendencies Anger signals approach: confronting a problem ◦ Seems maladaptive, but may be an important social sense. • Dealing with anger ◦ Repression, venting, trying to get rid of anger (e.g.mental tactics, distraction, behaviors. ) Self Awareness Theory Fluctuating Image(s) of Self • Phenomenal self (Working selfconcept) ◦ Image of self that are currently active • Different situations call up different parts of selfknowledge into the phenomenal self ◦ Heightened awareness of aspects of yourself are associated with differences in the group around you. Why people Seek SelfKnowledge • Thirst for selfknowledge ◦ Evolutionary origins • Appraisal motive ◦ Looking for the truth about oneself • Selfenhancement motive ◦ Looking for flattering aspects of oneself • consistency motive ◦ Looking for confirmation about current beliefs about oneself. When Motives Compete • Appraisal motive ◦ Weakest motive • Selfenhancement motive ◦ Strongest motive • Consistency motive ◦ Second preference Selfknowledge and the Duplex Mind • Automatics egotism: response by automatic system ◦ Everything good is me; everything bad is not me. • Modesty: Conscious override of automatic egotism ◦ Overcome impulse to offer a more humble account. Self and information Processing • Anything that touches the self... ◦ More important than things that do not touch it • Selfreference effect ◦ Information relating to self is processed more deeply and remembered better. • Endowment effect ◦ Items gain in value to person who owns them. Can the selfConcept Change? • Identity slowly changes over time ◦ Children add new knowledge and skills ◦ Adults take up new hobbies or break bad habit ◦ Our body changes throughout our life • Revising selfknowledge ◦ Change how you think • Changing the looking glass ◦ What goes on inside the person is mainly there to serve interpersonal processes • Promoting change ◦ Best to enlist support • New self, new story ◦ People tend to revise their stories once the selfconcept has changed. Selfesteem • How favorably someone evaluates himself or herself ◦ High Selfesteem: competent , likable, attractive, and moral good. ◦ Low selfesteem: incompetent , ugly, unlikable, and morally wicked. Reality and illusion • “Positive illusions” of moral people ◦ Overestimating good qualities ◦ Overestimating one's How People fool themselves • People use selfdeception strategies to maintain a positive outlook ◦ Using selfserving bias 倾倾 ◦ Being more skeptical of bad feedback ◦ Remembering good things more ◦ Making comparisons with those slightly worse. Tradeoffs: Self Handicapping • Selfhandicapping: drinking or doing some other activity that will inhibit performance ◦ Failure can be blamed on the obstacle Example: Drunk purple do not perform as well as sober ones. ◦ Success assumes higher competence Extra credit for success Benefits of SelfEsteem • High Selfesteem often amounts to nothing more than a false belief that one is superior ◦ Students with big selfesteem do have slightly higher grades, but high selfesteem does not lead to good grades. • Two main benefits of high selfesteem ◦ Having imitative and feeling good. Is high selfesteem always good? • Negative aspects of high selfesteem ◦ Narcissism倾倾倾倾: Excessive selflove and a selfish orientation Not the same as high selfesteem, but related ◦ Higher prejudices 倾倾 ◦ Poorer relationship partners ◦ Antisocial actions ◦ Persistence in the face of failure. Pursuing SelfEsteem • Harmful consequences of pursuing selfesteem ◦ Taking the easy rode to ensure success ◦ Needing to meeting expectations of others ◦ Weakening individual intrinsic motivation ◦ Impairing learning ◦ Damaging relationships ◦ Potentially harmful to health. SelfPresentation • Behaviors that convey an image to others • Include a wide range of actions ◦ Explicit statements about the self (I forgive but I don’t forget) ◦ How you dress or what car you drive. ◦ Trying to hide your fear or anger so there think you are cool. Who’s Looking? Motivation behind • Focus on selfesteem ◦ Behavior remains the same when someone else is watching • Focus on what others think ◦ Behavior changes when someone else is watching. Making an impression • Claiming identity ◦ People Aspire to many identities Claims require social validation ◦ People use selfpresentation to advance their claims to identity ◦ People will change their behavior to claim an identity. • Tradeoff: Favorability versus plausibility ◦ People present themselves in the best possible light Within plausible range • What about modesty? ◦ More natural and common among friends Helps people get along better ◦ Many be the default or automatic response Friends are familiar with faults and failures. SelfPresentation and Risky Behavior • Selfpresentation is very important ◦ Something people risk illness, injury, or even death in order to make a good impression ◦ Selfpresentation can be stronger than selfpreservation Another sign that the human psyche is designed to gain and keep a place in a social group. Non experimental Studies • Correlational approach: researcher does not control variables or random assignment ◦ weakness of approach: does not prove causation • Correlation: relationship between two variables ◦ Positive, negative, or no correlation ◦ computed by correlation coefficient • Survey research ◦ Random sample: each person has an equal chance of being selected ◦ Population: Total number of people ◦ Reliability: Gives consistent results ◦ Validity: measures what it purports to measure How much of Social Psychology is true? • Selfcorrection nature of science ◦ Rel=plication: repeating studies corrects false theories over time • some issues: ◦ Reliance on student samples ◦ cultural relativity: western cultures dominate research Cultural differences may be substantial and important Nature and social Behavior • Gender Identity ◦ Consider the case of Brenda: bro a boy, but raised as a girl after a botched circumcision 1 Never fit in; wanted to play rough games like the boys; became rebellious. 倾倾 ◦ Additional cases revealed that others born as boys, but raised as girls, did not turn out to be typical adult women 1 Some parts of who you are come from biology. • Nature defined: physical world around us, including its laws and processes ◦ Can help explain human behavior 1 Genes, hormones, brain structure, and other innate processes... • Charles Darwin: theory of evolution ◦ Focuses on how change occurs in nature • Natural selection decides which traits will endure, and which will disappear ◦ Survival: living lng enough to reproduce ◦ Mutation: new gene or combination of genes ◦ Reproduction: producing babies that also reproduce. • Social Animals: Humans are social animals ◦ Seek connections to others • Being social offers evolutionary benefits ◦ Find more food ◦ Mate and reproduce easier ◦ Alert each other to danger ◦ Take care of sick and injured. • Cultural animal theory ◦ Evolution shaped the human psyche to enable humans to create and take part in culture • Culture is the essence of what makes us human • Important features of culture ◦ Shared ideas: brain puts special priority on information directly experienced as shared ◦ Culture as a social system: network linking many different people ◦ Culture as praxis: depends on shared ideas ◦ Culture, information, and meaningL encoding and sharing meaningful information. • nature and culture interact to influence us ◦ Professional hockey players are more likely to be born in January because as kids, they are in leagues with younger, smaller kids 1 Younger kids drop out more often 2 Older, larger, more coordinated kids get more attention from coaches. • Nature and culture shaping each other ◦ Nature shapes culture, an culture shapes nature • What makes cultural animals? ◦ Being a cultural animal is different than being a social animal 1 Division of Labor 2 Shared knowledge and communication 3 Ability to solve disagreements. • Cultural norms vary ◦ Sleeping habits: american generally do not sleep with their children in the same roon 1 In Japan, it is customary for children to sleep with their mother ◦ People do share some of the same experiences 1 Most people love their children, try to get enough to eat, and make distinctions between right and wrong. The Duplex Mind • Two Systems ◦ Automatic System (fast 2*3=6) 1 Outside of consciousness 2 Simple operatins 3 Always on, even in sleep 4 can do many things at once 5 Automatic system makes conscious thought possible 1 Serves the deliberate system ◦ Deliberate system (Slow) 1 Mostly operates in consciousness 2 Turns off during sleep 3 One thing per time 4 Deliberate system can suppress automatic urges 1 Vital to life in culture Putting People First • people look to each other first ◦ Solomon Asch: linejudging task 1 Participants were asked to look at which line fit best 2 Confederates in group gave wrong answer; many participants also gave the wrong answer 3 Participants felt it was more important to be accepted by the group than to be correct • Social psychology: Study of how people affect and are affected by others. ◦ Helps make sense of social world • Consider all options for every decision ◦ Example: coffee shop choices Type of milk, sweetness.. History of Social Psychology • Late:1800s: Two experiments point in opposite directions ◦ Norman Triplett: competition enhances performance. ◦ Max Ringelmann: as group size increased, individual effort decrease. • 1908: Publication of social psychology textbooks ◦ Edward Ross, William McDougall • Twentieth Century: rapid changes and world events led to new ideas. ◦ Gordon Allport: importance of attitudes ◦ Kurt Lewin: Behavior is a function of the person and situation ◦ Stanley Milgram: role of obedience (In light of World War II) • 1950s and 1960s: psychology divided into two camps ◦ Behaviorism: learning principles (e.g. rewards and punishments) ◦ Freudian psychoanalysis: individual experiences • Social Psychology: combines methods. ◦ Uses scientific approaches to measure behavior, thoughts, feelings and inner states. • Recent History ◦ Study of cognitive processes Attribution Theory ◦ Biological and evolutionary processes Social neuroscience ◦ The self Selfconcept, self esteem, self presentation ◦ Group conflict Political, racial, and ethnic The ABCs • Affect influence • Behavior • Cognition Social Psychology’s Place in the World • Involved in the social sciences ◦ Anthropology 倾倾倾 culture impact the choices and behavior. ◦ Economics social choices, political idea, how to think, react. ◦ History World War II ◦ Political science ◦ Sociology Subdisciplines 倾倾倾倾 of Psychology • Social Psych is a subdisciplines of psychology • personality psychology: different people, thoughts Why study Social Psych ? • Curiosity about people • interest in experimental philosophy • Making the world better • Social psychology is fun How do social Psychologists Answer their Own Questions? • Accumulated common wisdom ◦ Adages are often contradictory ◦ Intuition is a poor method of discovering truth ◦ Commonsense may be a starting point for questions. Scientific Method • Basic Steps: ◦ State the problem ◦ Formulate a testable hypothesis ◦ Design the study and collect data ◦ Test the hypothesis with data ◦ Communicate study results. Scientific Theories • Theories constructs Linked in some logical • Frustration Aggression Theory • Independent variable(Frustration) ◦ Observable event that causes person to do something • Dependent Variable (Agression) ◦ influence... • Construct validity of the cause ◦ Independent variable: theoretical stimulus • Construct Validity of the effect ◦ Dependent variale: Theoretical response • Scientific theories must be testable ◦ Define constructs operationally Research Design • Experiment ◦ Researcher controls procedures ◦ Participants are randomly assigned • Quasi Experiment ◦ No random assignment • Internal validity ◦ Confidence that independent variable caused change in dependent variable. • Laboratory and field experiments ◦ Hig control level ◦ Field experiments: real world setting, less control ◦ Laboratory less real, high control Trade Offs • Potential harm on participants and potential benefits to society must be considered ◦ Institutional Review Board ◦ Consent Forms ◦ Demand Characteristics ◦ Debriefing
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