Chapter 4 Exam
Chapter 4 Exam CH-1213-32
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Mazur on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CH-1213-32 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Dornshuld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Chem 1 in Chemistry at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Chapter 4: Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions Key Vocabulary Reactant Product Coefficient Ionic Reactions Molecular equation Ionic Equation Net Ionic Equation Spectator Ions Precipitation Reaction Solubility Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Acid-Base Reaction Acid Neutralization Reaction Salt Half-reaction Oxidation Reduction Oxidizing Agent Reduction Agent Oxidation Number Quantitative analysis Titration analysis Gravimetric analysis Things to keep in mind addition of heat when in a reaction Ex: CaCO CaO + CO 3(s) (s) 2(g) STEP 1 to all reactions: MAKE SURE IT IS BALANCED All reactants and products must have their appropriate state: solid, liquid, gas, or aqueous Ionic reactions: They can be represented in three ways 1. Molecular equation NaF (aq)gNO 3(aq)AgF (s)aNO 3(aq) 2. Ionic Equation Na + F +Ag + NO AgF(s) + Na +NO+ 3 3 + 3. Net Ionic Equation F + Ag AgF (s) Skill Check: Balancing Equations Nomenclature Be able to write a formula from a compounds name Ex: Sodium Hydroxide _____________; Lead (II) Iodide _________ Molecules vs ions Ionic compounds in the aqueous phase dissociate. Molecules, solids, and gasses do not. Ex: H2O (l) O 2 (l)l N(aq) Cl; AgCl AgC(s) CaCl (s) + 2Cl 2+ Charges for ions and polyatomic ions When writing ionic equations, you must specify the charge for each ion Ex: 2KI(aq)Pb(NO ) 3 2(aq)PbI2(s)2KNO 3 (aq) + 2+ 2+ + 2K + 2I + Pb +2NO 3Pb + 2I + 2K + 2NO 3 Solubility Rules (Common Ionic Compounds in Water) Soluble Compounds Exceptions +, Group 1 metal cations and ammonium Hallides Ag Hg22+, and Pb2+ ion Sulfates of Ag+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Hg22+ The halide ions The acetate, bicarbonate, nitrate, and chlorate ions The sulfate ion Insoluble Compounds Exceptions Carbonate, chromate, phosphate, Compounds with group 1 metal and sulfide ions cations and ammonium ion Hydroxide ions > hydroxides of group 1 metal cations and Ba 2+ STRONG acid/base dissociate completely when dissolved in water WEAK acid/base slightly dissociates when dissolved in water Strong Acids Weak Acids Strong Bases Weak Bases Perchloric acid Hydrofluoric acid Lithium Hydroxide Ammonia HClO 4 HF LiOH NH 3 Hydrochloric acid Phosphoric acid Sodium Hydroxide Methylamine HCl H 3O 4 NaOH CH N3 2 Hydrobromic Acid Acetic acid Potassium Hydroxide HBr CH C3OH KOH Hydroiodic acid Carbonic acid Calcium Hydroxide HI H2CO3 Ca(OH) 2 Nitic acid Hydrocyanic acid Strontium Hydroxide HNO 3 HCN Sr(OH) 2 Sulfric acid Formic acid Barium Hydroxide H SO HCOOH Ba(OH) 2 4 2 Benzoic acid C 6 6OOH *Chemical Reaction Names* Precipitation—Two compounds that switch anions for reaction; creates a solid Single Displacement—metal1 + compound metal2 + compound; use the activity series Strong Acid & Strong Base—net ionic equation is ALWAYS H + OH H O ; use the2 (l) acid/base chart Weak Acid & Strong Base—net ionic equation is ALWAYS acid + OH acid anion + H O ; 2 (l) use the acid/base chart Neutralization—acid reacts with base; creates salt and water OxidationReduction—involves a change in oxidations numbers for one or more reactants Half—an equation that shows whether each reactant gains or loses electrons in a reaction Combination—creates one product Decomposition—creates two or more products from one reactant Combustion—substance with C, H and (sometimes) O burned; creates CO and H O 2 2 Disproportionation—redox reaction; consists of an element that undergoes oxidation and reduction OILRIG “Oxidation is Losing; Reduction is Gaining” Oxidizing agent species that is reduced Reducing agent species that is oxidized Four Oxidation Number Guidelines 1. Elemental substances: oxidation number = 0 2. Monatomic ions: oxidation number = the ion’s charge 3. Common nonmetals: Element Oxidation Number Exceptions Fluorine 1 Group 1A or 2A metals +1 or +2 Hydrogen +1 Combinations with group 1A or 2A Oxygen 2 Combinations with something higher on the list Group 7A 1 Combinations with something higher on the list 4. The sum of oxidations numbers of all the atoms is equal to the charge on the whole species (Familiarize with Percent Yield= (Actual Yield/Theoretical Yield)*100% M= (mol solute/ L solution) = (mmol solute/ mL solution)
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