History Exam 1 Study Guide
History Exam 1 Study Guide HIST 1320
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexia Dixon on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1320 at Texas State University taught by J. Selcraig in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see History US to Date in History at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Race Relations After Civil War Reconstruction: Series of Reforms (changes) which impacted the South at the end of the civil war Radical Republicans: Leaders who pushed and enforced reconstruction th 13 amendment; by abolishing slavery 14 amendment: guarantees the legal equality by law that all Americans are treated equally 15 amendment: grant the right to vote to black men, allowing black men to be elected into office, democrats were opposed to this idea Reconstruction ends with the Compromise of 1877 Age of Segregation (1877-1920) - Pushed by white supremacy Racist violence: - Lynching: group of whites will kill a black person slowly in front of a crowd of people, people would just stand and watch and not help, Police do not help to arrest and convict anyone, whites in the South supported this type of behavior, mainly to inflict fear in the black community - Politics: Southern state laws sole purpose was to exclude black men being able to vote, with such things like the poll and literary tax - Segregation: Southern state laws required separate schools/facilities for blacks and whites, white facilities will be funded much better than blacks, they nicknamed these laws Jim Crow laws, their key goal was power and inequality - Sharecropping: Southern whites would own land, black person would work for them, the black is promised a share of land if they work it, but the white southerner generally cheats them out of it, blacks would then remain in poverty with less money becoming economically disadvantaged African American Resistance: - Christianity: Blacks believed God opposed racist injustice, and If God is in opposition that gives the oppressed a sense of hope, a sort of reassurance - Work: Booker T Washington started his own school Tuskegee Institute made it for them to have more practical jobs OTHER than sharecropping, though it was open to everyone no white ever attended, He downplayed political views didn’t get into major problems - Political Activism: Homer Plessy, Plessy v Ferguson challenged the segregation policy, case went all the way to the Supreme Court, SC ruled against him saying segregation is equal - WEB Dubois: NAACP founder, blacks and whites work together who all believed in integration, Resisting the system of segregation, criticized Washington for not being so politically open Businessmen and Economics (1865-1900) Railroads: - Cornelius Vanderbilt: creator of Railroads, became dominant transportation, laid a lot more track had from East to West, New fuel was Coal, coal mining industry INCREASED, developed Standard Time Zone - Andrew Carnegie: Carnegie Steel Company, not famous when he starts off, Steel was a new product (Iron+Coal=Steel), Steel Is A LOT stronger than iron, led to the building of skyscrapers, sold to railroads so they can put on the ground - John D Rockefeller: Standard Oil, Oil new product, used for lightening =kerosene, had a lot of oil refineries in the North but sold to everyone nationally - Thomas Edison: Invented the lightbulb, tries to sell but fails, too expensive and complicated to build the grid , phonograph fails to sell to consumers as well - Alexander Graham Bell: Invents telephone, failed as a businessman, was too complicated to build the grid, Patents to AT&T - Theodore Vail: Will take the time to build the telephone grid, AT&T becomes dominant telephone network George Eastman: After Civil War he will invent an easy to use camera, affordable, named it Kodak Newspapers: New printing press, result more papers being printed, cheaper than before, Print Culture because newspapers talk about headline stories but they have ads which generated consumers to buy more things Retail: Dept. stores are in big cities, mail order business people could order through catalog gen. had customers in small towns/cities, Montgomery Ward, Richard Sears, everything delivered by Railroad Stock Market: J.P. Morgan - investment banker, buys stock in multiple businesses and combines the businesses together, he bought Carnegie's business which did more than doubled it Agriculture Production: Huge increase in all crops, farmers could sell to more people Food processing business: Meat packers, changed meat to consumer edible products, Gus Swift, Philip Armour, Chicago center of meat packing, Cattle drives to railroads (cowboys) Overall economic characteristic: sense of change being modern, rise of big business/trusts Govt. (1865-1900) Conservatives: largest & most dominant, in both political parties, believed in social Darwinism, upper class deserved their wealth, poorer people deserved their poverty "God intended the great to be great, and the little to be little" Henry Ward Beecher -Conservative beliefs are all listed below- Laissez-faire: (big business=trust) Govt shouldn’t regulate businesses E.C Knight Case Govt couldn’t regulate big businesses, No consumer protection which allowed businesses to advertise however they feel "let the buyer beware", banks can’t regulate/control banks depositor is taking a risk no guarantee If their money is safe or not, stock market (risky to buy), environmental protection had a lot of water/air/water pollution, easy immigration allowed immigrants to come in easily w/o major problems Policies w/ active govt: Conquest of Indians they were put on reservations their excess land is taken and sold to (non-indians), railroads gave land grants and loaned money Tariffs: tax on foreign products being imported to the U.S., getting consumers to buy the American made product over the foreign product Gold Standard: Govt printed the equivalence of money to the amount of gold that was owned, resulting in higher interest rates on loans Anti-Labor Union: limit labor unions, boost strikes, Govt = Anti-Union Populist Def: poorer farmers, geographically centered in the West & South Believed in: they were critics of conservatives, social Darwinism and the left wing Problems: culture, price per crop, Railroads because farmers didn’t have an option really on who they sold to the railroads had to much power, they believed the banks had to much power with to high interest, Government bc they supported the gold standard which resulted in the populist forming a 3rd party (populists then merged into the democratic party) Presidential Election of 1896 : William McKinley (republican) who was a traditional conservative, raises a lot of money, instead of focusing on his campaign he spent most of his time bashing Bryan, printed brochures and pamphlets, dissing free silver "free silver is bad" William Jennings Bryan (Democrat) praised farmers, believed they were the backbone of America, "Free Silver" which was a slogan he used to change the Gold Standard which would then lower interest rates, Cross of Gold speech he involved Christianity using biblical terms to connect free silver slogan with god, Populists decides to support Bryan McKinley won by a landslide, Populist party end and Bryan loses Workers (1865-1900) Status: Positives: rising wages, opportunity to invent new tools and machines can even sell them, Horatio Alger who was a writer made a lot of rags to riches stories (start off poor then become rich) Negatives: 11-12 hours a day 6 days a week, they had dangerous work conditions (injuries, sickness, no workers compensation), INCREASING gap between poor and rich, child labor, from starting work so early their health deteriorates over time Activism : formed labor unions, went on strikes, challenged social Darwinism American Federation of Labor (AFL): Samuel Gompers(founder) Beliefs: recruited into the union the most skilled, the most skilled were always a small group, if they had strikes their strikes were generally successful, most skilled had the clout to get better jobs/wages/conditions, AFL members GENERALLY got better conditions compared to a regular worker, Strike Breakers: when workers of a company leave on strike they will have strike breakers (usually immigrants who will accept any wage/condition) take their spot, if AFL member goes on strike they wouldn’t have a strike breaker have the position because they can’t reach the level of skill has the AFL member Pullman Strike: Strike against Pullman who was a inventor/businessman who made sleeping cars for railroads, the workers felt Pullman had to much power because he owned everything (houses in town, stores, etc), Pullman didn’t really think bout it as much because he just thought it made sense for workers to be closer, Strike expands to other towns/places/cities it soon became a national strike Eugene Debs: leader of the huge strike Court Injunction: orders workers NOT to march in public places w/ picket signs, Is this legal? Eugene Debs says it is illegal & it is against the Constitution bc Americans have the right to publicly speak, Supreme Court rules otherwise Debs will then be jailed bc he disobeyed the injunction President get the Army: (president ordered)to push the strikers to leave, strike then fails and it is un successful Socialist Party: They believed to improve the status of worker politically by electing the candidates to the govt., Eugene Debs then soon realized he could do a big difference by going into politics, All workers don’t join but some do, Debs didn’t become president Immigration (1865-1900) Europe: S.E Europe: big group of immigrants = Italians, Greeks, Russians, Poles, Slavs, non-English speaking people they were unskilled in factory/industry work, they were non-protestant minority in religious groups like Catholics, Orthodox Christians, Jews, came In large #s after the Civil War Settled in cities mostly North/West, Not the South as the South had African Americans already working for a low wage w/ crops Positive Characteristics: Made it simple/easy for immigrants to become citizens and vote (they couldn’t vote in their home country they liked the change), went through Ellis Island, economic wages are higher than in Europe Tammany Hall: political organization, helped immigrants in the city in exchange for vote, always had someone who spoke the immigrants language, they were tied in w/ Democratic party Religious freedom for Jews Successful immigrants were : Andrew Carnegie, Joseph Pulitzer (newspaper, have an award named after him) Critics: Nativists felt like immigrants shouldn’t be able to come into the country so easily, they believe the native culture was better than immigrants, Protestant religion was a majority Insults Catholics (call them Papist & Romanist) a catholic is loyal to a Roman pope which mean they are loyal to a foreign god, not loyal to America Public schools they had bible readings/prayers that are anti- Catholic Parochial school system develops, Catholics pushed to send their members here Anti semitism (anti-Jew) portray jews as all wealthy & powerful but only wealthy cause their crooked Asian immigrants : Mainly came in through the Pacific Chinese: 1st group of immigrants, settled in Western states, got jobs gen. on the railroads, faced more discrimination than European immigrants, by law they weren't able to become citizens Chinese Exclusion Act: excluding future Asian immigrants from coming into the U.S., why because nativism and racism believing non white people are inferior Japanese people faced similar discrimination Progressives: (1901-1920) Who are they? Political reformers of the govt towards business/economy, mostly middle class, urban, native-born, theyre in both parties, challenged conservative beliefs, progressives were centralist Presidents: Theodore Roosevelt (1901- Republican) became president after McKinley assassination, he was very energetic, charismatic, he influenced and persuaded people to become progressives, Bully Pulpit: president should influence the crowd to become progressive William Howard Taft: (Republican) Teddy endorses him Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) serves until 1920 Progressive Policies: Anti Trust: Northern Securities J.P. Morgan, big company had limited trade cause consumer to pay higher prices will go up to the Supreme Court, Progressives will win, Northern Securities will break into more companies (socialist didn’t really see a big change in it, conservatives opposed because govt shouldn’t have any say so in businesses) Standard Oil: John D Rockefeller, goes to Supreme Court, progressive victory, split and divided into new companies Consumer Protection: muckrakers = progressive writers that write about abuses in big companies, Upton Sinclair "The Jungle" wrote about the meat packing industry and the insanitation of food, Food and Drug Act: Gives govt more power to regulate purity of food and drugs, ensuring purity of the food Environmental protection: National parks, govt manage and run these, govt owned the land/protected, Grand Canyon, regulated sanitation in cities improving water, building sewer systems Monetary: lower tariffs, they felt a higher tariff was a bias toward a particular company, creating an income tax where the rich people pay a higher tax, Federal Reserve System (The Fed) which was to regulate supply of printed money giving regulations to banks Workers & Strikes: 1902 Coal Strike: get better wages and hours, owner refuse, President didn’t send in the army to intervene he told the owner and the workers to compromise so they can both win Triangle Fire, NYC: teenage girls/ little girls sewing clothes, fire broke out and they all perish, resulting in a pass of new govt regulations in NYC trying to improve worker safety Lochner v New York: NY passed a law to get a lower work hours (10 hours), Lochner (conservative) sued NY law, victory for Lochner , killed 10 hour day idea, defeat for progressives Women Traditional Gender Ideas: 1 Separate Spheres: men & women have diff activities, women were meant to stay at home, men and women are different mentally/emotionally that men are more logical and rational than women, women should understand their place, because god made men and women this way and this is the way it should be a Voting: Men have the right to vote b Money: Men made all the money, women were at home doing domestic chores c Clothes: Women were covered head to toe, walking very slow, being very modest d Dancing: Women followed the lead of men, if they do good dancing they will do good in life by following behind the man 2 Women's role at Home: More children the better, domestic chores, had positive self esteem cause they believed everyone relied on them and without them they wouldn’t live Reformers: Jane Addams: Founder/Leader of Settlement Houses, middle class woman, established these houses in immigrant working neighborhoods, made neighborhood centers so workers can come together and begin reform, to reform and improve conditions in working conditions, 1st settlement house was in Chicago, Hull House, established these houses nationally and became widely known Prohibition: Regulate alcohol Nicknamed: Drys, Anti-Saloon: criticism against saloons They felt drinking was bad, saloon not only had drinking but gambling, prostitutes (thought it was anti-christian)=, saloons keeping fathers and husbands away o Frances Willard: Famous leader, remains weak in the 19th century, passed good in the 20th century, connected with the progressive movement, believed govt should regulate businesses Women Suffrage Fighting for women's right to vote, movement began pre civil war Carrie Chapman Catt: leads a group of women , political organizer, (has to convince men to vote for her beliefs as women don’t have the right to vote), potray suffrage to men as a moderate reformer linking suffrage w/progressive movement, manipulative way of persuasion Alice Paul: more confrontational, was arrested for picketing in front of the white house, soon jailed and went on hunger strikes, suffrage is sucessful Margaret Sanger: birth control, contraceptive, (to become legal), so women can have power and control over their body believed it was like freedom, lots of opposition, potrayed her as a radical, laws against contraception remained on the books
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