Exam One Study Guide
Diener and Diener Notes
1) Psychological Wealth
a) Life satisfaction, spirituality, positive attitudes, loving social relationships, engaging activities, values and goals, physical and mental health, material sufficiency
b) Happy people function better
c) Happiness is an ongoing process
1) Happiness is a process--mountain climbing. The process is what brings the most joy, not reaching the summit. Example of man who always turned back before he reached the peak.
2) Hardships are inevitable but they are subjective and can be interpreted more positively. 3) Having everything you want won’t make you happy. You need goals. Example of man who lived alone but had everything. He was sad because he lacked relationships. 4) Happiness depends on ongoing choices, not lucky circumstances.
5) Happiness is functional. If you are happy you are usually healthier, more creative, and more productive.
6) Broaden and Build. Positive emotions encourage physical, intellectual, and social resources.
7) Happiness can be a firewall between a fighting couple. Tell a joke and the fight will go better.
8) Negative emotions make the world look scary but happier ones make “the hills of life smaller and the distances shorter”
1) People have happiness setpoints. They can change but mostly they are stable. 2) They come from genetics and environmental factors
3) Happiness is very much inborn
4) Adaptation pulls people back
to their base range happiness
5) Example of married and
1) Humans are highly focused
on the future
2) We try to predict everything and make predictions about how we MAY feel in the future. Example→ who we want to marry We also discuss several other topics like What stage of life is characterized by reflexes?
3) People miscalculate length of emotional happiness or upset Don't forget about the age old question of Studying mind and behavior.
We also discuss several other topics like What is Democratic Centralist Leaders/Pioneers?
4) Focusing illusion → “ Only a divorced woman feels bad when her attention is drawn to it” St. Thomas→ focus on beaches and not the irregular trash-pick up.
5) Pathetic fallacy
6) Paradise fallacy → so taken with positives that you overlook the negatives. 7) Experiencing products is more important than choosing.
8) Impact bias → people overestimate emotional impact and people underestimate their own resilience
9) More choices can detract from happiness
10) Maximizers are less happy than satisficers If you want to learn more check out what is theogony?
11) Wanting versus Liking (puppy example)
1) AIM → attention, interpretation, memory
2) Positive thinking is where you recognize blessings over hassles “reframing” 3) Good or bad depends on interpretation “cockroach example”
4) Happy people reinterpret events so they preserve their self-esteem
5) Positive memories better predicted future happiness than mood
1) There are four parts to achieving psychological health
a) Measuring current/past life satisfaction
b) Measuring emotional well-being
c) Measuring flourishing (contribution to society)
d) Positive feelings versus negative ones
1) You are a divided self. Mind versus Body. Left versus Right. New versus Old. Controlled versus Automatic
a) Controlled processing is limited but automatic runs parallel and can handle many things at once. Automatic is more emotional and sensory, and controlled is more language and logic
b) Failure of Self Control → marshmallow example
2) Mental Intrusions, like imp from edgar allan poe. If you are on a cliff the work jump pops into your mind.
3) Difficulty of winning an argument → insest example. You have a feeling but you can’t explain where it came from. It is implicit.
1) Comparing yourself to others will lower happiness
2) Experience will give more happiness than objects will.
3) The progress principle. You get more pleasure by working towards a goal that achieving. When you achieve, you automatically think “what’s next”? We also discuss several other topics like What is a inductive proposition sound?
4) Adaption principle
5) Buddha was partly right and partly wrong. Don’t let life’s ups and downs drastically change you as a person because you adapt regardless but also don’t separate yourself from material things completely.
6) Formula → H = S+C+V
a) H= Happiness
b) S= Biological set point
c) C= conditions of life
d) V= voluntary activities you choose
7) Finding flow is amazing “being in the zone”
8) Pleasure should be varied and savored. Example was french food is fatty but portions are smaller
9) Stay away from misguided pursuits like a bigger house but a longer commute. 10) The elephant cares about prestige, not happiness, so control the elephant. Sometimes more choices can limit happiness.
In Class Notes
Methods and Perspectives
● Subjectivity and Validity
○ Experiment and data replication is vital. If you reduce subjectivity bias, results will be better accepted → others should be able to reproduce your findings.
● Variable → Something manipulated
● Study phenomena→ marriage or divorce percentage
● Study associations between variables analytically
○ Rates of happiness between men and women
○ Go from conceptual to more specific, measure the variable (questionnaire) ■ Multi-trait, multi-method approach
○ Research designs
■ Correlational studies → variables are measured ONLY
● Used when impossible or unethical to manipulate variables.
● Doesn’t explain causationDon't forget about the age old question of The murder of six million Jews in Nazi Germany is called, the?
■ Experiments → Random assignment is key. That was you don’t attribute to pre-existing variables.
● Manipulate independent variable.
● Across types →
● Across methods→ self-reports, diaries
● NOTHING IS EVER PROVEN
● Direct/exact versus conceptual. Generalizability across
● Quasi-experiment → concerns regarding internal validity.
Treatment may not be comparable at baseline.
● May be faulty because people lie or are unaware of implicit
● Experience versus memory.
● Global surveys are good at predicting future decisions.
Achievement versus sensation seeking
● Is versus Ought.
■ Stupid → oversimplification (TED)
■ One-trick pony → seize single intervention as a cure
■ Mean → people attack anything positive and neglect negative
■ Complacent → nothing new to learn
○ Maslow’s groth science.
■ Change incentives to change the exaggerations
● Scientific Method
○ Measure and manipulate variables, predict outcomes (basic and applied research) , build theories, going beyond laboratory.
○ Applied = implementation
○ Basic = causal link
● What is happiness
■ The big Five (OCEAN)
○ Set happiness range
○ Pleasure principle and hierarchy of needs lead to happiness
○ Activity theory
○ Self-determination/ intrinsic motivation.
■ Immersion. Skill. Achievement.
○ Adaptation is humans coping with changes. Happiness = genetics + environmental conditions + “choices”
■ Defeatism / Victim Blaming
Happiness and Positive Emotion
● Emotions arise from mental states, interactions, and muscular movement. ● Negative emotions: Fix situational and chronic problems. Don’t wallow in emotion. ○ Emotion= more specific
○ Affect = general well-being
○ Mood = more fleeting
● Basic Emotions are innate and universally recognized.
○ Facial expressions; animal behavior
○ Danger= fear Separation = sadness; “good times” = happy
● Negative emotions
○ Rigid response to threats
○ Specific action tendencies
○ Fear = run anger = fight disgust = retch
○ Chronic experience = psychopathology
● Psychological health increases following bereavement, abuse, and trauma ● Cognitive effects
○ Emotions change thinking processes
■ Mood→ thoughts, behavioral intentions, life satisfaction
■ Changes → openness and acceptance versus skepticism and
● BOTH HAVE VALUE
○ Sociability→ positive affect
■ # friends and frequency of contact
■ Relates to secular people having a higher life satisfaction
● Genetics and environment can predict positive affect. Some people have a higher happiness set-point but that doesn’t mean it can’t change.
● The field of psychopathology comes from a chronic lack of positive affect ● Types
○ Joy (elation)
■ **Love is a motivation not an emotion**
● Positive affect and negative affect are independent of each other and both evolved separately.
● It is an experience and not an emotion.
○ Raw Feels (sensory experience)
■ Associated mostly with the skin and orifices (mouth, notes, genitals)
■ Has to do with the exchange of substances. It can lower disgust sensitivity ■ It protects bad things from entering the body. It serves survival.
○ High Mental Fulfillment (listening to music)
■ Builds psychological skills
■ Strengthen mind’s capacity for creativity
● It helps keep you clean and healthy and in society it promotes moral sanctity ● Pleasure and disgust are “yin yang” of the body -Selterman
Rough and Tumble Play
● Helps challenge mind. It helps with intimacy and bonding. Helps navigate environment. Pleasure Biases
● Peak-end theory
○ Evaluate pleasantness throughout and summary (avg)
■ Peak extreme and most recent
○ Duration neglect.
■ Length is less important
● Mere-exposure effect
● Endowment effect
○ You like something more if it is related to you
■ Yours is better even if it is the same
○ Enhances pleasure. Delayed Gratification
■ Saturday > Friday > Sunday
● Humans can predict how they will feel but can’t predict the intensity or duration of feelings.
○ Hedonic treadmill. Lottery winners and accident victims adapt back to baseline happiness level
○ It allows for a changing environment and saves resources for new stimul. ○ Relationship status is conducive to adaptation more than severe loss or disability ○ Change is less common than stability
■ Reappraisal vs. suppression
Broaden and Build
● Positive Emotions
○ Focus on global configuration
○ Broader visual search patterns (eye-tracking)
○ Enhance thought-action connectivity
■ Flexibility and creative thinking
■ Openness and inclusivity
■ Variety in action responses
■ Better for Brainstorming
■ Alcohol helps a little
○ IOS (Inclusion of other in the self) closeness
■ Imaginative and attentive to fiends
■ Honesty and self disclosure
■ Prejudice toward out-group members
■ Builds enduring relationships
■ Less pain / bad health
● Negative Emotions
○ Focus on specifics
○ Narrow Visual Field
■ Better for Proofreading
○ Expectation that good things will happen
○ Agency (you can control outcome)
○ Little optimism “ I will find a good parking spot”
○ Big optimism “ The world is on the right track”
○ Dispositional optimism is from personality trait.
○ Attribution style
■ Positive = explanatory
■ Negative = accusatory