Principles of Biology (Study Guide 3)
Principles of Biology (Study Guide 3) Bio 100
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jonathan Thomas on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 100 at Brigham Young University taught by Dr. Jamie Jensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Life Sciences at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Principles of Biology Jensen STUDY GUIDE (Apply Assessment #3) DAY 13: Genetics Natural Selection causes evolution and adaptation - What causes the mutations and how does the distribution of those mutations change the population? - Study of fruit flies: shorter life cycle so easier to study evolution Reasons why differences appear: - Genetics (based on DNA) - Gender (based on DNA) - Age (based on development) - Nutrition (based on environment) - Lifestyle (based on environment) Phenotype: Physical manifestation of your genes Genotype: What your genes are Four conclusions from the monohybrid cross: 1) There are alternative forms of gen es, now called a lleles. - Egg an d sperm make z ygote. (Two identical alleles = homozygote, two different alleles = heterozygote) - ^ ex. Aa = heterozygous, AA = homozygous dominant, aa = homozygous recessive. 2) For each characteristic, many organisms have two alleles. (Some have more) 3) Gametes carry only one allele for each inherited characteristic. 4) Alleles can be dominant or recessive. - Dominant phenotype = at least 1 dominant allele - Recessive phenotype = 2 recessive alleles Probability: When to add probabilities: - You add probabilities when your chances get better of an event occurring. - When it doesn’t matter what order the events occur in - When it doesn’t matter which parent the gene comes from (When drawing a Punnett Square, draw the sperm and the egg on either side of square) When to multiply probabilities: - When you don’t care what order events occur - When it says a nd (a.k.a. “What is the probability of your first child having red hair AND being a girl?) DAY 14: Evolution: Change in DNA over time - Dominance does not influence prevalence (being more common) - Phenotype frequency: how often a certain physical trait will appear (%) Dominant genotypic traits do not become more common over time. The proportion of dominant to recessive alleles in the population does not change (given infinite population size). - # of alleles = 2 X (genotype number) - When determining next generation probability, multiply chances together. - Assign (p) and (q) to genotype to determine probability: - p^2 +2pq +q^2 = 1 (where 1 is 100% chance) - p+q = 1 - ^Hardy-Weinberg Equation - Is maintained when populations are stable (not evolving) - Use p and q when determining allele frequency (How many “Y”’s are in the bucket) - Use p^2 and q^2 when determining genotype frequency ( How many “YY” or “yy” or “Yy” are in the bucket) A diagram representing structure of the Hardy-Weinberg equation:
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