Chem 105a Exam II Study Guide
Chem 105a Exam II Study Guide CHEM 105A
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Morrissey on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 105A at University of Southern California taught by Thomas Michael Bertolini in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Southern California.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Covers chapters 4 & 5 Skip gas-forming reaction section Memorize Understand Concept Combination of Concepts and Mathematics Chapter 4: Stoichiometry ● Stoichiometry: Use of balanced chemical equation to calculate quantities of reactants and products ○ Based on the law of conservation of mass; mass cannot be created nor destroyed ● Percent Yield: actual yi*100% theoretical yield ● Limiting Reactant: the reactant that is completely used up first in a chemical reaction; i.e. the reactant that limits the formation of products ○ Determine the limiting reactant first when prompted to find the amount of product in a reaction ○ The limiting reactant has the smallest ratio of moles available to its reaction coefficient ● Definitions ○ Solution: homogeneous mixture ○ Solvent: the majority solution component ○ Solute: the minority solution component ○ Salt: any ionic compound ● Molarity (M) = mlitres of solution ● Electrolyte: a substance that when dissolved in water produces a solution that conducts electricity ○ Ionic compounds decompose into charged ions when dissolved and so will carry an electric charge ○ Covalent compounds will dissolve but not decompose into ions ● Classification of electrolytes ○ Strong: ionize completely in solution ■ Soluble salts ■ Strong acids (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4, HBr, HI) ■ Strong bases (NaOH, KOH) ○ Weak: slightly ionize in water ■ Weak acids (HC2H3O2) ■ Weak bases (NH3) ● Solubility rules ● Precipitation reactions occur when two solutions produce a solid precipitate. If all products of the reaction are soluble, there is no reaction ● Types of chemical equations ○ Molecular equation- reactants and products are written as compounds with state ○ Complete ionic equation- all strong electrolytes are written as ions with their charges and states ○ Net ionic equation- species that are the same on both sides (spectator ions) are removed from the equation ● Acid-Base reactions ○ Acids produce H+ ions in solution ○ Bases produce OH- ions in solution ● Acid-Base titration: the analysis of the amount of a substance with a solution of known concentration; use of moles of acid vs moles of base ● Oxidation-Reduction Reactions ○ Oxidation Is the Loss of electrons (OIL) [becomes more positive] ○ Reduction Is the Gain of electrons (RIG) [becomes more negative] ○ The oxidizing agent is reduced because it gains electrons ○ The reducing agent is oxidized because it loses electrons ○ One species always transfers electrons to another ○ Anything that reacts with O2 (except for F2) is oxidized, but oxygen is not required for a redox reaction to occur ● Oxidation state rules ○ Free elements have ox state of 0 ○ Monatomic ions have oxidation states equal to their charge ○ The sum of ox states for all atoms in a compound is 0 ○ The sum of ox states for all atoms in a polyatomic ion is equal to the charge of the ion ○ Group I metals have an ox state of +1 in compound ○ Group II metals have an ox state of +2 in compound ○ In their compounds, nonmetals have the following oxidation states: F=-1, H=+1, O=-2 ● Pressure: the force per unit area. 1 Pascal (Pa) = 1 Newton m2 ○ How to read a barometer and manometer ● Ideal gas Law: PV=nRT ○ n =molar massmolar mass =PVsRT ; density =V ○ Real gases behave like ideal gases at high temperature and low pressure oC ● STP- standard temperature and pressure: 0 and 1 atm ● At STP, the volume of one mole of any ideal gas is 22.42 L ● Partial pressures: P(total)= P1 + P2 + … + Pn ○ For an ideal gas mixture, the total pressure depends on the total number of moles, not the identity or amount of each gas n10 P1 ○ Mole fraction x = ntotalPtotal ● Kinetic Molecular Theory ○ Gas particles collide and exchange kinetic energy 3 ○ Temperature is the average kinetic energy:KE avg= 2T 3RT ○ Root mean square velocity: μ rms=√ MM ● Effusion vs Diffusion ○ Effusion: movement through a pinhole ■ Graham’s Law of Effusion- At the same temp and pressure, the relative rates of effusion of two gases are given by: M ○ EEffusion rate for Gas 2 √M 1 ○ Diffusion: the mixing of gases in a system ● Van der Waals equation is the modification of the ideal gas law to n 2 account for error in real gas behavior: [P +a( V ] * (V −nb) = nRT ○ “A” accounts for interactions among gas particles ○ “B” subtracts the volume of gas molecules themselves
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