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History 105 Exam #1 Study Guide

by: Kathleen Sparks

History 105 Exam #1 Study Guide HIS 10500

Marketplace > Purdue University > History > HIS 10500 > History 105 Exam 1 Study Guide
Kathleen Sparks
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

This is the study guide for exam #1, and covers everything from European expansion to Enlightenment. These are the notes from the book as well as highlights in what the book said were important.
Survey of Global History
Ariel De La Fuente
Study Guide
history, Purdue, Global Studies
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathleen Sparks on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIS 10500 at Purdue University taught by Ariel De La Fuente in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Survey of Global History in History at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
History  105,  Survey  of  Global  History,  Exam  #1     Contact,  Commerce,  and  Communication   •   European  exploration  and  Expansion   o   Muslim’s  conquest  of  Constantinople  =  Europe’s  gateway  to  the  east   §   Portuguese  sailed  to  Africa  in  search  of  Gold   §   Compass  allowed  this  to  happen   §   Chine  adaption  =  gunpowder   o   Africa  became  a  place  for  slaves  and  sugar   §   “Gold  Coast”   o   Portugal  and  Spain  formally  made  pieces  of  land  colonies:  regions  under  the   political  control  of  another  country   o   First  Portuguese  explorer  to  reach  Indian  ocean  =  Vasco  de  Gamma   §   Still  unsure  of  geography   §   Very  violent  when  landing  in  foreign  ports   o   Portuguese  took  control  of  Indian  Ocean  trading   §   Monopolized  Indian  ocean;  made  other  traders  purchase  cartazes:   documents  identifying  all  information  about  cargo  ships  for  each  ship   o   The  Atlantic  World   §   Expansion  to  Americas  brought  diseases   •   Guns,  diseases,  and  the  fighting  btween  tribes  causes  Natives  to   fall  at  hands  of  Europeans   •   Atlantic  System     Europe  (technology  and     military)               Africa  (slaves)   Americas  (minerals  and     land)       §   Ferdinand  and  Isabelle  approved  of  Columbus’  trip  to  liberate  Jerusalem   from  Muslim  hands   •   Direct  link  from  Spain  -­‐>  China  and  Japan  for  trade   §   New  World  =  anything  undiscovered  to  the  European  was  “new”  even  if  it   already  existed  and  was  inhabited  by  thriving  societies   §   Columbus  discovered  the  Bahamas,  not  US   •   Aimed  to  Christianize  world   •   “to  save  souls  and  make  money”   •   people  of  Brazil  had  “more  innocence  than  Adam”   §   Natives  didn’t  know  the  white  people  were  dangerous  until  it  was  too   late   §   Conquistadors  =  explorers  or  conquerors  who  came  to  the  Americas  and   ruled  over  natives   §   Encomiendas  =  grants  given  by  crown  to  control  American  colonies   §   Encomenderos  =  recipients  of  encomienas;  leaders  of  mines  in  Americas   o   Spaniards  continued  in  land  after  taking  materials  from  islands  (Haiti  called   Hispaniola   §   Reached  Aztec  Empire   o   Cortes  calls  the  society  of  the  Aztec  Empire  almost  if  not  more  developed  than   that  of  Spain   o   The  Aztec  Empire  was  most  power  ruler  in  Mesoamerica   o   Aztecs  believed  Sun  God  required  sacrifices  of  the  human  heart  and  blood  to   keep  burning   §   Sacrifices  were  caputured  warriors  from  neighboring  tribes   o   When  conquistadors  came,  emperor  sent  gifts  to  “white  gods”   §   No  idea  whether  to  attack  or  worship   §   One  gift  was  a  young  girl  who  became  a  concubine  to  Hernán  Cortés   §   Produced  first  mestizo:  mixed-­‐blooded  Mexican   §   Cortés  captured  emperor  and  began  to  control  him   §   Aztecs  fought  back  two  years  later  and  wer  massacred   §   More  died  from  disease  than  fighting   §   Conqured  Aztec  Empire   o   Inca  Empire   §   Divided  empire  when  Spaniards  arrived   §   That  and  disease  caused  downfall   §    Conquistadors  kept  socioeconomic  structures  intact  after  fall  of  Empire   o   Columbian  Exchange  =  hemispheric  transfer  of  previously  unknown  plants,   pathogens,  people,  and  products  to  Americas   §   Caused  the  decimation  of  the  Amerindian  population  from  diseases   §   Caused  adoption  of  new  forms  of  agriculture   §   Deforestation  caused  destruction  of  habitats  of  indigenous  birds  and   animals   o   SILVER!!!!   §   Mostly  came  from  Mesoamerica  and  Brazil   §   Structures  relied  heavily  on  slave  labor  to  use  this  kind  of  economy   §   Slaves  used  drugs  to  keep  themselves  sane  when  working  in  mines   §   Because  of  increase  in  silver  in  economy,  there  was  a  huge  inflation  in   Europe   •   Caused  issues  trading  with  China  and  Japan   •   Portugal’s  New  World  Colony   o   Treaty  of  Tordesillas  =  made  by  pope;  divided  new  world  into  spheres  between   Portugal  and  Spain   o   Portugal  =  Brazil,  Spain  =  Mesoamerica   o   Labor  shortage  in  Brazil  because  they  didn’t  fear  the  Portuguese  as  much  as  the   Aztecs  feared  the  Spaniards   o   Couldn’t  get  Natives  to  work   §   African  slaves   o   Transatlantic  Slave  Trade  began  with  only  hopes  to  support  sugar  company   o   Africans  had  slaves  themselves   o   Atlantic  system  =  Africa,  Americas,  Europe   •   Prosperity  in  Asia   o   Mughal  Empire  =  one  of  the  world’s  richest  when  Europeans  were  starting  to   have  good  connections  with  India   o   Mughal’s  strength  was  military  power   o   Mughals  had  no  navy  but  traded  overland   o   Expanded  trade  with  Europe  brought  more  wealth   o   Increased  revenues  helped  with  military  powers   o   Peasants  were  forced  to  sell  products   §   This  increased  a  flourished  market   o   Confined  European  trade  to  root  cities   o   Piracy  became  a  huge  problem   o   Europe  began  trading  with  Asia  after  discovering  New  World   o   Spanish  -­‐  >  China   o   Silver  -­‐  >  Porcelain  and  Silks   o   1517  :  when  Spain  used  Magellan’s  Strait  to  go  across  Pacific  rather  than  around   Africa   Worlds  Entangled   •   Economic  and  Political  effects  of  Global  Commerce   o   Gold  and  silver  from  Americas  were  vital  to  the  global  market   §   Would  directly  affect  global  bankruptcy   o   Caused  the  increased  legitimacy  of  France  and  England   o   Latecomers  to  America  produced  sugar  cane,  cotton,  tobacco,  indigo,  and  rice   o   Europe  started  to  use  sugar  instead  of  honey  as  a  tea  sweetener   o   Tooth  decay  became  leading  cause  in  death   o   Mercantilism  =  system  that  fixed  the  world’s  economy;  any  countries  wealth   came  from  another  countries  economy  failing   o   Countries  would  ship  away  the  value  (i.e.  gold)  and  then  receive  less  than  that   value  in  return;  this  caused  Brazil’s  country  value/economy  to  go  down  while   Portugal’s  would  raise)   o   Merchants  understood  economy  and  politics  were  separate   o   Chartered  companies  (i.e.  Dutch  east  India  company)  =  visible  examples  of  the   collaboration  between  countries  and  merchant  classes  in  colonies   •   Exchanges  and  Expansions  in  NA   o   England,  France,  and  Holland  became  leaders  in  trade  between  Europe  and   Americas   o   English  settlements  lacked  in  precious  metals  but  had  multitudes  of  land  and   crops   o   Dutch  and  French  colonies  did  not  rely  on  Natives  while  England’s  aid   o   Beaver  was  crucial  trade  between  Natives  and  English   o   They  relied  heavily  on  Native  know-­‐how   o   French  continued  to  trade  with  Natives  in  order  to  maintain  good  relations   o   Indians  wanted  more  guns  so  they  had  to  kill  more  beaver,  causing  their   extinction  to  come  closer   o   As  well  as  alcohol   o   “sugar  was  a  killing  crop”   §   it  was  so  hot:  slaves  were  working  11  hour  days   o   the  word  killed  slaves  so  fast  that  they  had  to  constantly  keep  coming  from   Africa   o   colonels  did  have  on  government  they  had  to  report  to   •   The  Slave  Trade  and  Africa   o   Africa  had  slaves  before   o   Europeans  did  not  care  about  though  they  left  Africa   o   Many  slaves  died  before  leaving  Africa   §   12.8  Million  slaves     -­‐  >  10.4  million  slaves   §   Left  Africa     -­‐  >  Arrived  in  Americas   §   Most  died  of  dehydration   o   Men  outnumbered  women,  though  women  were  needed  to  keep  the  household   §   Women  were  also  used  as  sex  slaves   o   Local  political  leaders  and  merchants  in  Africa  sold  their  people  for  profit   o   Slaves  went  to  work  with  weapons  and  left  their  children’s  in  blocked  stockades   th th •   Asia  in  the  17  and  18  centuries   o   China  remained  most  wealthy  country  at  time,  in  spite  of  Europe’s  discoveries   o   China  was  hard  to  get  as  a  trading  partner   o   Islamic  territories  did  not  get  pressured  into  trade,  while  china  was  almost   bullied  in  trading   o   Islam  had  internal  struggles   o   Change  of  trade  routes  to  Persia  caused  stress   o   People  died  of  famine  and  disease   o   They  became  more  commercially  interacted  with  New  World   o   Traded  wheat,  copper,  and  wool  for  silver   o   Mamluks  =  military  men  for  Ottoman  Empire;  ruled  Egypt   o   Ottomans  lost  territories  to  the  war  fought  against  Christianity   o   India  never  had  a  single  political  authority   o   Indian  peasants  attempted  to  weaken  authority  to  assert  independence   o   Peasants  were  critical  in  rise  of  Marthas   o   Ming  sovereigns  did  encourage  the  trading  overseas   o   Japanese  pirates  attacked  the  coast  of  China,  causing  economic  problems   o   Influx  of  silver  first  caused  stimulation  in  economy,  then  made  it  suffer   o   Silver  became  form  of  money   o   Peasants  were  required  to  use  silver   th o   Manchus  =  emerged  in  the  17  century  when  their  leader  claimed  Khan,  seizing   the  power  of  Beijing   o   Qing  dynasty  =  lasted  for  almost  300  years,  lead  by  Manchus,  had  numerous   population,  territory,  and  economic  growth   o   Rulers  had  flexible  policies,  allowing  the  country  to  start  stable   o   Respected  Confucius  codes  and  practices  in  order  to  stay  consistent   o   Social  hierarchies  included  age,  kin,  and  gender   o   Females  were  encouraged  to  serve  men   •   Economic  and  Political  Fluctuations  in  Western  Europe   o   30  Years  War  (1618-­‐1648)  =  over  power,  territory,  and  trade  between   Protestants  princes  and  Catholic  emperors  for  religious  predominance  over   Europe   o   this  war  involved  Germany,  Sweden,  Poland   o   Dutch  won  independence   o   Modern  war  usages  (guns,  cannons  etc.)  became  more  standardized   o   War  was  becoming  expensive   o   English  Navigation  Act  of  1651  =  only  English  ships  could  carry  goods  from   England  to  colonies   o   Enclosure  =  land  owners  took  control  of  land   o   Estates  General  consisted  of   §   The  clergy:  those  who  pray   §   The  nobility:  those  who  fight   §   The  underprivileged:  those  who  work   o   This  committee  “got  in  the  king’s  way”  and  was  attempted  to  be  disbanded   o   This  created  absolute  monarchy  –  where  the  ruler  would  not  be  a  tyrant,  he   would  be  lawful  and  if  he  made  a  mistake  only  God  could  punish  him     England:   France:   •   Allowed  women  to  be  queens   •   Did  not  need  Estates-­‐General   in  order  to  pass  laws   •   English  Parliament     o   Glorious  Revolution  of  1688-­‐1689  –  made  church  of  England  official  state  church   o   Allowed  Jews  and  protestants  to  practice   o   European  natives  suffered  in  “Mercantilist  Wars”   o   7  years  War  (French  and  Indian  War)  –  culmination  of  Rivalries  among  European   Empire,  over  control  of  seas  and  Imperial  possessions  (1756-­‐1763)   o   British  won  against  France  and  Spain     Cultures  of  Splendor  and  Power   •   Islamic  traditions  dominated  Mughals  judicial  and  political  systems   o   Hindus  lead  in  social  structures   o   Mughals  were  flexible  with  the  people’s  religious  affairs   o   Emperor  introduced  “Divine  Faith”  –  mix  of  Quranic,  Catholic,  and  other   influences   o   Taj  Mahal  –  took  20  years  to  build   o   Foreign  trade  brought  more  silver   •   The  Enlightenment  in  Europe   o   Enlightenment  –  spreading  of  faith  in  reason  and  in  universal  rights  and  laws:   decline  of  persecution  and  increase  of  literacy   o   Hoped  to  transform  political  and  social  institutions   o   Sought  universal  knowledge  that  wouldn’t  be  hindered  by  religious  views   o   Brought  civil  and  religious  wars   o   Caused  Europeans  to  be  confident  that  their  culture  was  superior  to  all  others   o   “scientific”  inquiry  came  into  call   o   scientific  method  –  universal  laws  that  applied  to  all  matter  and  motion   o   no  longer  relied  on  religion  as  a  reason   o   literacy  grew  but  remained  solely  male  and  elite   o   thinkers  questioned  methods  of  society  as  well   o   Locke  believed  that  rulers  have  a  “social  contract”  with  their  people  and  this   allowed  the  avoidance  of  tyrants   o   reading  allowed  the  public  to  develop  cultural   o   Enlightenment  caused  thinkers  to  overturn  the  aristocracy   o   Did  little  to  change  the  status  of  women   o   Laissez-­‐faire  –  a  concept  in  which  the  economy  works  better  when  left  alone   o   Europe  began  to  have  laissez-­‐faire  economies   o   Most  thinkers  were  atheists  but  called  for  toleration  of  all  religions   o   Some  countries  following  the  enlightenment   o   Thinkers  valued  commerce  and  rationality   o   Absolutist  governments  didn’t  entirely  reject  the  Enlightenment   o   Only  part  they  were  uncomfortable  with  was  liberty  and  equality   •   Hybrid  Cultures  in  America   o   Hybrid  cultures  were  caused  by  inter-­‐twining  American  and  Europeans   o   Europeans  set  out  to  convert  natives   o   Used  numerous  techniques  to  get  converted   o   Indian  groups  converted  captured  colonists  and  converted  them  to  their  religion   o   Mixed  with  natives  because  of  gender  imbalances   o   Europeans  attempted  to  convert  slaves   o   Owners  doubted  the  want  to  convert  “property”   o   Christianity  in  slaves  did  inspire  revolts  and  resistance   o   Peninsular  –  men  and  women  born  in  Spain/Portugal  but  living  in  Americas   o   Creoles  –  persons  of  European  decent  born  in  Americas   o   Penisulars  were  “higher”  than  creoles   o   Represented  that  official  positions  were  mostly  given  to  penisulars   o   18  century  =  sex  ratios  became  more  equal  


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