History 105 Exam #1 Study Guide
History 105 Exam #1 Study Guide HIS 10500
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathleen Sparks on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIS 10500 at Purdue University taught by Ariel De La Fuente in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Survey of Global History in History at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
History 105, Survey of Global History, Exam #1 Contact, Commerce, and Communication • European exploration and Expansion o Muslim’s conquest of Constantinople = Europe’s gateway to the east § Portuguese sailed to Africa in search of Gold § Compass allowed this to happen § Chine adaption = gunpowder o Africa became a place for slaves and sugar § “Gold Coast” o Portugal and Spain formally made pieces of land colonies: regions under the political control of another country o First Portuguese explorer to reach Indian ocean = Vasco de Gamma § Still unsure of geography § Very violent when landing in foreign ports o Portuguese took control of Indian Ocean trading § Monopolized Indian ocean; made other traders purchase cartazes: documents identifying all information about cargo ships for each ship o The Atlantic World § Expansion to Americas brought diseases • Guns, diseases, and the fighting btween tribes causes Natives to fall at hands of Europeans • Atlantic System Europe (technology and military) Africa (slaves) Americas (minerals and land) § Ferdinand and Isabelle approved of Columbus’ trip to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim hands • Direct link from Spain -‐> China and Japan for trade § New World = anything undiscovered to the European was “new” even if it already existed and was inhabited by thriving societies § Columbus discovered the Bahamas, not US • Aimed to Christianize world • “to save souls and make money” • people of Brazil had “more innocence than Adam” § Natives didn’t know the white people were dangerous until it was too late § Conquistadors = explorers or conquerors who came to the Americas and ruled over natives § Encomiendas = grants given by crown to control American colonies § Encomenderos = recipients of encomienas; leaders of mines in Americas o Spaniards continued in land after taking materials from islands (Haiti called Hispaniola § Reached Aztec Empire o Cortes calls the society of the Aztec Empire almost if not more developed than that of Spain o The Aztec Empire was most power ruler in Mesoamerica o Aztecs believed Sun God required sacrifices of the human heart and blood to keep burning § Sacrifices were caputured warriors from neighboring tribes o When conquistadors came, emperor sent gifts to “white gods” § No idea whether to attack or worship § One gift was a young girl who became a concubine to Hernán Cortés § Produced first mestizo: mixed-‐blooded Mexican § Cortés captured emperor and began to control him § Aztecs fought back two years later and wer massacred § More died from disease than fighting § Conqured Aztec Empire o Inca Empire § Divided empire when Spaniards arrived § That and disease caused downfall § Conquistadors kept socioeconomic structures intact after fall of Empire o Columbian Exchange = hemispheric transfer of previously unknown plants, pathogens, people, and products to Americas § Caused the decimation of the Amerindian population from diseases § Caused adoption of new forms of agriculture § Deforestation caused destruction of habitats of indigenous birds and animals o SILVER!!!! § Mostly came from Mesoamerica and Brazil § Structures relied heavily on slave labor to use this kind of economy § Slaves used drugs to keep themselves sane when working in mines § Because of increase in silver in economy, there was a huge inflation in Europe • Caused issues trading with China and Japan • Portugal’s New World Colony o Treaty of Tordesillas = made by pope; divided new world into spheres between Portugal and Spain o Portugal = Brazil, Spain = Mesoamerica o Labor shortage in Brazil because they didn’t fear the Portuguese as much as the Aztecs feared the Spaniards o Couldn’t get Natives to work § African slaves o Transatlantic Slave Trade began with only hopes to support sugar company o Africans had slaves themselves o Atlantic system = Africa, Americas, Europe • Prosperity in Asia o Mughal Empire = one of the world’s richest when Europeans were starting to have good connections with India o Mughal’s strength was military power o Mughals had no navy but traded overland o Expanded trade with Europe brought more wealth o Increased revenues helped with military powers o Peasants were forced to sell products § This increased a flourished market o Confined European trade to root cities o Piracy became a huge problem o Europe began trading with Asia after discovering New World o Spanish -‐ > China o Silver -‐ > Porcelain and Silks o 1517 : when Spain used Magellan’s Strait to go across Pacific rather than around Africa Worlds Entangled • Economic and Political effects of Global Commerce o Gold and silver from Americas were vital to the global market § Would directly affect global bankruptcy o Caused the increased legitimacy of France and England o Latecomers to America produced sugar cane, cotton, tobacco, indigo, and rice o Europe started to use sugar instead of honey as a tea sweetener o Tooth decay became leading cause in death o Mercantilism = system that fixed the world’s economy; any countries wealth came from another countries economy failing o Countries would ship away the value (i.e. gold) and then receive less than that value in return; this caused Brazil’s country value/economy to go down while Portugal’s would raise) o Merchants understood economy and politics were separate o Chartered companies (i.e. Dutch east India company) = visible examples of the collaboration between countries and merchant classes in colonies • Exchanges and Expansions in NA o England, France, and Holland became leaders in trade between Europe and Americas o English settlements lacked in precious metals but had multitudes of land and crops o Dutch and French colonies did not rely on Natives while England’s aid o Beaver was crucial trade between Natives and English o They relied heavily on Native know-‐how o French continued to trade with Natives in order to maintain good relations o Indians wanted more guns so they had to kill more beaver, causing their extinction to come closer o As well as alcohol o “sugar was a killing crop” § it was so hot: slaves were working 11 hour days o the word killed slaves so fast that they had to constantly keep coming from Africa o colonels did have on government they had to report to • The Slave Trade and Africa o Africa had slaves before o Europeans did not care about though they left Africa o Many slaves died before leaving Africa § 12.8 Million slaves -‐ > 10.4 million slaves § Left Africa -‐ > Arrived in Americas § Most died of dehydration o Men outnumbered women, though women were needed to keep the household § Women were also used as sex slaves o Local political leaders and merchants in Africa sold their people for profit o Slaves went to work with weapons and left their children’s in blocked stockades th th • Asia in the 17 and 18 centuries o China remained most wealthy country at time, in spite of Europe’s discoveries o China was hard to get as a trading partner o Islamic territories did not get pressured into trade, while china was almost bullied in trading o Islam had internal struggles o Change of trade routes to Persia caused stress o People died of famine and disease o They became more commercially interacted with New World o Traded wheat, copper, and wool for silver o Mamluks = military men for Ottoman Empire; ruled Egypt o Ottomans lost territories to the war fought against Christianity o India never had a single political authority o Indian peasants attempted to weaken authority to assert independence o Peasants were critical in rise of Marthas o Ming sovereigns did encourage the trading overseas o Japanese pirates attacked the coast of China, causing economic problems o Influx of silver first caused stimulation in economy, then made it suffer o Silver became form of money o Peasants were required to use silver th o Manchus = emerged in the 17 century when their leader claimed Khan, seizing the power of Beijing o Qing dynasty = lasted for almost 300 years, lead by Manchus, had numerous population, territory, and economic growth o Rulers had flexible policies, allowing the country to start stable o Respected Confucius codes and practices in order to stay consistent o Social hierarchies included age, kin, and gender o Females were encouraged to serve men • Economic and Political Fluctuations in Western Europe o 30 Years War (1618-‐1648) = over power, territory, and trade between Protestants princes and Catholic emperors for religious predominance over Europe o this war involved Germany, Sweden, Poland o Dutch won independence o Modern war usages (guns, cannons etc.) became more standardized o War was becoming expensive o English Navigation Act of 1651 = only English ships could carry goods from England to colonies o Enclosure = land owners took control of land o Estates General consisted of § The clergy: those who pray § The nobility: those who fight § The underprivileged: those who work o This committee “got in the king’s way” and was attempted to be disbanded o This created absolute monarchy – where the ruler would not be a tyrant, he would be lawful and if he made a mistake only God could punish him England: France: • Allowed women to be queens • Did not need Estates-‐General in order to pass laws • English Parliament o Glorious Revolution of 1688-‐1689 – made church of England official state church o Allowed Jews and protestants to practice o European natives suffered in “Mercantilist Wars” o 7 years War (French and Indian War) – culmination of Rivalries among European Empire, over control of seas and Imperial possessions (1756-‐1763) o British won against France and Spain Cultures of Splendor and Power • Islamic traditions dominated Mughals judicial and political systems o Hindus lead in social structures o Mughals were flexible with the people’s religious affairs o Emperor introduced “Divine Faith” – mix of Quranic, Catholic, and other influences o Taj Mahal – took 20 years to build o Foreign trade brought more silver • The Enlightenment in Europe o Enlightenment – spreading of faith in reason and in universal rights and laws: decline of persecution and increase of literacy o Hoped to transform political and social institutions o Sought universal knowledge that wouldn’t be hindered by religious views o Brought civil and religious wars o Caused Europeans to be confident that their culture was superior to all others o “scientific” inquiry came into call o scientific method – universal laws that applied to all matter and motion o no longer relied on religion as a reason o literacy grew but remained solely male and elite o thinkers questioned methods of society as well o Locke believed that rulers have a “social contract” with their people and this allowed the avoidance of tyrants o reading allowed the public to develop cultural o Enlightenment caused thinkers to overturn the aristocracy o Did little to change the status of women o Laissez-‐faire – a concept in which the economy works better when left alone o Europe began to have laissez-‐faire economies o Most thinkers were atheists but called for toleration of all religions o Some countries following the enlightenment o Thinkers valued commerce and rationality o Absolutist governments didn’t entirely reject the Enlightenment o Only part they were uncomfortable with was liberty and equality • Hybrid Cultures in America o Hybrid cultures were caused by inter-‐twining American and Europeans o Europeans set out to convert natives o Used numerous techniques to get converted o Indian groups converted captured colonists and converted them to their religion o Mixed with natives because of gender imbalances o Europeans attempted to convert slaves o Owners doubted the want to convert “property” o Christianity in slaves did inspire revolts and resistance o Peninsular – men and women born in Spain/Portugal but living in Americas o Creoles – persons of European decent born in Americas o Penisulars were “higher” than creoles o Represented that official positions were mostly given to penisulars o 18 century = sex ratios became more equal
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