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1972 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Bradleigh Jenkins

1972 Exam 1 Study Guide geog 1972

Bradleigh Jenkins


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Section 1: Goes over the sample exam posted by Dr. Travis and WHY the answers are correct. Section 2: A summary of major points, big ideas & people, and vocab. Includes a Dead White Guy chart sum...
Environment-Society Geography
Professor Travis
Study Guide
geography, Society, Environment
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bradleigh Jenkins on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to geog 1972 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Professor Travis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 296 views. For similar materials see Environment-Society Geography in Geography at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE  The first section goes over the Sample Exam 1 Questions & and an explanation of WHY they are the right answers. Answers are highlighted, and explanations are below the questions in blue.  The second section will be a bullet point summarization of big ideas, dead white guys, theories, vocabulary, etc.  This looks like a ton of text, and it is, but it’s less text than reading the book.  For some questions, I will put a specific powerpoint (PPT) lecture reference if it’s particularly clarifying. Other than that, I try to just summarize everything. SAMPLE EXAM 1 REVIEW 1. What crop expanded in the Everglades due to 1960’s and 1970’s geo-politics? a. cotton b. wheat c. sugar d. corn This is an example he talked about in lecture; I believe Prof. Travis also told a story about driving off a canal bridge and being terrified out of his mind about getting eaten by alligators. 2. What crop helped de-water the Aral Sea? a. cotton b. wheat c. sugar d. corn During the Soviet Union, there was a major water diversion project to grow cotton (and some other crops, too) in the desert regions, to support their industrial efforts.  This is a link of a satellite time lapse of the Aral Sea. It only starts in 2000, but they outline the original shoreline in the 60’s before the USSR started messing with it. ea.php GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE 3. What is the main land cover difference on either side of the boundary in the above air photo? a. snow-covered forest on the right, forests w/o snow on the left b. forests on the left, non-forest (bare ground, grass, short plants) on right c. forests on left, residential subdivision on right d. high albedo land cover on left, low albedo land cover on right This is another example from class. There is the same amount of snow on either side, but the left has forests that are hiding this. 4. What is the main land use difference on either side of the boundary in the above air photo? a. active extractive resource management on left, preservation on right b. active extractive resource management on right, preservation on left c. same on both sides Keep your directions straight! The original forests are on the left. Match these names with their main arguments/ contributions 5. Paul Ehrlich (b) 6. Julian Simon (c) 7. Ronald Coase (Ch.3) (d) 8. Thomas Malthus (a) 9. Garrett Hardin (f) 10. Simon Kuznets (e) a. Foundational theory that human population growth tends to outstrip food production growth 8. Thomas Malthus; the original Victorian-era dead white guy to say that population would exceed the food we’re able to produce. He saw the population explosion during the Industrial Revolution, and the move away from agriculture. What he did not anticipate is that our technology & ability to produce food with less labor GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE and less land would also grow with our population. See Week 2a PPT. b. 1960’s argument that human population growth was exceeding earth’s carrying capacity 5. Paul Ehrlich; a biologist, best known for his book The Population Bomb (1968); and one of the most prominent Neo- Malthusians. He also said that mass starvation would occur. In the book, he talks about population control, always controversial. c. population and technology are a resource, not a threat to resource sustainability 6. Julian Simon: an economist who mostly worked on theories that human ingenuity, substitutes & technological progress could overcome the limited and finite resources of the earth. He famously had a bet with Paul Ehrlich. d. Pure market forces, contract-like negotiation among interests is the most efficient way to deal with economic externalities 7. Ronald Coase: an economist who said legal rules are only justified by cost-benefit analysis, and conflicts are more symmetric than they appear. Coase Theorem: holding that externalities (i.e. pollution) can be most efficiently controlled w/ contracts & bargaining. See Ch.9, Sec. “Green Carbon Consumption” e. Increasing wealth eventually leads to increased environmental protection 10. Simon Kuznets: during economic development, income inequality increases. As the economy stabilizes and matures, income inequality decreases. Following this, there is now the luxury to take care of the environment. f. Predicted the inevitable decline of common property resources 9. Garrett Hardin: popularized the concept of ‘tragedy of the commons’. The idea that individual users acting independently go against the common good, thereby depleting resources for everyone. See Week 2a PPT. 11. True or False: the rate of human population peaked in the 1960-70’s period, right when many analysts were warning that the rate was unsustainable and heading toward a population crash. This is true: there was a population peak right in the middle of the 60’s and 70’s. By the 80’s, population growth begins decreasing. See Week 2a: there are two charts towards the end that look at a traditional Malthusian projection of population growth vs. the actual population growth from 1950-2000. 12. Rockstrom et al. write about the “Anthropocene” era in which human drivers push earth systems toward and sometimes GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE beyond “safe” boundaries. Of the ten earth systems/processes they tracked, they argue that three are already exceeding safe operating limits. Those three are…. a. climate change b. ocean acidification c. stratospheric ozone depletion d. nitrogen cycle e. phosphorus cycle f. global fresh water use g. land use change h. biodiversity loss i. atmospheric aerosol loading j. chemical pollution Relatively well accepted that climate change is drastic & consequential; biodiversity loss sometimes referred to as another great extinction. Nitrogen cycle has primarily been influenced by the use of fertilizers. The Haber-Bosch process of artificial nitrogen fixation for all you chemistry nerds, is ironically, a large contributor to how we are able to produce enough food for our burgeoning population.  SEE BELOW FOR ROCKSTROM ET AL. MODEL. Rockstrom et al. Planetary Boundaries chart: this is in a LOT of his slides 13. Humans are intervening in the carbon cycle in such a way that: GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE a. storage of carbon in the solid earth is increasing b. storage of carbon in the atmosphere is increasing c. storage of carbon in the bio-mass is increasing We are taking carbon out of the earth in the form of fossil fuels and then burning it  this carbon goes into the atmosphere at much faster rates than carbon is being returned to the earth. There’s a picture of the carbon cycle below. 14. Using the pre-industrial concentration of atmospheric CO2 as a comparison for the recent, anthropogenic increase, is an example of a…. a. “natural” baseline b. target baseline c. reference baseline A natural baseline is a time from the past (i.e. pre- industrial, pre-historic or pre-settlement). A target baseline would be a place we want to reach in the future, for restoration. A reference baseline would be a place that is less perturbed, that we can use as a comparison right now. See Week 3b PPT, Baselines slide. 15. True or False: Our class leaned toward the Social Paradigm in the Ecological Paradigm suvery. Hopefully you did the first assignment and learned that we lean towards the EP side. 16. True or False: The Kuznets curve would suggest that Impact (I) in I=PAT equation would increase as affluence (A) increases. This one is false. As the economy stabilizes and matures, affluence will increase (inequality decreases), and environmental GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE protection can become a priority. See explanation for Kuznet in the questions about influential people. 17. In the hydrological cycle, what is likely to happen if infiltration (I) is reduced by human transformation of the surface. a. Runoff (Ro) increases b. Evaporation (E) from the surface decreases c. Groundwater recharge & storage increase So, for this one, pretend humans put some sort of surface that doesn’t allow water to soak into the earth (infiltrate the earth)  infiltration is reduced. This means the water has to runoff; it’s the only answer that makes sense. Evaporation from the surface would probably increase a little bit, and groundwater would decrease because water isn’t soaking into the ground anymore. 18. In the graph above, of global population growth rate, what decade should be listed at the tick mark along the x-axis under the highest rate? a. 1890-1900 b. 1930-1940 c. 1940-1950 d. 1960-1970 e. 1990-2000 Use this one to remember Paul Ehrlich’s theories as well: just like Thomas Malthus way back in Victorian age, when Ehrlich wrote his Neo-Malthusian book “The Population Bomb”, birth rates were at their highest. After the 70’s, there was a downturn, and Ehrlich’s doomsday predictions did not true. He did not (could not) account for social changes that led to this downturn. 19. Which of these beliefs and attitudes was NOT measured directly by Dunlap et. al New Ecological Paradigm? a. Beliefs about the balance and resiliency about nature b. Attitudes about which political-economic system better protects nature GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE c. Beliefs about natural limits on human development d. Attitudes about the correct correlation between nature & society There were no questions asked about your political opinions- just about nature & human interactions. Again, hopefully you did assignment one. True/ False: Economist Julian Simon would argue that Technology (T) in the I=PAT equation would increase as Affluence (A) increases, but does not necessarily increase I. Looking back at the answers given for the theories earlier, Simon believed that human ingenuity was our only limitless resource, and therefore we could come up with ways to mitigate the damage done. 20. The fact that the earth’s climate is slowly warming suggests that: a. Incoming solar radiation and outgoing terrestrial radiation are balanced b. The amount of incoming solar radiation is currently greater than the total of solar radiation reflected back to space plus the terrestrial long wave radiation that also makes it to space c. More clouds and anthropogenic particulates in the air are trapping more radiation in the earth system d. The nitrogen cycle is increased, meaning there is more nitrogen to heat the atmosphere B is the only answer that makes true sense. Answer A does not make sense, because we wouldn’t see much change in climate if this were the case. I believe clouds generally reflect solar radiation back out of the atmosphere (according to the chart anyway). PPT 4b had a good diagram (Earth’s Energy Budget)- we went over this subject a couple of times, so it’s in several places. 21. The Coase Theorem states that environmental externalities of markets can be most efficiently managed by: a. Collective management b. Weakening of private property rights c. Binding legal arbitration d. Government intervention and management e. Contracts and bargaining between two parties Coase= contracts, if you check back to the dead white guy section. The two parties involved, and pollution should be dealt with contractual arrangements should handle with pollution and the damages inflicted. GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE 22. Which of these tools for internalizing “externalities” treats pollution permits as a commodity to be traded in market exchanges? a. Green taxes b. Cap and trade c. Green consumption d. Free market Cap and trade views pollution in terms of the costs it takes to fix it. A “cap” is set for any given area (township, county, state, country, etc.), and then companies that expel the pollution can basically buy the units of pollution they are allowed out of this pool. The idea is that the companies that can more easily and more cheaply reduce their pollution will do so more efficiently than other companies/industries who might find this more difficult. 23. Social construction of nature is: a. Defining nature to have certain characteristics because people agree that it does. b. The human transformation of natural systems c. Human restoration of natural processes transformed from their natural baselines in the past. We spent a good chunk of time on this idea. Just like in the answer, a social construction is any definition that exists because people have agreed that it does. In the case of nature, our ideas of nature and how we define ‘nature’ will set the path for how we use it, and furthermore, what consequences this will have. Social constructions are not necessarily rooted in a true, logical reality, and may be a narrowing definition. Just like the name implies, social construction are very much rooted in our cultural ideas and values. 24. True/False: A pure application of the Prisoner’s Dilemma to a common resource implies that the parties making use of the resource do not coordinate their resource uses at all. This is the point of the Prisoner’s Dilemma- they do not have contact. That’s what makes the Prisoner’s Dilemma so interesting. Neither “prisoner” has any idea what the other person is thinking. BIG POINTS  From this sample exam, Prof. Travis really likes using examples from lecture.  At least have an idea of what the graphs/charts/models look like GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE  Gotta know your dead white guys  There weren’t a lot of questions about the social construction of nature on here, but it’s still fair game for the actual exam  Ch.1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9 & 10 Consolidated Review This is going to be a quick, bullet-point review of major points, big ideas and things you definitely want to know. (Mostly) Dead White Guy (And One Woman) Chart Dead White Guy Years Major Ideas Theories Examples/details Thomas Malthus 1766-1834, The father of Malthusian He saw the pop. Victorian era population catastrophe: explosion during the vs. resources food Industrial Era; did debate wouldn’t not predict keep up technological population advances. explosion Paul Ehrlich 1932- Neo- “The Suggested very current, Malthusian; Population controversial most a biologist Bomb” population control in influential by training (1968); his book. Ehrlich as during 60s- predicted well did not predict 70s the same as technological Malthus, that advances, and there would changes in society be inevitable that led to a collapse & downturn in birth mass rates. See Question starvation. 18 as well. Julian Simon 1932-1988, “The Believed Famously had a bet economist Ultimate that human about metal prices Resource”, ingenuity & with Ehrlich, and challenged intelligence Simon won. the idea of was our Criticisms say that Neo- unlimited Simon is too Malthusian resource, optimistic, and catastrophe and this ignores that could resources are still overcome finite, and since the finite we’re not magicians, resources on there might be the earth. some problems not GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE so easily overcome. Ronald Coase 1910-2013, “The (Coase= Assumes economist Problem of contracts); transactional costs Social Cost”, damages are are not too high, but externalities best this is not always (pollution, mitigated the case (lawyers damages) and are expensive). Also negotiated assumes that within legally parties are starting binding out on an equal contracts. playing field: same The idea is amount of money, that the two same amount of parties will information, etc. In always come reality, this is not to the most always true. efficient conclusion. Simon Kuznets 1901-1985, Kuznets During the Basically assumes another Curve development that people will economist of a have the “luxury” to country’s protect their world economy, only after they’ve income destroyed it. This is inequality the pattern that has increases. As been seen  only the economy rich countries can matures, afford to take care income of their habitats. inequality decreases, and then the environment can improve. Garrett Hardin 1915-2003, Tragedy of Every free, Proposed very ecologist the rational controversial Commons human being population control: operates would result in a selfishly, super-police state, which is highly enforced damaging to property rights. In the common real life, his good, and predictions have not depleting always shown to be resources for true. GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE everyone. Elinor Ostrom 1933-2012, Ostrom’s Common Emphasized the economist. Law. Won Pool multi-faceted 3D Nobel Prize Resources; nature of human for showing cooperation. interactions & that Hardin’s Found many agreements predictions cases of are not successfully always true managed commons Take away points:  Despite all the work that these extremely intelligent, highly educated people have put in, there are always counter-examples to their research and very few of their predictions have actually come true. From this, I think it is fair to say that human interactions with our planet will never fall into a neatly packaged, mathematically supported theory in any simple way. The truths probably fall into some combination of all their ideas, and probably some that have not yet been described here.  Malthus, Ehrlich, & Hardin: they are unable to account for the human side of the equation. None of their predictions took into account human improvements either in technology or shifts in societal views.  All these people are really good examples that there is a gap between theoretical mastery and the practical realities of the world we live in. Social Construction of Nature This idea is relatively simple: we put our own human lens onto something not human, and this determines how we treat it. Examples  “Good” and “Bad” nature: the idea of good vs. bad is human, and is centered around whether it does damage or helps us.  Wilderness: national parks are also centered around our convenience and what we consider beautiful and worth preserving. Are city parks still considered nature? What about an unoccupied prairie that is just as “wild” if not more so than Yosemite?  Weeds: they’re just plants that are really excellent at being plants, but they’re somewhere humans don’t want them. GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE  Forests: seen as a crop resource, something that can be improved by human intervention. Another common idea, that nature isn’t doing a good enough job, but it’s only not doing a good enough job for our standards. I= PAT equation I= impact on planet P= population A= affluence (a. level of consumption, b. per capita GDP) T= technology PPT Week 5a has a pretty good explanation towards the end sections. Baselines: we need something to compare the current standing of our world to in order to say anything significant Natural: a time in the past, i.e. pre-industrial, pre-historic, pre- settlement Background: background radiation, trace chemicals Reference site: a less perturbed site (like a super remote mountain top) Target: used for restoration, need a goal to reach for. Looks as ecosystem functionality, thresholds Hydrological cycle: recall your elementary science classes please GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE ET= evapotranspiration P= condensation & precipitation Ro= runoff I= infiltration GW= groundwater Surface & groundwater storage Energy/Radiation Balance  51% of the solar energy is absorbed by land & oceans  64% is reflected back into space from the clouds & atmosphere Markets (PPT 6a, chart on regulations)  Market response model: in the case of resource scarcity, one of two things could happen. A) People will find substitutes or improve their efficiency (recycling), and demand decreases OR B) People will search and find a new source and supply increases again. GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE  Cap and trade: A limit is placed on the emissions for a given jurisdiction, and within that limit, individuals/companies “own” shares of the pollution units. Theoretically, this would lead to the most efficient and cost effective reduction of pollution emissions overall. Possibly an example of Coase Theorem.  Market-based policy: some form of gov’t policy, but is in the hands of private ownerships and economic rules.  Tragedy of the Commons: see Garrett Hardin in Dead White Guy chart.  Green taxes: incentives given to buy certain products that are more green  Green consumption: individuals use their consumer vote to choose greener options, on products that have been certified “green”. Lessons & Themes:  Non-market goods: (PPT 6a) gives the example of oil. In the past, sperm whale oil was used for energy. The market essentially drove the whales to extinction before finding a new resource. Some things cannot be priced for money: what is the monetary value of biodiversity? We can only reflect on that in retrospect, after the damage has been done.  The way the market values things is sometimes out of sync with how nature actually works. The market cycles are not the same cycles of nature.  Natural resources and the capital belonging to individuals often leads to an ethical question in terms of equality and democracy in terms of people. Not everyone has the same weight of consumer or political voice. Inequality plays out in the market as well as in the environment. Vocab & Important Words  Anthropocene: Human Age; the idea that humans are so influential and have their grubby paws in so many earth systems that there is a distinctively new geological era. Not necessarily agreed upon universally.  Planetary boundaries: See Rockstrom The idea that there are quantitatively determined boundaries of earth systems we should not cross. Ex: the 2 degrees agreed upon in the Paris summit. How’d they get to that number? We’ve exceeded 3 of GEOG 1972 STUDY GUIDE these boundaries already: climate change, nitrogen cycle & biodiversity loss.  Externality: the spillover or collateral of an industry, i.e. pollution. Used in the Coase Theorem. Malthusian Model: resources will not be able to keep up with population growth, inevitably leading to disaster and the apocalypse with periodic crashes. Constructed nature: see above sections for “social construction of nature”. Social paradigm vs ecological paradigm Albedo: the percentage of light reflected off of a surface. Snow would have a high albedo (as anyone who has walked outside during a sunny winter day), and asphalt would have a low albedo (it absorbs a lot of light, reflects very little back). Law of unintended consequences: for many actions, there are outcomes that weren’t meant to happen, but that still have negative impacts. Often epitomized in the well-intentioned actions that end up causing more damage than good because we just don’t think far ahead enough.


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