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HSCI 3000 - Study Guide Exam 2

by: Nancy Kanarski

HSCI 3000 - Study Guide Exam 2 HSCI

Marketplace > East Tennessee State University > HSCI > HSCI 3000 Study Guide Exam 2
Nancy Kanarski
GPA 3.97

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About this Document

Notes covered for the heart, lungs, thorax, abdomen, GI tract, and liver.
Human Anatomy
Study Guide
Human, anatomy, GI, tract, Heart, Liver
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nancy Kanarski on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HSCI at East Tennessee State University taught by Forsman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Exam #2 Study Guide THORAX MUSCLES  External intercostal mm. – 21 mm. (11 pairs) o Fiber direction: inferomedially (down toward midline) o Function: muscle of inspiration (lifts ribs superiorly, elevates ribs)  Internal intercostal mm. o Fiber direction: superomedially (up toward midline) on anterior lateral side of the  body o Function: muscle of expiration (depresses ribs)  Innermost internal intercostal mm. o Function: muscle of expiration (depresses ribs)  Transverse thoracis m. o Function: muscle of expiration (depresses ribs) VEINS  Right side: internal intercostal veins  drain into azygos vein  superior vena cava   heart  Left side: internal intercostal veins  drain into hemiazygos vein  crosses to azygos vein  superior vena cava  heart  o (Also in some people, also uses accessory hemiazygos vein) LYMPH (feed cells)  Right lymphatic duct: drains right side of head and neck from the diaphragm and up  Thoracic duct: drains lefts side of head and neck from diaphragm and up AND below  diaphragm on right and left sides OTHER Hiatus: opening in diaphragm Left and right crus: help kink the esophageal tube to keep food from coming up when we  inhale and increase pressure in the stomach  LUNGS AIR MOVEMENT/BREATHING  Ventilation: air flow, moving air  Respiration: gas exchange o External respiration: oxygen enters blood, carbon dioxide leaves blood (occurs in  airspace in the lungs) o Internal respiration: oxygen leaves blood and enters the tissues, carbon dioxide enters  blood to be taken out of body PROBLEMS WITH BREATHING  Carbon monoxide poisoning: carbon monoxide will bind to the oxygen site on  hemoglobin and won’t detach, therefore, suffocating the person due to lack of oxygen  moving through the body.   Respiratory Acidosis: occurs in lungs, carbon dioxide increases, increasing acidity and  lowering blood pH  Metabolic Acidosis: occurs in kidneys, carbon dioxide increases, increasing acidity and  lowering blood pH INTERNAL LUNGS  Alveolar Type I cells (good for diffusion)  Alveolar Type II cells (make pulmonary surfactant) o Surfactants get rid of surface tension RANDOM  Aortic vagal reflex: when we eat things like bread, our esophagus expands which causes  the trachealis m. in trachea to contract in and pull the cartilage of the trachea closer  together, closing the space and making it hard to breathe.   There are 3,000 miles of capillaries per lung  Artery: blood leaves the heart (pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood) HEART EXTERNAL HEART  Pericardium is not elastic  Pericardial cavity = fluid­filled, so as the heart wrings out, the visceral and parietal layers won’t rub on each other too much.   Cardiac tamponade: fluid build­up in the pericardial cavity such that it impedes the  heart’s ability to pump blood RIGHT ATRIUM  Inside of the front wall of the right atrium is very rough: pectinate m.  helps push the  blood down after wringing it  The remainder of the right atrium is smooth for easy and good blood flow  Foramen ovale: a way for blood to bypass the lungs as a fetus  VENTRICLES  Trabeculae carnae: lattice of heart meat, needed to get friction on blood to move it 6,000  miles of capillaries from the right ventricle and 54,000 miles of capillaries from the left  ventricle  Papillary mm: pull on cordae tendineae enough to keep valve from swinging back and  opening into the atrium  Ductus arteriosus: another way to bypass the lungs as a fetus SOUNDS  Cardiac auscultation  o Aortic semilunar valve: just right of sternum in 2  intercostal space o Pulmonary semilunar valve: just left of sternum in 2  intercostal space o Right atrioventricular valve: left of sternum in 4  intercostal space th o Left atrioventricular valve: further left in 4  intercostal space BLOOD PRESSURE  Systolic/diastolic: normal = 120/80  o Systolic: pressure of inflating aorta o Diastolic pressure of aorta snapping closed o Pulse pressure: different between systolic and diastolic (want it to be 40 or higher)  If not, aorta has lost its elasticity which could mean there is plaque buildup or that blood is not being delivered to supply the heart muscle CONDUCTION  Heart beats on autorythmicity: in spasms of electrical signals  EKG o P wave: depolarization of atria (contraction) o QRS complex: ventricular contraction o T wave: repolarization of ventricles o PR interval: usually last .15 seconds o ST segment:  Depressed = heart not getting enough oxygen  Elevated = you’ve already had a heart attack o Weird T: atherosclerotic heart (hardened vessels) LIVER  Function:  o makes bile to emulsify (break down) lipids  o takes excess glucose to make glycogen (stored as fat in the body) o acts as a filter to detoxify the blood stream  Porta hepatic = doorway to liver o bile leaves from here o includes left and right hepatic ducts FLOW OF BILE IN LIVER Liver Gallbladder   right and left hepatic ducts cystic duct  common hepatic duct     Both sides join together to form   common bile duct (joined by pancreatic duct)  hepaticopancreatic ampulla (with sphincter)  duodenum FLOW OF BLOOD THROUGH LIVER Deoxygenated blood  Oxygenated blood hepatic portal v.   hepatic a.  right and left hepatic portal vv.  right and left hepatic aa. liver (detoxified)   liver (detoxified)  hepatic venule  hepatic arteriole  Both sides join together to form  hepatic sinusoid  flow into central v.  hepatic v.  inferior vena cava  heart ABDOMEN ANTERIOR MUSCLES Muscle  Origin Insertion Function Innervation Random Rectus  Symphysis  Xyphoid  Pulls ribs  Lowest 6  Thin layer  abdominis m. pubis on  process and  down  thoracic nn. on bottom  crest of the  costal  (accessory m.  and thicker  pubic bone cartilages of  of  on bottom  ribs 5, 6, and respiration?), to hold  7 flexes  weight vertebral  column,  increases  pressure in the abdomen External  Lowest 8 ribs Xyphoid  Compresses  Lower 6  Fiber  abdominal  (5­12) process,  abdominal  thoracic nn.  direction:  oblique m.  linea alba,  contents, pulls L1 nn.  runs  possibly  ribs down,  (iliohypogastri inferio­ iliac crest flex trunk,  c and  medially  rotates truck ilioinguinal  nn.) Internal  Lumbar  Lower fibers Compresses  Lower 6  Fiber  abdominal  fascia, iliac  of ribs 10­ abdominal  thoracic nn.  direction:  oblique m. crest, lateral  12, costal  contents, pulls L1 nn.  runs  2/3 of  cartilages,  ribs down,  (iliohypogastri superior­ inguinal  xyphoid  flex trunk,  c and  medially ligament process,  rotates trunk ilioinguinal  linea alba nn.) Transverse  Lower 6  Xyphoid  Compresses  Lower 6  Runs side  abdominis m. costal  process,  abdominal  thoracic nn.  to side,  cartilages,  linea alba contents,  L1 nn.  transversel lumber  rotates trunk (iliohypogastri y fascia, iliac  c and  crest, lateral  ilioinguinal  ½ of inguinal nn.) ligament POSTERIOR MUSCLES Muscle Origin Insertion Function Innervation Quadratus  Adjacent portion Medial 2/3 of  Pulls ribs down  T12, L1, L2 nn. lumborum m. of iliac crest,  T12 rib (m. of forced  lowest 4  expiration),  transverse  balance/hip  processes  hiker Psoas major m. Lateral border of Lesser  Flexes trunk on  L1­L4 spinal nn. T12­L5 with  trochanter of  thigh, flexes hip adjacent  femur vertebral bodies  and associated  transverse  processes Iliacus m. Iliac crest Joins psoas  Flexes thigh Femoral n. major m. Psoas minor m. Sides of  Edge of pelvis Assists in  L1 spinal n. vertebral bodies  flexion of trunk  of T12 and L1 (weak) GI TRACT (labeling key for attached picture) 1. Esophagus K. Left colic (Splenic) Flexure 2. 15. Descending colon 3. Stomach (body) L. Appendices Epiploicae A. Lesser curvature M. Tenia coli m.  B. Greater curvature 16. Sigmoid colon C. Cardia 17. Rectum D. Fundus 18. Anus E. Pylorus 19. Sigmoid mesocolon F. Pyloric sphincter 20. Liver 4. 21. Pancreas 5. (Small intestine) 22. Spleen 6. Duodenum  retroperitoneal 23. G. Suspensory ligament of  24. duodenum 25. 7. Jejunum 26. 8. Ileum 27. H. Ileocecal valve 28. 9. Mesentery  29. 10. 30. 11. (Large intestine) 31. 12. Cecum  32. 33. I. Vermiform Appendix 13. Ascending colon 34. J. Right colic (Hepatic) Flexure 35. 14. Transverse colon 36. 37. 42. 38. 43. 39. 44. 40. 45. 41. 46. 47.


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