GR 1123 World Geography Exam 2 Study Guide
GR 1123 World Geography Exam 2 Study Guide GR 1123
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Juliette R on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Alexandria Grimes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.
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GR 11223 World Geography 1 Exam 2 Study Guide South America: ● Fun Facts: ○ 12 states ○ Mountains in the west, amazon basin in the east ○ Most of the population lives in Brazil ○ Most of the population lives on the coast ○ World’s highest waterfa ngel Falls ○ 4th largest continent ○ 20%+ of Earth’s oxygen is produced in South America in the rainforests ○ Brazil has won more world cups than any other country in the world (5 titles) ○ 51% of South American population speaks Portuguese ○ Rich in natural resources ■ Gold, timber, water, oil ● Physical Geography (4 Physical Regions) ○ Andes ■ World’s longest mountain chain ■ 23,000 ft high, 4,300 miles long ● Rocky Mountains are only 3,000 miles long ○ Amazon Basin ■ 2nd longest world river ■ Mostly in Brazil ○ Brazilian Highlands ■ Comprises of several small mountain ranges ○ Pampas ■ The “Great Plains” of south America ■ Mostly in Argentina ■ Overfarmed ■ One of the most endangered habitats on the planet ● Incas (How were they advanced during that time?) Inca Video ○ Very advanced for the times ■ Built huge buildings,roads bridges in mountains ■ Practiced surgery, great military strategists ■ Terracing: giant stairs to level out mountain to easily get get up and down ■ Civilized artifacts (pots for water, colorful jewelry and clothing) ■ Extensive road network over 25,000 miles ● Purpose of the Vice Royalty ○ Vice: Latin for “in the place of” ○ Roi: French for “king” ○ Today: like a governor ○ Formed to help the Crown control population in territories around the globe ○ 3 Spanish viceroys established in South America Study Soup: Juliette Reid 2016 GR 11223 World Geography 2 ■ Peru (15421824) ■ New Grenada (17171819) ■ Río de la Plata (17761814) ● Independence from Europe & other Independence (Don’t need to memorize Dates, just who gained independence from who) 1800s1900s ○ Spurred by American and French Revolutions ■ Made the Spanish nervous ○ Spanish relinquished some claims in South America choosing to focus on the mainland ■ Argentina 1816 ■ Chile 1818 ■ Peru 1821 ○ Simon Bolivar ■ “The great El Libertador” ■ Helped free other states ■ Venezuela, New Granada (Colombia), Ecuador, Bolivia (named in his honor) ○ Other Independence ■ Brazilian independence 1822 after Portugal was invaded by Napoleon ■ Uruguay from 1820 Brazil and Argentina ■ Guyana from the UK in 1966 ■ Suriname from the Dutch in 1975 ■ French Guiana under current control under France ● South American Union (UNASUR) ○ Goals: ■ Establish a single currency ■ Shared defense ■ Easier passport passage for members ■ Build a better infrastructure (Highways, high speed railways, canal system) ○ Issues: Did not work as well as the European Union ■ Political posturing ■ Fight over control of resources ■ Some countries not interested ● Mercosur – purpose ○ Mercosur: “the southern common market” ■ Purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of good, people, and currency ● Urbanization – What do cities provide? ○ Cities provide opportunities: ■ Increased chance of making money ■ Better education ■ More “things” to do Study Soup: Juliette Reid 2016 GR 11223 World Geography 3 ● Problems in South America ○ Poverty ■ Disparity between rich and poor ■ Favelas: slums in Brazil ● Emerged in the late 19th century ● Built by soldiers with nowhere to live ● Dirty, no space ○ Problems ■ Slums produce crime and disease ■ High level of corruption ● Colombia: drug trade ● Venezuela: murder 10 times higher than the US ● Specific Country fun facts: ○ COLOMBIA ■ Population tends to congregate in the ANdes Mountains ■ Largest export: Coffee ● Narcotics are next: 70% of all US cocaine comes from Colombia ■ Cartels influence the political system, army, and police ● Fight for control of the trade, network, and growing of coca plants ● Almost overthrew the government in 1999 ● In some cases cartels ave their own ar to fight the state and the police ○ VENEZUELA – Mainly who is Hugo Chavez and the relationship to the United States ■ 1998 Hugo Chavez rose to power ● Rewrote the constitution ○ Focused on social and economic equality ● Tension with the US ○ 2007 formed the United Socialist Party of Venezuela ○ Remained neutral in drug wars ○ Traded with Cuba ○ Threatened to stop commerce with the US ● Died of cancer in 2012 ■ Future of country is unknown at the moment ○ PERU– Know about the 3 different zones ■ Geography defined by 3 Zones: ● Desert Coast ○ City of Lima (500 years old) ○ 40 oase which produce citrus, olives, and vegetables ● Sierra(Andes Mountains): ○ Contains remnants of Inca culture ○ Very poor population, mostly mine workers Study Soup: Juliette Reid 2016 GR 11223 World Geography 4 ○ Produces 20% of world’s gold ○ Also produces copper, zinc, lead ● Selva(Amazon Rainforest): ○ Contains the city quitos ■ Iquitos can only be reached by traversing the 2300 mile Amazon River ○ ARGENTINA ■ 2nd in area to Brazil ■ 41.3 million people ■ Contains large flat grassland area Pampas ■ Mostly Spanish ● Heavily influenced by Italians and Germans ■ 91% of the country’s population lives in an urban environment ○ BRAZIL & Brazil’s economy ■ Powerhouse of South America ● In resources, people, and geographic area ■ Rich in farmland, tropical rainforest, and untapped resources ■ 200 million people iverse populace ● 13 cities over 1 million ● 70% of population Catholic ■ Soccer is the national sport ■ 2016 Olympics ■ Economy ● Done well since adopting Democracy in 1989 ● Common exports: ○ Agriculture: Coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus, beef ○ Mining Iron, oil, natural gas, gold ○ Manufacturing Airplanes, footwear/clothing, electrical equipment ● Tourism is huge ○ Rainforests and Beaches ● Goal is to outplace the US in food production Europe ● Cultural Differences & Fun Facts ○ Cultural Differences: ■ Cars mostly manual transmission ● US mostly automatic ● Smaller in Europe, huge in the US ● Less expensive, unnecessary luxury, more fuel efficient, more vehicle control Study Soup: Juliette Reid 2016 GR 11223 World Geography 5 ● More Public transportation ■ Tips and taxes are already includ in the price (VAT) ● In the US, we pay tax on top of the price ● We pay gratuity in addition to cost of service ■ Like to drink ● Booze, coffee, tea ● Not much water ■ Europeans work less and have much more vacation ● Defined by law in some nations ● 4 weeks of vacation at least ■ Lunch is a big deal ● Dinner not as important ■ Power outlets are different ○ Basic Facts ■ 600 million people ● 11% of the world’s population ■ 42 countries i n a small area ● Smallest continent by area ● 3.9 million square miles (Europe) ● 3.8 million square miles (just in the US) ■ WWII massively changed the layout both politically and geographically ■ IS a peninsula of Asia ■ Vast difference between as and west ● Past soviet states and western culture ■ Ukraine is the largest country in the area ● Vatican City has the smallest area ■ Germany has the l argest population ■ Highly urbanized realm ● 75% of population lives in an urban area ■ Human civilization can find its roots as far back as 7000 BC in Europe ● Origin of modern history ● VERY complex history ● Nations formed as a result of? WAR ● Nationality ○ Nationality: ■ Protects you legally internationally ■ Makes you follow the laws of the state you are from ■ Automatically given when you are born ○ You gain dualnationality through marriage or by expatriation ● Cultural Diversity ○ 49 languages i n 11 major IndoEuropean families ○ Mostly Christian roots ■ Product of the Crusades Study Soup: Juliette Reid 2016 GR 11223 World Geography 6 ■ Secularism is on the rise ■ Catholic and Protestant tension ■ Islam increasing in Southeastern Europe ○ Economic disparity ■ Rich in the West ■ Poor in the East (Slavic Nations) ● Economies in Europe (Wealthiest vs. Poorest) ○ Poorest Country: Moldova ■ Average income per person $3,500 per person ■ Communist economy ■ Former Soviet territory (new country) ■ Entire economy is based on agriculture ■ Landlocked ○ Richest Country: Luxembourg ■ Average income per person $100,000 per person ■ Small size in area and people = easier to manage ■ ⅔ are mostly computer workers and foreign nationals ■ Government is very stable ● How Europe is connected (Transferability & Complementarity) ○ Economies and Political networks ■ Complementarity: excess products and goods can be shared with others within the realm given the need ● Coal in Britain for cars in Germany ● Norwegian Lumber for Grecian cotton ■ Transferability: very easy to move goods via transport networks and infrastructure ● Small area = efficiency ● Climate and climatic influence ○ Mostly mild ■ Decent precipitation all year round ■ Cool to cold summers ■ Warm to hot summers ○ Generally temperate forests ■ Both deciduous and Pine ○ Similar to most of the climate in Eastern US ○ Same latitude as Northeastern US and Canada ○ Gulf Stream: ■ Moves heat from the tropics to the poles ■ Moves water from Florida to Europe ● Controls the European climate dramatically ● Warms the air above the water through conduction ● Moderate climate ■ How do we know? Study Soup: Juliette Reid 2016 GR 11223 World Geography 7 ● December average temperature for London 42’F ● Physical Geographic Regions (there are 4) ○ Central Uplands ■ “The heart of Europe” ■ Hills, low plateaus ■ Raw material abundance ■ Population majority ● Help spark the Industrial Revolution ○ Alpine Mountains ■ Pyrenees to Balkan Mnts ■ Includes most of Mediterranean ○ Western Uplands ■ Geographically old ■ Lower, more stable ○ North European Lowlands ■ Culturally diverse and complex ■ Oil and Natural Gas abundance ■ Great Plains of Europe ● Why did urbanization occur where it did in Europe? ○ Raw material abundance ● Ancient Europe (Descendants; How Europe evolved from the Neolithic to the Iron Age) ○ Neolithic Era: ■ Simple stone tools, spears, fire, animal domestication ■ 10,000 BCE ■ Emergence of agriculture and sedentary lifestyle ● Birth of urbanization ○ Copper Age ■ Simple shields, modest swords, axes, armour ■ 5000 BCE ○ Bronze Age ■ Sailing, trade, navigation, Stonehenge built, writing developed ■ 3000 BCE ○ Iron Age ■ Iron, steel ■ 1200 BCE to AD ● Influence of Ancient Greece on Europe ○ Rise of science, philosophy, government, art, formal writing/math ■ Socrates & Plato ■ Coliseums ○ Origins of western government ■ Republic and democracy ● Middle (“Dark”) Ages – Lecture material & Video ○ Between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance Study Soup: Juliette Reid 2016 GR 11223 World Geography 8 ○ Tribes of Germanic and Slavic people from Asia, the Middle East, and Africa moved into Europe ○ Common Misconception: R ise of religion squashed science, the arts, philosophy…, believed the earth was round ○ Contributions: Art and Architecture(Gothic Cathedrals, Literature, Paintings), Universities established(created international community of scholars), Western Music (Notation system established, Western harmony, christmas carols), Carnival, Modern Scientific and Medical advances, Revived popular drama, tradition of local selfgovernment(chartered towns, free associations of men), Philosophy ○ Feudalist System ■ (Top) King → tenants in chief → knights/lords → peasants (Bottom) ○ Crusades ● Crusades – Lecture material & Video ○ “Military companies sanctioned by the Church” during the Middle Ages ○ 200 years struggle 9 total crusades ○ Unsuccessful (no permanent conquests) but people returned with knowledge ■ Medical information, surgical information, books brought back, Aristotle, languages, etc ■ Spawned rebirth of trade and architecture unseen in Europe since the fall of Rome ■ Explosion of brilliant cultural achievements ○ 11th 12th and 13th centuries ○ Began in 1095 ■ Pope Urban II’s plea for war with Muslim world (“saracen”) ■ Goal: Recover the Holy Land (Jerusalem) ● Feudalist System ○ (Top) King → tenants in chief → knights/lords → peasants (Bottom) ● Colonialism – what is it and what drives it? ○ Territorial dev. Strategy where a territory is occupied by a foreign government ■ Used military power to acquire territory and resources ■ Organization according to objective related to resource acquisition and market expansion ○ Politically, religiously, and radically driven ○ 14001800: ■ Spain, Portugal, Holland, France, and English were main colonial powers ○ After 1800: ■ English had dominance over others ● Renaissance ○ Renaissance began in the early to mid 1400s to early 1600s ■ Desire to expand knowledge ● Appreciation for science and the arts ■ Foundation of modern states and began in this period Study Soup: Juliette Reid 2016 GR 11223 World Geography 9 ● Agrarian Revolution ○ Began in Europe in the 1700s ○ Based on new gricultural innovations ■ Mechanization an ertilizers ■ Scientific and commercial agriculture ■ Crop Rotation ■ Declining food prices ○ New crops ( otato and Tomato) ○ Enabled increased food production (efficiency) ○ Enabled sustained opulation increase ● Nationalism – concept ○ An extreme feeling of patriotism, national pride, especially marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries ● Industrial Revolution – History, Impacts, & Issues ○ History ■ Not a “sudden event” ● Started in the UK, mainly in the East before moving into the US (post Civil War) ● Technical innovations occurred in British Industry ○ Use of new materials (steel, iron, chemicals) ○ Usage of hermal energy to produce mechanical energy ○ Mechanized labor replaced human and animal labor ○ Production (factories) increased ○ Transportation ail) ■ Why was Britain the origin? ● Access to raw materials from around the world ● Textiles, steam power (boats, trains), iron making (furnaces, ships, stoves, cannons, weapons) ■ France, Germany, Poland, Scandinavia, and Russia started getting involved in supplying raw materials and eventually starting producing on their own ○ Impacts & Issues ■ Social inequality: ● General Exploitation: ○ Child Labor ○ Long working hours ○ Safety ○ Very low pay ○ Most people didn’t a choice ■ If they complained, they were replace ● WWI – Focus on lecture material (but rewatching video won’t hurt) ○ WWI “The Great War” “The War to End All Wars” 19141918 Study Soup: Juliette Reid 2016 GR 11223 World Geography 10 ■ Axis (Central Powers) vs. Allies (Triple Entente) ■ Began with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand ■ July 1914 November 1918 ■ 9 million people killed in Europe ■ Western Front in rance nd the eastern Fron ussia ■ First war where hemical weapons w ere used ■ Trench warfare: ● Military strategy did not match the tech of the time ■ Results: ● Tech grew tremendously a s a result of the Industrial Revolution ○ Tanks, guns, aircraft, communication, submarines ● Showed the US as legitimate orld power ○ Was neutral at the beginning of the war ● Balkans, Hungary, Turkey became free from the ttoman Empire ● Treaty of Versailles & League of Nations ○ Treaty of Versailles ■ Made Germany pay for the war ■ Fascism grew, nationalism or nationstate patriotism grew in Germany as a result ■ Intended to unish Germany and revent them from ever gaining military power again ● Created problems that led to WWII ○ The League Of Nations ■ Principal mission was t aintain world peace ■ Lacked authority and control; lots of issues ■ Was later replaced by th nited Nations (UN) ● WWII – Focus on lecture material (but rewatching video won’t hurt) ○ WWII 19391945 ■ 61 countries i nvolved ■ More than ⅞ of the inhabited area of the world took part ■ Started September 1, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland ● 85 million people killed (21 million Russian) ● Deadliest conflict in human history ■ Two Sides ● Allied Powers vs. Axis powers ■ Blitzkrieg: “lightning war” ○ Holocaust: ■ Characterized by the mass genocide of Jewish peoples in Germany and surrounding areas ■ Camps for prisoners ■ Worked in factories and agriculture while in camps ■ As war progressed, conditions worsened ○ Aftermath: Study Soup: Juliette Reid 2016 GR 11223 World Geography 11 ■ Decolonization of land ● India, Asia, African countries ■ New countries were drawn ● Israel created ■ Cold War and Nuclear race ■ The UN, European Union, IMF and NATO were formedAftermath: ● Decolonization of land ○ India, Asia, African countries ● New countries were drawn ○ Israel created ● Cold War and Nuclear race ● The UN, European Union, IMF and NATO were formed ● United Nations ○ Product of WWII (replaced the League of Nations) ○ Started with 51 states, today has 193 nations ○ Major goal was/is t void WWIII ■ Human rights ■ Diplomacy over conflict ■ Avoid genocide ● European Union ○ Major goal: to rebuild Euro conomically ■ Reduce trade tariffs between European countries ○ Also a product of WWII ■ Produced by urope, not the US ○ US was involved in helping get on its f arshall Plan ■ $13 billion to help rebuild both physical, economic, and political sectors ■ Keep Communism at bay ○ Supranationalism: a voluntary association in economic, political, and cultural spheres of 3 or more nations who are willing to give over their sovereignty for mutual benefit ○ Today: 28 countrie are in the EU ○ Capital located russels Belgium ○ Current Day EU ■ Allows citizens to move between countries for work without passports ■ Created a entral bank and currency 1999 ● Euro is more valuable than the American Dollar (1 Euro is about $1.15) ● Greek Epsilon (symbol for the cradle of humani ) ■ Helped growth in nfrastructur flow of money, labor, and goods ■ Taxes collected in rich countries are used for nonprosperous ones ● BREXIT ○ British separation from the EU caused by Immigration fear (job loss) and fear that Brussels had too much control over British government Study Soup: Juliette Reid 2016 GR 11223 World Geography 12 ○ Major players ■ Davis Cameron (former Prime Minister), Theresa May (current Prime Minister), Boris Johnson (former London mayor) ○ Now what? ■ What will Britain still be able to access from the EU ■ Figure out the rights of EU citizens living in England ■ Figure out rights of English citizens living in EU nations ■ Northern Ireland and Scottish membership in the EU ● NATO North America reaty Organization ○ Created in 1949 to stabilize Europe after WWII ○ Established by the NOT EUROPE) ○ More connected with ecurit than economics ○ Helped Europe militarily agains oviet Union ○ Today ■ More focused with terrorism, weapons of mass destructi an yber security ■ Now focused globally not just Europe ● IMF International Mon Fund ○ Major goals: ■ Secure financial stability ■ Grow international trade and reduce poverty ■ Includes 168 countries ○ Established to help rebu conomies after WWII and help avoid anothe reat Depression ○ Provides: ■ Guidance to central banks and analysis of economic trends globally ■ Aid to help fight poverty ● Specific Country fun facts: ○ GERMANY ■ 82 million people ■ Initially made up of several tribes, royal families ● Unified in the late 1800s early 1900s ■ Divided after WWII ● West Germany: part of Europe ● East Germany: USSR ■ Contains 16 states today ■ Highly urbanized ● 89% or population ■ A leader in Europe ● manufacturing/ economic stability ● Largest economy of Europe ● Autobahn interstate system ○ FRANCE Study Soup: Juliette Reid 2016 GR 11223 World Geography 14 ■ Bosnia was the troublemaker after the fall of Yugoslavia ■ Macedonia ( mostly Muslims) ■ Montenegro (mostly Serbs) ■ Kosovo (refugees) ○ UKRAINE ■ Recent events: ● Major divisions after Cold War ● Country divided politically ○ East: Pro Russia ○ West: Pro Europe ● Russia needs access to the ocean and resources ○ Military and economic factor ○ Fight for control of Crimea ○ Study Soup: Juliette Reid 2016
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