KIN 140, Study Guide
KIN 140, Study Guide 140
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kevin Pham on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 140 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Trinh, Linda in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
KIN 140 Exam1 Study Questions Wednesday, September 28, 2016 7:13 PM Chapter 1: The Sociology Of Sport What Is It and Why Study It? 1. 3 central components of a social world: Culture, social interaction, social structure. 2. Goal of sociology is toD : escribe & explain social worlds 3. Physical culture is important bc: it Helps people define and integrate movement into their lives 4. Participationg, funding, community support, and visibility of an activity may increase when: it is classified as an official sport 5. Social world that are created by people as they interact with 1 and another under political social, political, and economic conditions : cial constructions 6. Disagreements and struggles over the phone, meaning, and organization of sports occur most often when they involve: The funding priorities of government agencies 7. Identify a true statement about the sociology of sport : It studied sports as social phenomena. 8. The great sport myth is thatt: he purity and goodness of sports is transferred to all who participate. 9. The sociology of sport tells one about the O: rganization and dynamics of relationships in society 10. Identify a true statement about the knowledge produced by research in the sociology of sport: it explains why some sports have higher rates of violence than others and how to effectively control sports violence. 11. People in positions of power prefer approaches to sports that blame problems on the weaknesses and failures of: Individuals 12. Studying sports with a critical eye usually occurs when: Researchers have informed visions of what sports and society could and should be in future 13. Identify a true statement about the effect of sports in the social world: Sports create opportunities for conversations that enable people to form and nurture relationships. 14. Identify an accurate statement about ideologies: One learns ideologies when one interacts with others and accepts ideas and beliefs that are generally taken for granted in one's culture. 15. Identify the central ideas and beliefs around which the most widely Sports create opportunities for conversations that enable people to form and nurture relationships. 14. Identify an accurate statement about ideologies: One learns ideologies when one interacts with others and accepts ideas and beliefs that are generally taken for granted in one's culture. 15. Identify the central ideas and beliefs around which the most widely shared or dominant gender ideology used in many societies is organized: Human beings are either female or male, heterosexuality is nature's foundation for human reproduction, men are physically stronger and more rational than women 16. A sports association follows gender ideology in its decisions and beliefs. Which of the following decisions by the sports association reflections gender ideology? Women shall not be allowed to coach men's teams 17. Racial ideology in the United States developed fully after slavery came to an end. Identify the major beliefs around which this ideology was organized: People are classified as white have only white ancestors, and anyone w/ 1 or more black ancestors Is classified as black, intellectual and physiological characteristics vary by race, and human beings can be classified into races on the basis of biologically inherited or genetically based characteristics 18. In the context of social class ideology,____is a system where deserving people become successful and where failure of the result of inability, poor choices, and a lack of motivation: Meritocracy 19. Although some people questions the truth of the ideas and beliefs of class ideology, the class ideology that they support is heavily prompted and remains in existence because it____:S erves the interests of people with power and wealth 20. ______ includes all forms of movement and physical activities that people in particular social worlds create, sustain, and regularly include in their collective lives. : Physical culture 21. Research in the sociology of sport can be controversial when it provides evidence that ___ C : hanged are needed in the ways that sports and social worlds are organized 22. _____ consists of interrelated ideas and beliefs that are widely used to define masculinity and femi, identify people as male or female, evaluate forms of sexual expression, and determine the appropriate roles of men and women in society:G ender ideology 23. ____ideology consists of interrelated ideas and beliefs that are widely used to classify human beings into categories assumed to be biological and related to attributes such as intelligence, temperament, and physical abilities: Racial 24. ____ideology consists of interrelated ideas and beliefs that are widely shared and used by people to evaluate their material status; explain why economic success, failure, and inequalities exist; and what should be used to classify human beings into categories assumed to be biological and related to attributes such as intelligence, temperament, and physical abilities: Racial 24. ____ideology consists of interrelated ideas and beliefs that are widely shared and used by people to evaluate their material status; explain why economic success, failure, and inequalities exist; and what should be done about economic differences in a group or society: Social class 25. In the United States, thinking along the lines of social class ideology leads to the conclusion that___W : ealth and powers are earned by hardworking people of good character 26. A school implemented a policy that white students should participate only in team and contact sports, whereas black students should participate only in individuals sports that require physical skills. The government decides to take disciplinary action against the school authorities for discrimination of ___ideology:R acial 27. A sports magazine published an article on Olympic gold medalist Michael Johnson's life. The article spoke of Johnson's rise from his humble background to his stellar performances on the track. In the magazine, the author of the article used___ ideology to describe Johnson's success: Social class 28. Research on physical culture is important because it helps one understand___: How people define and integrate movement into their lives 29. People in positions of power prefer approaches to sports that blame problems on the weaknesses and failure of___: Individuals 30. A sports club evaluates the success of its members based on their annual earnings. The club believes that members who are at the lower end of the economic spectrum have the same opportunities as others but have failed to used these opportunities. The club's beliefs are based on_____ ideology: Social class 31. The attitude, actions, and policies based on the beliefs that people perceived as lacking certain abilities are inferior and, therefore, incapable of full participation in mainstream activities are know as: Ableism 32. Ableist ideology denies that abilities___: Are situation or task-specific 33. A reason for using sociology to study sports is that they are___: clearly connected to major spheres pf social life 34. A school organized a sports event for its students. It organizes separate events for students with physical disabilities. This action of the school is a reflection o f___ ideology: bleist Chapter 2: Producing Knowledge About Sports In Society What Is The Role of Research And Theory? a reflection o f___ ideology: bleist Chapter 2: Producing Knowledge About Sports In Society What Is The Role of Research And Theory? 1. Michael Messner, in his research on the connection between sport and gender, focused on the ways that ideas and beliefs about ____ were included in the narrative that were in the context of youth sports: Masculinity and femininity 2. Which of the following are questions that guide research when using a critical approach to study sports in society(: ) What strategies effectively foster progressive changes in sports and the social worlds around them? (2) How are sports organized, and who is advantaged or disadvantaged by existing forms of organization in sports 3. 5 steps developed by Micheal Messner for producing knowledge in order: • Develop research questions • Select appropriate theory and research methods • Collect and analyze data • Use findings to produce conclusions • Publish results so others can assess their validity and reliability 4. Observational methods generally involve on-site data collection known as___: Fieldwork 5. According to Micheal Messner, youth sports were sites where people learned____: How to preform masculinity or femininity as they interact with others 6. Sociological knowledge is composed of: Culture, social structure, and social interaction 7. Interactionist theories focus on____: Processes of social learning and development 8. A researcher is analyzing the effect of contact sport on the development of team spirit among teenage boys. To explain the conclusions of the thoughts of the boys and their values in the social worlds, the researcher would use the ____ theoryC : ultural 9. Using a critical approach, Micheal Messner's goal was to produce knowledge that could be used to _____ : Find solutions to social problems 10. Questions that guide research when using a critical approach to study sports in society: (1) who accepts and who resists the organization of mainstream sports, and what happens to those who resist? (2) What values, ideas, and beliefs are promoted through sports, and who is advantaged or disadvantaged by them? 11. Cultural theories is utilize concepts such as ____ : Values, norms, ideas, beliefs, ideology, symbols, and language associated with sports sports in society: (1) who accepts and who resists the organization of mainstream sports, and what happens to those who resist? (2) What values, ideas, and beliefs are promoted through sports, and who is advantaged or disadvantaged by them? 11. Cultural theories is utilize concepts such as ____ : Values, norms, ideas, beliefs, ideology, symbols, and language associated with sports 12. The goal of one's personal, experienc-e based data collection and theorizing is to ___: Make sense and gain control of one's life and the social worlds in which he or she lives 13. True statement about observational methods of collecting data? : Observations should be done from different vantage points to accurately study people 14. Ethnographies are limited because it is difficult to know whether they produce ____: can be used to understand other social worlds that have not been studied. 15. Identify how questions should be formulated for survey questionnaires: Questions must be clearly worded. 16. Research in sociology shows that people represent themselves and their groups with symbols and names that ___ : Reaffirm their favored identity 17. Structural theories emphasize concepts such as ___ : Status, roles, groups, authority, power relations, social control, social inequality, social institutions, organizations, and societies. 18. Sociology of sport knowledge can help people ___ : Detect bias and validity problems in their personal theories. 19. In-depth interviews are used instead of written questionnaires when researchers seek ___ :O pen-ended information about the details and underlying meanings of what people say and do 20. Quantitative methods are used when ____ :S ocial realities can be explained and understood by creating an overall view 21. Qualitative methods are used when researchers want to ____ :D iscover the meanings and ideologies that underlie what people say and do 22. Research in the sociology of sport, unlike personal research, is designed to answer questions that go beyond the ____ : Experiences and the social situations encountered by one person 23. According to the conclusions of Miceah Messner's study, _____ is much more than a social category or trait that identifies a person; instead, it consists of interrelated meanings, performances, and organization that become important aspects of social worlds: Gender 24. Mike Messner referred to identifiable social places or context as ____ : Sites 25. ____ are used in sociological research because they explain what individuals know about different forms of social organization and how they influence actions and relations: Structural theories become important aspects of social worlds: Gender 24. Mike Messner referred to identifiable social places or context as ____ : Sites 25. ____ are used in sociological research because they explain what individuals know about different forms of social organization and how they influence actions and relations: Structural theories 26. The goal of some sociologists who do observation research is to ____ : Extend or challenge our knowledge of familiar groups and social worlds 27. A research study discovered that the number of women who officiate in games is far lesser than the number of officiating men. This finding is an illustration of gender as _____: Organization Chapter 3: Sports & Socialization Who Plays and What Happens to Them? 1. David Andrews and his colleagues show that the significance of sports in the socialization that ccurs at the community and cultural level can be understood only in connection with ____ : Local history, ideologies, and power relations 2. Sharon Wheeler's findings suggest that short -term interventions designed to increase sport participation among young people outside of the culture in which children see sport involvement as normal part of their everyday lives are likely to fail if they ignore the___: Extent to which families serve as the contexts in which participation decisions are made and supported 3. Social world = Identifiable sphere of everyday actions and relationships 4. The study by Loic Wacquant on the social world of boxers in a gym located in a black neighborhood in Chicago helps one understaT nd: contexts in which athletes and others connected with sports form identities 5. Which of the following points has been made by Eric Anderson in his research on the social experiences of gay athletesT : e meanings given to sport experiences vary from one person to another 6. Identify an accurate statement about sport experiences: Sports are social locations rich in their potential for providing memorable and meaningful experiences 7. Which of the following models of socialization emphasizes that social learning occurs when people internalize the rules of society as they grow up in families, attend school, interact with peers, and receive messages through media?: The personal internalization model 8. According to sociologist Ivan Waddington, which of the following is a true connection between sports and health?: Health benefits decline when there is a shift self-controlled exercise to competitive sports 9. Identify an accurate statement about the connection between sport and messages through media?: The personal internalization model 8. According to sociologist Ivan Waddington, which of the following is a true connection between sports and health?: Health benefits decline when there is a shift self-controlled exercise to competitive sports 9. Identify an accurate statement about the connection between sport and obesity: Some competitive sports emphasize weight gain for some or all participants 10. Patti and Peter Adler's study of the social world of a high -profile college basketball team shows that the young basketball players ____ : Learned to set goals to succeed in basketball 11. Hegemony:C ontrol by gaining the consent and approval of other groups, including those who are being led or controlled. 12. Most current studies of sport and socialization are based on a ____ and use ____ methods: Social interaction model & qualitative research 13. According to the study by Peter Donnelly and Kevin Young, what are the factors that often influence become and staying involved in a sport? (1) Receiving social support for the formation of an athlete identity (2) Establishing social connections (3) being accepted in a sport culture 14. Studies of socialization as a community and cultural process focus on sports as sites at which _____ : People collectively create and learn stories 15. Data from Jay Coakley's studies indicated that ____ increased when sport programs were organized so that successful young athletes felt that they could accomplish important developmental tasks during adolescence: Stress 16. According to the findings of a study by Anita White and Jay Coakley, young people decided to play sports when it helped them ____ : Extend control over their lives and achieve development and career goals 17. What important point about socialization was raised by Patti and Peter Adler's study on how to self -conceptions of young men changed as they lived in the social world of bitime intercollegiate basketball? :Transferring the learning that occurs through participation to non-sport worlds is difficult. 18. Identify an assumption or the personal internalization model of socialization: Socialization is a one-way learning process 19. The social interaction model leads researchers to assume that human beings ____. : learn values and norms and develop as individuals as they interact with others and participate in social worlds 20. Social interaction model:O rganized around a combination of cultural, interactionist, and structural; theories Chapter 11: Sports And The Economy What Are the Characteristics of Commercial Sports? 1. Top professional men's sport source of income comes from G:a te 20. Social interaction model:O rganized around a combination of cultural, interactionist, and structural; theories Chapter 11: Sports And The Economy What Are the Characteristics of Commercial Sports? 1. Top professional men's sport source of income comes from G:a te receipts, media revenues, merchandise sales, licensing fees, and stadium revenues 2. As public spaces like stadiums are branded, community identities often come to be linked with brands, thereby converting the physical embodiments of local traditions and histories into highly visible signs that promote consumption and identify corporations as ____. : Providers of pleasure and excitement 3. Reserve system: A set of practices that enabled team owners to reserve the labor of athletes for themselves and control the movement of athletes from team to team in their sport 4. Television recruits new spectators of a sport by providing them with a means of learning the rules and strategies of the sport without ____ : Purchasing expensive tickets 5. How do commercial sport organizations become exporters of culture as well as products to be consumed? : (1) By marketing themselves outside their home countries (2) By developing strategies to develop identification with their sport, teams, and players 6. An _____ is a centralized group that coordinates the actions of a selected collection of people or businesses: Cartel 7. Which of the following is true of the organization and control of amateur sports in the United States: P olicies, rules, fund-raising strategies, and methods of operating all vary from one organization to the next 8. What are the factors that motivate wealthy fans to invest in sports and sport events? (1) The opportunity to build their egos, The chance to satisfy lifelong fantasies, The chance to socialize with celebrity athletes, and Instant celebrity status. 9. Governing bodies and Commercial sponsors control amateur sports 10. Commercial sport organizations are expanding into as many markets as possible because future profits for major professional sports depend on ____ : Selling media rights and consumer merchandise 11. Lockouts : staged by team owners & Strikes: staged by athletes 12. Studies commissioned by team owners to measure the economic impact of stadiums and professional teams on cities : Stadium construction infuses money into the local economy & professional teams attract regional and national; media attention, which boosts tourism 13. The belief that cities cannot have "major league status" unless they have professional sports teams and sport mega -events has enabled sports 12. Studies commissioned by team owners to measure the economic impact of stadiums and professional teams on cities : Stadium construction infuses money into the local economy & professional teams attract regional and national; media attention, which boosts tourism 13. The belief that cities cannot have "major league status" unless they have professional sports teams and sport mega -events has enabled sports team owner and promoters to ___: Receive public money 14. Which of the following involve changes in commercialized spectators sports? • Speeding up the action • Heightening attachment to players and teams • Balancing competition • Increasing scoring 15. Spectator involvement in sports is highest among who ___ : Believe in a meritocratic ideal 16. Newly developed sports: Commercialization has great influence & Long- established sportsC : ommericilization has less influence 17. According to sociologist Eric Dunning & Norbert Elias, sports provide activities in which rules and norms can be shaped to foster emotional arousal and exciting actions, thereby ___ :E liminating boredom W/O disrupting social order 18. When sports depend on the revenues they generate, control in sport organization shifts away from ____ : Athletes 19. When is the only time that athletes in individual sports can compete for major prize money and earn large incomes? : When sport events are broadcast on television 20. Team owners justify the reserve system in sports by arguing that if athletes could play in any team, the wealthiest owners would buy all the good athletes. What is the irony of this argument? : Team owners are free-market capitalists arguing against free -market processes
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