concepts of science study guide
concepts of science study guide SCHM 1010
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Bilek on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SCHM 1010 at Auburn University taught by richard sorrentio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Concepts of Science in Science at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Concepts of science study guide What physically defines an element?The Atomic Number Isotope: Atom of an element that has a different # of neutrons In an isotope what will always be the same? # of protons Most common isotope of Hydrogen 1:1 H What form of hydrogen is radioactive 3:1 H (tritium) What form of Carbon is radioactive? Carbon 14 Most common elements are present in... more than one isotope How do antacids work? The bases neutralize the acid in your stomach The simplest polymer Ethane (C2H4) Shorter Half Life: Shorter time to decay Amount of radioactivity in a given mass of a substance will decline over time in a predictable way Scientists use the ______ ratio to calculate the age of a rock. Daughter/Parent Isotope Study of fossil records? Paleontology Reactions that produce energy when heavy radioactive nuclei split apart into fragments that together have less mass than original isotopes? Nuclear Fission Process in a nuclear reactor in which nuclei undergoing fission produce neutrons that will cause more splitting, resulting in release of large amounts of energy? Chain Reaction Reactions that result in release of heat? Exothermic Endothermic: Absorption of heat (draw heat from surroundings) Can a hydrogen atom ionize? Yes, it loses an electron and the result is a proton Any molecule that releases protons? Acid Any molecule that accepts protons (makes covalent bond) Base Measurement of concentration of H ions in a solution? pH Number on pH scale of most basic, neutral, and acidic? 14, 7, 0 Extremely long and large molecule that is formed from numerous (similar) smaller molecules? Polymer Polymers in everyday life... Polyester, Plastic/Styrofoam, Nylon Polysaccharides in living systems... Cellulose, Starch, Glycogen, Chitin Nuclear Power Plant disasters... 3 Mile Island, Chernobyl, Fukishima Electrons in outer shell carry more.... Energy 1st shell can only hold 2 electrons 2nd shell can only hold 8electrons 3rd shell can only hold 18electrons 4th shell can only hold 36electrons when e are packed into lowest possible energy level 1st ground state gets rid through light/radiation (after 1st ground state) Excited State Emission (After Excited State) 2nd ground state Light that comes out has... less energy How large are atoms? picometer (10^-12) Where are electrons found? located in predictable 3D volumes of space (energy shells) What are valence e? Any e in highest level occupied energy shell Atoms are most thermodynamically stable when... valence shells are filled Strategies to fill a shell Accept, Lose, Share What is a covalent bond? Sharing pair e between two atoms How many elements are there? At least 118 How many elements are natural elements? 92 Heaviest naturally occuring element? Uranium How are elements arranged? By Atomic Number What is Atomic Number # of protons What is atomic mass? # of protons + # of neutrons The number of electrons = the number of protons Said atoms were spheres that nothing could be found within Dalton Identified e and said that there are positive and negative charges Thomson said positive charges concentrate in center Rutherford Said can move in any 3D around nucleus and have different energy levels but e cannot be in between energy levels Bohr Electrons in spherical shell around nucleus (closest to reality) Quantum Mechanical Sharing of a pair of e between 2 atoms Covalent Bond How many covalent bonds can hydrogen make? One How many covalent bonds can oxygen make? 2 How many covalent bonds can sulfur make? 2 How many covalent bonds can nitrogen make? 3 How many covalent bonds can carbon make? 4 How many covalent bonds can phosphorous make? 5 A stable and predictable association between at least 2 atoms Molecule Covalent bonds can form between atoms of 2 different elements to form... Compounds Atoms in a molecule can freely rotate about single... covalent bonds Electrons are shared equally Nonpolar Covalent Bonds (0.0-0.4) Electrons are shared unequally Polar Covalent Bonds (0.4-2) Electrons are transferred Ionic Bond (2-4) Atom that has (a net) electrical charge from loss/gain of (at least one) electron Ion Chemical Bond in which atoms are held to each other by electrostatic force Ionic Bond Ex of Ionic Bond Table Salt Chemical bond in which e are redistributed so that they are shared by all the atoms as a whole Metallic Bond Weak electrostatic attraction between positively charged H atom and negatively charged atom Hydrogen Bonds Weakest forces of all/very short electrostatic attraction between moving e in different molecules Van der Waals forces where is usable energy stored in a molecule? Bonds of covalent bonds (electrons) To break bonds you have to.... add energy Greatest ability to hog e? Oxygen Least ability to hog e? Phosphorous Distances are greatest for stationary objects; moving objects shrink in the direction of motion. As speed of light is approached, distances approach 0. Length Contraction Mass is lowest for stationary objects; moving objects become more massive. As speed of light is approached, mass approaches infinity Relativistic Mass Increase 1/2 (m)(v)^2 Kinetic Energy If mass can increase, then _______ increases Kinetic energy Mass possesses what? rest energy How to quantify rest energy of a mass E=mc^2 If you convert any mass into energy you will get ____ A tremendous amount of energy What predictions did General Relativity make? 1. Gravitational bending of light2. Precession of planetary orbits3. Gravitational redshift Oldest documentation of an atom Greece 5th c. BC Aristotle refers to him in a writing Leucippus First person to use an atom scientifically John Dalton Smalled unit of an element atom cannot be converted to simpler substances by ordinary chemical means Element Further subdivision is possible but the identity of original element is lost Modern Element All matter can be subdivided into atoms which cannot be subdivided further Ancient Element Thought elements were Earth, Wind, Water, and Fire Aristotle Leucippus said that atoms were... indivisible bodies, infinite in number and vary in shape How old is the idea of the atom? Eastern Hem (Macedonia/Nanda Empire) 335 BC For _____ of the 92 natural elements that have at least 1 radioactive isotope, ALL isotopes are ____. 35Radioactive Most abundant form of uranium U238 Break up of nucleus Decay Release of 2 protons and 2 neutrons as a mass Alpha Decay Same as saying "release of a Helium atom" Alpha Decay ______ changes the element Radioactivity Breaking apart of a neutron (breaks into proton and electron and neutrino) Beta Decay Release of a gamma ray Gamma Radiation _____ can be stopped by hand Alpha particles _____can be stopped by aluminum Beta particles ____ can be stopped by lead Gamma rays In _____ decay atomic # increases by 1 but atomic mass will NOT change Beta ____ makes it less energetic Gamma Radiation _____ will not be affected by magnetic field Gamma Rays Uranium 238 goes through decay series to produce what? Lead Time it takes for the half the number of atoms of a radioactive isotope to decay Half Life What is a frame of reference? Physical surroundings from which a person observes and measures the world Speed of light is ALWAYS what? the same speed Every observer must experience the same... natural laws Spreading out/expansion of time Time dilation most abundant dorm of carbon carbon 12 Force responsible for holding the nucleus together (in protons and in neutrons) Strong Nuclear Force What would it take to make something quicker? Apply force Energy necessary to supply the strong force Binding energy Sum of the parts is ______ than the individual parts Less Little ______ is made into energy Mass from protons and neutrons Difference in mass between larger atom and the components Mass Defect Spontaneous release of energy by certain atoms Radioactivity _____ of ______ naturally occurring elements have at least one radioactive isotope. 35 of 92 Nuclear plants are basically what? Steam engines What is the relationship between uranium and plutonium? Uranium 238 can be converted into plutonium Process in which 2 atomic nuclei come together to form a 3rd, larger nucleus Nuclear Fusion Only place where nuclear fusion regularly happens In a star and center of the sun When did a fusion reactor very briefly make enough energy for a fusion reaction? 2013 Clocks run fastest for stationary objects; moving clocks slow down time dilation Is water an element? NO Time passes more slowly on a flight than on the ground special relativity on time Flourescence is ______ NOT ______ Emission NOT reflection (it is sending out new light) States of matter Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma Behaves and acts like a gas; "ionized gas" Plasma State of matter where atom is not in tact Plasma State of matter where bonds are strong and directional Solid State of matter where the shape is fixed Solid State of matter where the volume is fixed? Solid and Liquid energy of position potential energy bond with 2 nonmetals covalent bond Doesn't sit still and is capable of changing shape links of single bonds how well atoms share electrons Polarity How to measure electrical force (K x q1 x q2)/r^2 Physical agents for carrying energy e in bonds electrons are lost by an atom and captured by another ionic bond electrons are lost by an atom and are not captured by another metallic bond
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