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POLI 201 study guide

by: Madison Chandler

POLI 201 study guide POLI 201 002

Madison Chandler

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review notes from TA's
American National Government
Dabling, Brandon
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in American National Government

Popular in Politics

This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Chandler on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLI 201 002 at Brigham Young University taught by Dabling, Brandon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Politics at Brigham Young University.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
We are created in the image of God  Physical nature  Relational nature  Reasoning ability** What is political philosophy?  The search for rational understanding of the most important matters  The best way to live, the best regime, what is justice, etc. Why a school?  Scriptural command: Doctrine and Covenants 88:118  A place of gathering for inquiring minds o Provide structure and facilitate learning  Sort and give connectedness to eternal truths: Why is this important? Mansfield, the importance of importance: Are humans important? Why? How do we know?  Assertion: humans think they are important and will “get in your face” about their importance  Reason: Reason and “soul” distinguish us from other things/creatures  Religion: Gives an account of man’s purpose and importance  Science? NO! It declares our unimportance. Improvements to political science  Reintroduce thumos  Use names and appreciate distinction THumos  Part of the soul that makes us insist on our importance Politics and anger  Politics is about what makes you angry  What do we do when we’re angry?  MADD  Private needs become public needs Limitations of science  Fails to understand thumos and people who shape society  Fails to comprehend what drives human action and societal change  Cannot determine if what it does is good  What does science say about the good or what we should do? How does God create?  Verbal command  By diving and separating, he creates meaning  Adam then gives names to everything. This required reasoning. You have to know what a thing is in order to name it. The second creation account  A flower will grow up to be a flower, but man is “evil” because he can choose to sin, rebel against god, reason instead of using god’s reasoning, therefore man is not good. The forbidden fruit  Legistlation of over-regulating  Autonomous reasoning: they could think for themselves and didn’t need God to think  Good and bad: sad, sick, not JUST evil. Refers to a wide spectrum of things  Why God prohibited Cain and Abel  Thumos gone wrong  Cain feels offended  Up to this point in the bible, there has been no official command that thou shalt not kill.  We knew that God knew about it because Cain asked him about it and Cain kinda fumbled, so he may have known it was wrong  This is what happens when God is not obeyed  God gives him protection City  Cain doesn’t trust the protection God gave him, so he builds the city specifically to protect himself and to not rely on God and what God wanted  They are using reasoning that God gave them, but what’s dangerous is that God isn’t saying they were wrong to build a city and they were wrong to build a city, but they didn’t know what they needed to thrive and in order to feel good and feel joy. God is saying that they need him and that it must be done in the right way Flood  Man’s nature is to be evil.  Something arises in man that makes them want to sin sometimes  They were cultivating technology, cities, etc. but they were still sinning  Cain murdered Abel and the commandment to not kill was never given  After the flood, after wiping them out, he THEN gives them a law because they were not using their reasoning properly. Tower of Babel  Another way man tries to reason and provide for themselves without the aid of God  Even though God promised not to flood the either, they built a tower to protect themselves “just in case”  They were trying to rely on themselves and be self-sufficient instead of relying on God and His revelation and what He wanted them to do  They picked a name for themselves A chosen people  God recognizes man has a need for thumos and wants to be important  With Abraham, instead of trying to cut that off, he tells Abraham that if he follows God, God will make him great.  MORAL OF GENESIS: All these stories are meant to show that man needs to rely on God’s revelation and not their reasoning alone ***check lecture slides, apply this knowledge and not “Sunday school” knowledge  Self-evident: if you understand what something is, etc.  If you understand what man is, you understand that they have rights  Man has a reasoning ability and can govern themselves, they are not meant to be ruled over.  Lincoln made an argument over slavery: if you depend it on skin color, the end of the argument is that anybody smarter than you has the right to rule over you, which is not right Equality and Humanity  If everybody thinks they have the agency to do whatever they want, there are no rules to apply to everybody because they are their own person  German doctors WWII o Handicapped people, etc. so the Germans thought that they were using up their resources and they just wanted everybody to thrive, so if they killed the handicapped, they would have more resources for everybody else o Their life is not tied to dignity: Equality be default. Rights are not tied to dignity, but just the right to have them.  Cannot have a happy state if you don’t have a happy regime, so gov’t needs to rule properly  Multiplication of rights in a chaotic way comes when we don’t tie rights to dignity=equality by default=rights not tied to dignity Rather dry…(NOT ON THE TEST)  Top part is important, NOT bottom  Locke=equal, govern themselves, don’t need to be governed by others  Marx equality=the same  Today=the radicilazation and loss…  There is no “best” way to live. When we say best, we mean how they ought to live. There is a standard of humanity and when you get rid of that, you have equality by default Substantial equality  When you have rights that are tied to dignity  More similarities than there are differences  Rooted in a higher good, but NOT based on divinity and us being children of God Equality by default  “good” is a point of view  there is no good or best way to live  there is no standard for the way that humans ought to act The argument in a nutshell  everyone can be super and when everyon’e super, no one will be. Homer’s Iliad  zeuss took his favorite concubine  Agememnon wants to take down Achilles  Agememnon thinks he is the leader because of his organizing and strategizing, Achilles thinks that he is. Agememnon takes Achilles’ concubine  Greeks start losing badly  Private wrongs become private: Achilles stopped fighting and caused the Greeks to start losing  Pride is bad Hera’s Treachery  Teaches us that the greek gods are very human in their attributes  Hera seduces her husband and causes sleep to overpower him  They seduce, are about love, desire, flattery, etc. Very human desires  Message: moderate your passions Odyssey  Odysseus lands on the island with the cyclops  Odysseus talks them into staying, but they are captured, so he comes up with a plan to escape and they do, but several men are killed  Cunning, ambition, curiosity, etc. are good traits, but they need to be moderated. Thucydides  How did Pericles Funeral Oration  Speaking at a funeral of young soldiers who died in pel. War  Trying to encourage others to fight for Athens: you will be honored if you do so  Talks about why Athens is great  They have the “good” things: culture, etc., can fight  The Spartans only care about fighting and honor, but Athens is different because it has other things  All about honor. The unknown soldier. The unknown soldier receives so much respect, how much more will the others receive whose names are known Melian dialogue  Using your powers to overpower others  Athens stands for equality, but in the melian dialogue, they are threatening and aren’t tolerant and say they will crush the Melians anyways  How has Athens changed throughout the wars? o Funeral oration and melian dialogue, how they act differently in both ways. They say they are one way, but act differently another time  Melians weren’t being realistic, weren’t giving in. They were saying the gods would help them  Sometimes choices are limited, but it is important to use reasoning and ability to make the best choice possible Antigone  Wants to bury her brother to honor him  Private rights and private need she thinks she has  King says that if he is kind to her, then other people will want to be exempted as well  Antigone=private, Creon=public  As a ruler, he needs to show that these are the laws so the people will obey.  Antigone says that if she doesn’t bury him, then it is wrong and dishonoroable  Weakness in creon’s argument=punishment doesn’t fit the crime  R2D2=people like to emphasis drastic consequences, but that isn’t correct. Punishment doesn’t fit the crime  If Antigone can break the law based on her higher understanding of something above the law…etc.  Identify strengths and weakness of Antigone’s argument and Creon’s argument  Center it on how she had a private good that deserved to be made public=she was using her thumos to take her private need and make it a public need  When Creon says Antigone is dangerous, it isn’t because she defies him, but because she glories in her defiance. She goes around and tells everyone that she is going to do this. So now Creon can’t make an exception because then everybody will know. She is trying to follow Zeuss and the god’s laws.  Antigone is worried more about her family than the law: honoring family is more important  DON’T NEED TO KNOW ULTIMATE RESULT The Clouds  Aristophanes using humor to show how absurd Socrates is  Weaker argument the stronger  Son tries to correct the father: tries to beat him to correct him because his father did that as well. Beat to correct because we love. Father was in his “second” childhood  Aristophanes is showing that this is what Socrates is doing  Cost of pol. Philosophy o According to aristophanes, philosophy is dangerous because it questions traditional, moral values that allow a city to function. Puts standard of justice up for question.  Socrates’ philosophy is useless The apology  Denying traditional values, not just the gods. You don’t value the city’s traditions, you reject them  Socrates delivers a weak defense: Delphi, why he’s doing things, shows that he obviously believes in the gods  Doing bad to him: I wouldn’t corrupt the young because then they could do that to me and I don’t want that to happen o Doing bad to the horses o He is a horse trainer and helps the youth become better and the others don’t help the youth become better  Real defense o What I’m trying to do is help the city be good/find the good for the city o Care more about souls, virtue, highest good than I do teach them to focus on their physical needs o Go beyond bodily needs in order to reach a higher level  Gadfly o When it bites, the horse is startled, upset, not in a good mood. Socrates understands that it is going to be hard for Athens and won’t be something that they readily accept o He is willing to be a martyr for this because he believes that higher good is what they need to thrive  Compatible? o Political life should be centered on philosophy: brings out the best in them o In order to do that, the laws have to be geared towards that. o Philosophy, for Socrates, is centered in political life  Weaker argument stronger o Uses rationality in order to make things that seem absurd become important o Socrates doesn’t actually say it’s ok to beat your father o He is rationalizing something that is wrong in order to justify it. o It is more about being technically right instead of morally right Crito  Friend of Socrates talking to him in jail  He could smuggle him out  Even if there were unjust conclusions, it is still through the law  I can’t make an exception because then the law is at risk. There must be a universal understanding of justice  He is ready to be a martyr for the highest good: he wants this to be an emphasis  So many thought about what Socrates did in order to teach that highest principle  In everything Socrates does, he never says that it’s ok to counter and break the law. He says that sometimes the law needs to be changed, so let’s discuss it and reason it out in order to determine the highest good and to help the people flourish.  Because of the law, I grew up to be the man that I am today. Without the laws, that may not have happened. o By breaking the law, you reject the good things that the law has done for you  To go against them now would be unjust o I could have left Athens, but I decided to say here, and because I did that, I consented to be governed by these laws, so I must stay with the sentence given to me by the law Lyceum  Lincoln’s speech  Says what Socrates did o Human beings need to obey the law, because if they don’t, they make a mockery of the law  At the time in America, there was a lot of mob justice and he was trying to resolve it  A black man committed murder and was killed by a mob instead of the law creating justice  Argument against mob mentality  Still happens in modern time. Aristotle part of the soul  Thumos=spiritedness, heart  Passion=stomach, loins  Reasoning=head *graded on reasoning, known key concepts, can explain how you want, just explain well and make sure they know what we’re talking about *know the main concepts of things *essays more developed, more specific *explain the vocab, assume they haven’t been taking the class yet, like you’re explaining it to your roommate How athen’s view on justice changed  Funeral=justice, being right  Melian dialogue=we will destroy you cause you’re a threat, we can do this to you because we are powerful and you are weak


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