Test 2 Study Guide
Test 2 Study Guide POLISCI 1337
Popular in American and Texas Government II
Popular in Political Science
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
Pols 1337 US Govt Congress Pres and Crts
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natasha Hede on Tuesday March 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POLISCI 1337 at University of Houston taught by Jeronimo Cortina in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 157 views. For similar materials see American and Texas Government II in Political Science at University of Houston.
Reviews for Test 2 Study Guide
You're awesome! I'll be using your notes all semester :D
-Mr. Meda Mayert
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/31/15
PoliSci Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 23 Texas Legislature 1 JUN Legislature is most imp agency in state government without it money cannot be spent taxes cannot be levied state laws cannot be enactedchanged and constitution cannot be amended Two houses half are elected every 2 years half every four years Methods of Election a single member districts each legislative district has 1 member in body voters elect one House and Senate member to represent district Texas has overall 31 members b multimember districts two or three members per district creates ethnic and political minority diversity Reappointment and Redistricting Issues a Congress reapportion seats in House of Representatives every 10 yrs Texas Constitution does this following every federal census Texas reapportions and redistricts its legislative areas after the federal census is taken b equity of representation in order to resolve inequality of representation Texas Constititution created Legislative Redistricting Board LRB which is made up of lieutenant governor speaker of house attorney general controller of public accounts commissioner of genera land office c minority represent 1981 session produced redistricting and reapportionment plan that advanced representation in both houses d Rise of Republican Party gerrymandering has increased supports creation of racially gerrymandering majority and minority districts invalidation e reapportionment process of allocating representatives to districts f redistricting process of drawing district lines Redistictring in the 20005 a 2001 LRB did reredistricting b until 2003 Republican party accused opponents of gerrymandering to reduce its strength in suburban areas c Texas House has 150 members Steps of House legislative process A lieutenant governor can in uence Senate by referring bills to committee picking committee members and chairs Quali cations to be Texas House member lived in Texas for two years be a US Citizen be a registered voter and be at least 21 years old 8 Speaker of Texas house is chosen by majority vote from members of House 9 The Impact of Informal Quali cations a representatives tend to represent their District birthright characteristics b Latino and African Americans have increased in legislature due to reapportionment c Percentage of Attorney in Texas legislature is much higher than average legislature 10 Size of Legislative Districts a District size matters because affects process of getting elected b Population characteristics and land area greatly affect money needed for campaigns the time campaigning and constituency services 11 Competition for Office a safe election districts noncompetitive districts that can be won only by the party with 55 percent or more of the votes in the district b Party voting is a measure of the strength of a political party in the legislative district based on voter support for party s candidates in previous elections c Safe election districts exist in South and East Texas 12 Legislative Turnover a turnover of new members of legislature each session high in all state legislatures and typically higher for lower house than upper chamber b term limits limiting of times one can be elected to same of ce Texas legislature has self imposed term limits 13 Legislative Procedures a rules that prescribe how bills are passed into law and make process of passing laws more orderly and fair also make it harder to pass laws i prevent bills fro becoming law wo careful review also preserve status quo 14 Leadership Roles a Speaker of the house rst formal act of members spends good amount of tie lining up supporters before session begins often receives committee assignments b can appoint chairs of all committees members of each standing committee refer all bills to committees appoint members of calendar and proceduralconferencespecialinterim committees and serve as presiding officer over all sessions c Texas HoR used to go on bipartisan basis this disappeared in 2003 d incumbent speakers almost always reelected e Lieutenant governor is elected by voters for a 4 yr term in general election is not a senator cannot vote except when it is a tie is basically a gurehead but can appoint chairs of all Senate committees select all members of Senate committees appoint members and serve as presiding of cer must play a delicate balancing role of working with Senate and compromising chair of committees and committee membership only 5 states give LG the power to appoint committee members and assign bills to committees f The Role of Committees interim committees temporary committees of the legislature that study issues between regular sessions and make recommendations on legislation g How a Bill Becomes a law vast majority of bills fail to pass few bills are passed in any given legislative session and only few bills make minor changes to existing laws I ii iii Vl vii viii xi xii xiii Bill is introduced read for rst time referred to committee by Senate Bill is favorably reported Bill goes to Calendar Committee Bill gets a second reading Bill gets a third reading Bill goes to conference committee if needed rider subject matter item or money item attached to appropriation bills closed riders closed to the public and appear only after bills have passed House and Senate Calendars used by state legislatures to distinguish between major controversial bills and minorlocal bills Texas uses a local and consent calendar in both chambers LocalConsent Calendar Committee committee that handles minor bills and approves them if not approved sen to Calendar Committee Three calendars for major bills emergency calendar the major state calendar general state calendar major and minor bills are similar in that they originate in either chamber equally liked to be vetoed and receive nal action toward end of legislative session xiv differ in that major bills introduced earlier companion bills are introduced in othe chamber more frequently for major bills than minor bills major bills are more evenly distributed across committees minor bills are more concentrated in few committees major bills are amended more frequently than minor major bills are more likely to be killed nal actions to kill major bills occur later in session h WorkloadLogjams i legislation is passed within nal two weeks of session 80 of bills pass in this time period ii bills can be introduced at any time before session and up to the 60th day of session after this day only local bills emergency appropriationsmatters and bills with 45 vote of House may be introduced iii informal rules legislative norms that all state legislators must learn i Representational Roles i delegates sent by voters to represent voters interests ii trustees entrusted by voters to make decisions based on best judgement iii members usually play both of these roles dependent on how issues affect district j Texas Legislature i two imp measures annual salary and number of days legislature is in session money that is available for staff assistance ii TX provides more money for legislative staff than any other state iii SalaryBuilding facilities alright salaries are considerably lower in comparison to other states this pay has not changed in 30 years due to rejection by voters k Annual Sessions i Texas meets in biennial sessions once every two years beginning in januaryevery 140 days ii end of every 140 days must adjournsine die and cannot hold extraordinary sessions iii Only the governor may call special sessions not more than 30 days each to consider legislation by governor only Has ability to set the topic of conversation Chapter 20 State Constitution 1 All states national government have written constitutions that provide broad outlines of gov state constitutions diverge greatly UN 7 in length and longetivity as well as type of government structureamendment they establish Are also product of political culture of a state Constitutions under Republic of Mexico a First constitution to govern Anglos in Texas was Republic of Mexico s constitution of 1824 which was federalist and had a clear break wSpanish centralist tradition b Second constitution which was approved in 1827 provided for unicameral legislature lacked a bill of rights Republic of Texas Constitution of 1836 a Texas declared itself a republic independent of Mexico created new constitution which provided for a unitary rather than federal form of government b limited term of president to 3 year term and was prohibited from raising an army wo Congress consent c freedom of religion property rights protection slavery legaHzed Statehood Constitution of 1845 a rst State constitution women granted property rights equal to that of men in marriage person s homestead was protected from forced sale to pay debts b provided for limited executive authority biennial sessions of the legislature and two year terms for most officials Civil WarReconstruction Constitution of 186118661869 a 1861 same as 1845 document prohibition against emancipation of slaves to secede from Union and join Confederacy b 1866 rejoining Union after Civil War abolished slavery nulli ed the ordinances of secession renounced right of future secession and repudiated wartime debts of the state c 1869 Reconstruction constitution carpetbagger constitution radical departure from past 4 year term for governor county courts abolished Constitution of 1876 a re ected antigovernment sentiments of traditionalistic individualistic political culture of the state b reimposed shorter terms of office c reestablished many statewide and local elected offices and severely restricted the ability of the government to act d powers of both legislature and governor were restricted e centralized state school system abolished and replaced by local control of schools with state funding 8 Political Culture and Constitutions a political culture drives institutions Reconstruction constitution centralized power in state gov and reduced b C authority of local governments gave governor power to appoint statelocal of cials and state judiciary Most ideas face rejection from voters demand for greater decentralization of decisions down to local level Traditionalist vs conservatism clash representative through the constant con ict of voters in policy changes 9 Principles of State Constitutions 10 11 12 13 14 a an Constitutions establish on principles of self government popular sovereignitylimited government constitutions written by popularly elected convention of citizens and are approved by them re changes Texas Constitution is a product of the state s individualistictraditionalistic political culture Separation of Powers in State Constitutions embrace idea of separation of powers provided in Constitution divided among elected executive legislature and judiciary all done by voters Bill of Rights in State Constitutions Civil liberties protections in state constitutions duplicate those found in US document state constitutions are still more generous in granting liberties though Supreme Law of State any state or local law that con icts with state constitution is invalid state constitution superior to state law and actions by local government Structure of State Constitutions ldeal characteristics I should be broad and exible ii provide broad grants of power to speci c agencies and hold government officials accountable for actions iii infrequent deliberate and signi cant formal amendments While the US Constitution holds these ideals most State constitutions do not Texas has 467 amendments Generalizations about state constitutions l weak executives and strong legislatures ii contain articles on taxation and nance that limit how funds can be spent iii Taxes are earmarked taxes estab for a purpose iv few constitutions prohibit de cit expenditures unless approved by voters in form of bond election v large amounts of trivia Revising State Constitutions a two steps proposing amendments and citizen approval for Texas it must be 23 of house of legislatures to approve b constitutional convention method that allows legislature to submit to voters the question of calling this meeting to propose amendments c Patterns of Amending i frequency of change state constitutions are amended more frequently than US since It has a wider range of functions ii change also due to length the longer it is the more likely it is to be amended iii method of amending usually proposed by state legislatures Chapter 12 Congress 1 Origins of Congress a Bicameral two house legislature with one House Representatives would be based on population and Senate would be state representation b Senate is a more elite deliberative institution that is not subject to the whims of the mass politics and lower house counterpart 2 Congressional Electoins a House members elected every 2 years b 13 of Senate elected every 2 years c lncumbency status of already holding office strongly in uences a candidate s ability to raise money Win reelections because i stronger name recognition ii easier access to media coverage iii campaign contributions iv Incumbents garner an enormous proportion of contributions v casework vi franking sending mail free of charge 3 Reapprortionment and Redistricting a Reapportionment reallocation of seats in House of Rep on basis of changes in state s population since last census every 10 yrs b Redistricting redrawing of congressional district boundaries wl a state based on reapportionment c goal can sometimes be to protect House incumbents results in gerrymandering practice of drawing legislative redistrict boundaries to bene t an incumbent political pa y d gerrymandering usually legal majorityminority district gerrymandering so that there is more diversity amongst the Congress though this is illegal unless it s applied to other districts as well 4 Powers of Congress a have a distinct impact on our everyday lives b Congress has a huge source of power reforming national healthcare system determining powers of law enforcement stem cell research powers not enumerated in Constitution but can be used bc of broad scope and authority by the proper clause c also derives from Supreme Court decisions media and people law ability to sway public decision create favorable climate for legislation 5 Functions of Congress a Models of Representation vi trustee model member follows hisher own conscience when deciding issues instructed delegate model legislator should vote in keeping with the constituents views even if they contradict the legislator s personal views Pork barrel appropriations of funds for special projects located within their congressional district politics earmarks designation within spending bill that provides for speci c expenditure This can be circumvented through lettermarking Congress member writes a letter asking that an appropriation made to a government agency be used for a project in the member s district Phonemarking basically the same thing except through phone call b Casework providing representation through personal aid to a constituent group by getting government to do something the constituent wants done usually they serve with ombudsperson electedappointed representative who acts as citizen s advocate by listening to their needs and investigating their complaints with respect to a particular government agency casework is v important for legislators easy for members of Congress makes incumbent members more likely to be elected than challengers who do not enjoy that loyalty c Policy making Constitution invests Congress to make policies but also extends to operations and priorities of governmental departments and agencies Oversight process by which Congress checks executive branch to ensure that the laws Congress passes are being administered in keeping with the legislator s intentions Congress engages in agenda setting determining which public policy issues the federal legislature should consider Congress serves as key agent in molding the scope of civic engagement and discourse
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'