CHEM 116 Exam #2 Study Guide
CHEM 116 Exam #2 Study Guide Chem 116
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophia Valla on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 116 at West Virginia University taught by Xu in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Chemistry in Chemistry at West Virginia University.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
CHEM 116 Exam #2 Study Guide Integrated Rate Law ● Equation of how [A] varies with time −△[A] Rate= △t 0th Order Rxn ● Rate = constant 0 Rate=k[A]❑ →rate=k [A]❑=[t]❑ −kt0 0th Order Half Life 1 [A]❑ 0 T = 2 2k 1st Order Rxn −kt ln[ A]❑tln[A]❑ −k0 or [A]❑=[t]❑ e❑ 0 1st Order Half Life ● All radioactive decay rxns are 1st order 1 ln2 T = 2 k 2nd Order Rxn 1 1 = +kt [A]❑ t [A]❑ 0 2nd Order Half Life 1 1 T 2 k[A]❑ 0 Rxn Mechanisms ● Molecularity # of particles involved in elementary steps Molecularity (rare) 1 molecule dissociation 1 uni (popular) 2 molecules collide 2 bi (rare) 3 molecules collide 3 ter Molecularity Rate Law A → B+C 1 rate = k [A] A+B 2 rate = k [A] [B] 2 A+A 2 rate = k [A]❑ A+B+C 3 rate = k [A][B][C] 2 A+A+B 3 rate = k [A]❑ [B] A+A+A 3 rate = k [A❑ 3 ● Intermediate product of earlier step and reactant of a later step ○ Not in net reaction ● Catalyst substance repeated in an earlier step then produced in the same form in a later step ○ Speed up or slow down rxn ● Slowest step is the rate determining step Collision Theory and the Relationship of K and T ● In order for a collision to make a rxn ○ Is it energetic enough? (heat it up) ■ T ↑ KE ↑ ○ Does it have the correct orientation? Transition States ● High PE = unstable Arrhenius Eqn −E❑a k=Ae❑ RT * E❑ a in Joules * R = 8.314 J/mol*K 1 lnk=ln A+(−E❑ /Ra( )T k❑ 2 −E❑ a 1 1 *if there are 2 values ln = ( − ) k❑ 1 R T❑ 2 T ❑1 Chemical Equilibrium A+B↔C+D ● Forward rate ○ [Reactants] ↓ Rate ↓ rate=k❑ [ A][B] f ● Reverse rate ○ [Products] ↑ Rate ↑ rate=k❑ [C][D] r ● When k❑ =f❑ r all conc. remain unchanged ● Reaction is @ equil. when all reactants/products conc. are constant with time aA+bB↔cC+dD a b c d *(@ equil. ) k❑ [f]❑ [B]❑ =k❑ [C]❑ [r]❑ c d k❑ f [C]❑ [D]❑ k❑ = a b=K❑ c r [ A]❑ [B]❑ *K ❑ c = equil. Constant 1. Value is temperature dependent 2. Value is independent to the initial conc. of reactants/products 3 K ❑ c10❑ [P] >> [R] *forward rxn almost complete −3❑ K ❑ c10❑ [R] >>[P] * forward rxn hardly proceeds *EXCLUDE ANY SOLID OR LIQUID FROM EQUIL.CONSTANT EXPRESSION (ONLY GASES) 2C❑ +(s)❑ ↔2C2❑(g) (g) ❑ 2 O¿ ¿ ¿ *no C❑ (s) 2 2 K ❑ = [CO]❑ →K ❑ = [CO]❑ c [C]❑ [O❑ ] c ¿ 2 K ❑ P ● Equil constant in terms of partial pressure (gas phase rxns) aA❑ +(g) ↔cC❑(g)D❑ (g) (g) c d ❑ PC❑ PD❑ K ❑ P a b PA❑ PB❑ K ❑ △n P=kc(RT)❑ Δ n=n❑ gas product gasreactant Reaction Quotient ( Q❑ ¿c ● Same format with kc but with no equil concs. Q❑ >K❑ Q❑ = [P]↓ c c c [R]↑ *need to decrease *proceeds left Q❑ <K❑ c c *proceeds right Q❑ =c ❑ c *@ equil
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