MC 3343 Test 1 Review
MC 3343 Test 1 Review 3343
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Notetaker on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3343 at Texas State University taught by Charles Kaufman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro to Public Relations in Mass Communication, PR at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
MC3343 REVIEW QUESTIONS: TEST 1, 1. What is the term used to describe delegating PR tasks to someone outside the PR firm? “Outsourcing” – Outsourcing is the delegation of noncore operations from internal staff to an external entity, usually a PR firm which will handle some, if not all, of the PR related tasks for a company, individual, or organization. 2. In terms of public relations, what is meant by “gatekeepers?” Who are they? “Gatekeepers” In general gatekeepers control the flow of information or access to it. For public relations gatekeepers are editors and reporters who chose which news stories to cover, what angle to take, which facts to include, and where a story will appear in a publication or on air. 3. What does IMC stand for? “IMC” IMC stands for Integrated Marketing Communication, is an effort by an organization to coordinating its messages across all departments of an organization to provide a consistent voice and view of that organization from an external perspective with the hopes of maximizing the impact of an organizations messages. 4. Understand the various advantages of using a PR firm to handle an organization’s PR needs. Most organizations perform some portion of their PR needs inhouse meaning that their staff will accomplish a portion of the PR work The advantages of PR firms over inhouse PR staff is that PR firms have access to resources and specialists and very few inhouse PR departments can ever hope to attain. Additionally, PR firms provide an unbiased, outside, and “fresh” perspective on the organizations image, PR needs, and what additional services beyond just PR (including advertising, marketing, research, etc.) an organization might need. 5. What is meant when PR firms handle work “inhouse?” “inhouse” Inhouse refers to an organization, company, or individual who performs all or a portion of their PR work internally using their own staff without hiring an externality PR firm. 6. When PR practitioners work deliberately and strategically, are they proactive or reactive? Proactive. When a PR practitioner is working deliberately and strategically to control a company, organization, or individual’s public image then they are proactively working to create strategies and objectives to handle and defuse potential threats before they become an issue that can affect their client’s public image. 7. When an organization is on the defensive – for example, a product recall – is it being proactive or reactive? Reactive. When a PR firm is working reactively they are focusing on immediate issues and responding to crisis as they come. Usually communication with the public comes after an issue has arisen that can threaten a company, organization, or individuals public image. Reactive also focus more on the daytoday aspects of PR such as releasing noncrisis news releases or announcing a change, merger, creation, or dissolving of a product or service. 8. Understand the use of the word “flack.” “Flack” Flack was used as a derogatory term given by journalists for PR practitioners. Dating back to the 1930’s “flack” was originally a military term given to the defensive weapons employed by the German army to knock down incoming enemy aircraft. 9. Understand the difference between a publicist and a spin doctor. “Publicists” Publicists are PR professionals that have a singular task of seeking out media coverage that relates to their client. Their job is to attract publicity or positive public opinion of their client through the creation of events, promotions, or endorsements that cause brand awareness. 10. What is meant by spin? “Spin” Spin is the term given by journalists to describe the way that PR practitioners often filter a story or clients through a positive perspective whether merited or not. This usually means taking negative information and finding a positive way to present that same information to the public. In modern PR this usually means finding a way to present truthful news in positive or beneficial light to the public. 11. What do Edelman, BursonMarsteller, FleishmanHillard all have in common? All are PR firms. Edelman, BursonMarsteller, FleishmanHillard all have one thing in common, they are well known and revered PR firms operating on a global level. 12. What profession involves buying space and time in mass media, generally for the purpose of selling products and services? “Advertising” Advertising involves the practice of creating advertisements and other promotional media to be placed in mass media with the purpose of selling a product or service. 13. How important is writing as a skill in the public relations industry? Writing is very important to PR. Since most of PR revolves around communicating with a large audience about sensitive issues through speeches, press releases, and social media writing appropriately and clearly for information being presented is key. 14. What does an organization or business have to do to develop a good reputation? In order for a company, organization, or individual to maintain a good reputation they must communicate honest, ethically, and openly with their publics. This is done through strategic planning, clear objectives, open communication and lightening quick reaction to crises as they arise. 15. Understand the differences between oneway and twoway communication. “Oneway communication” Oneway communication is linear and limited because it occurs in a straight line from sender to receiver and serves to inform, persuade or command. Sender —> Message —> Receiver “Twoway communication” Twoway communication always includes feedback from the receiver to the sender and lets the sender know the message has been received accurately. Sender —> Encoding (Message) —> Channel (Method) —> Decoding (Understanding) —> Receiver —> Feedback —> Sender 16. Understand differences between marketing and PR. “Marketing” Marketing involves the 4P’s product, price, placement, and promotion. Marketing is about promoting and selling a product to an external audience through mass communication with the public. Marketing has a guaranteed placement of its message through paid time slots in media. “Public Relations” Public relations is all about preserving a company, organization, or individual’s image with the public. PR’s messages does not have guaranteed placement due to fickly gatekeepers, mainly editors and journalists that decide which messages to broadcast. PR while strategic, objective, planned, and reactive at times its main goal is to spin a less than ideal truth into a positive and beneficial outcome. 17. Which is more credible with the public, a newspaper story or a newspaper advertisement? Newspaper story. A newspaper story is a collection of a journalists research findings about a particular topic or object. Journalists write newspaper articles from an unbiased and objective viewpoint with the sole purpose of relaying information to the general public. On the other hand newspaper advertisements are heavily biased and sole purpose is to affect change to the general public’s perception or viewpoint towards a product or service. 18. What public relations pioneer is associated with the “torches of freedom” cigarette campaign? Edward Bernays 19. Who introduced the phrase “engineering of consent?” Edward Bernays, who argued that much like the profession of engineering an effective public relations department, firm, or practitioner can engineer a publics opinion through strategic, persuasive, and timely communication. 20. What is the Voice of America? An organization of the U.S. Government that broadcasts radio and television propaganda to other countries around the world. 21. Who was known as the “patron saint of promoters?” PT Barnum of Barnum & Bailey Circus was a promotion genius. PT Barnum used flashy showmanship to entice and attract attention to their show. 22. Which PR pioneer articulated the first “Declaration of Principles” that outlined the first code of behavior for PR? Ivy Ledbetter Lee. It called for honest communication with the public on behalf of a client. He helped to evolve the job of the public relations practitioner from promoter and press agent to counselor. 23. Edward Bernays believed reaching what group of influential people in making sure messages reached the masses? “Two Stepflow” which is the PR strategy of targeting opinion leaders, whose opinions will trickle down to those they influence in the broader audience. 24. What famous event in American revolutionary times could be characterized as a staged PR event or PR stunt? Boston Tea Party 25. Thomas Edison squared off against whom in his battle over a standard for electric systems in the U.S.? George Westinghouse. Edison and his electric company General Electric owned patents for a power current called “Direct Current” or DC. On the other hand George Westinghouse and The Westinghouse Company owned patents for a power current called “Alternating Current” or AC. 26. Know Arthur Page’s contribution to the PR industry. President of public relations at AT&T he helped to make PR widely accepted as of the dominant coalition in the executive suite of large corporations. Additionally, Page helped give credibility to public relations as a viable part of the business model by providing ethical guidelines for PR practitioners 27. In terms of PR history, who was Amos Kendall? A Kentucky newspaper editor and was the first presidential press secretary in the 1820’s under Andrew Jackson’s administration. 28. Which PR pioneer earned the title Poison Ivy? How did he get this reputation? Ivy Ledbetter Lee after the massacre at Ludlow. 29. How is Pope Gregory XV related to the word “propaganda?” Pope Gregory XV is the first one to use the Latin word for propaganda, “propagare”. He used in his book "Congregation for propagating the Protestantism" which helped spread propaganda about the Catholic Church. The term originally referred to the missionary efforts of the Catholic Church. 30. Who is famous for saying, “The public be damned?” What does this mean? “William Henry Vanderbilt” – He uttered this statement during an era where corporations controlled the market completely, so the public and their opinions could be damned. 31. Understand various communication theories: The surveillance function of media; and the hypodermic needle theory. Cognitive Needs (Also called “Media Surveillance”, which states that people have a need to learn more about the world through media) “Hypodermic Needle Theory” The “Hypodermic Needle Theory” suggests that media have an immediate and powerful effect on audiences. Paul Lazerfield and other scholars in the 1950’s set out to address the contemporary concern about the era of propaganda related to WWII and the Cold War. Also called the “magic bullet” the theory further stated that communicators could so powerfully project a messages it could be “shot” into audiences head and effect immediate change. 32. What is meant by the term branding? How does a product get branded? Branding is the process of using a name, design, symbol or any combination to allow an organization to distinguish and differentiate itself from one another in the public’s eye. 33. Who promoted Joice Heth as part of a circus atmosphere? PT Barnum known for his less than ethical PR practices promoted former slave Joice Heth as being the 161 years old and the former nanny for President George Washington. This one of the very first examples of puffery which is where advertising claims something that no one actually believes. 34. What PR pioneer was related to Sigmund Freud? How did this relationship contribute to the development of public relations strategic thinking? Edward Bernays. This relationships changed the way that Bernays thought about PR. Freud and Bernays communicated often and because of this Bernays took the approach of applying modern social science to PR practices. 35. What is meant by the term “muckraker,” and what U.S. president coined the term? Coined by President Teddy Roosevelt who used it to describe the reporters who do investigative journalism. Came from his perception that investigative journalists looked downward to rake filth or muck. Originally meant to have a negative connotation towards the press, but was taken w/ pride later. 36. Who was in charge of propaganda for the United States during World War I? George Creel 37. What is puffery? Legal exaggeration in advertising and public relations. No factual claims made. For example when a product claims to be the “best” the audience understands that it is not factually the best. 38. What is a euphemism? Innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggestive of something unpleasant. In PR they are used to make light of a situation that given an unmasked or straight explanation might lead to a negative viewpoint of their client. 39. Think about common examples of Acronyms. B.B.C British Broadcasting Company Acronyms are especially helpful when used by PR practitioners to communicate with a large audience, they help aid the flow of communication and lend credibly to a statement about a specific top they encapsulate. 40. Understand Ethos, Logos and Pathos as parts of the process of persuasion. Ethos is appeal based on the credibility of an information’s source. (Ethical Character) Logos is an appeal to logic or reason. Why, rationally should someone believe a message? (Reason / Logic) Pathos is an appeal to emotion. Fear, pity, love, anger, patriotism, and loneliness are emotions that resonate strongly with people. (Emotion) 41. Understand the differences between “perception” and “reality.” Perception is a way of regarding, understanding, or interpreting something; a mental impression of a corporation, organization, or individual. It may or may not be an accurate representation of the actual reality. Reality is the ultimate truth regarding a corporation, organization, or individual. It is always the accurate representation of an object. 42. Understand various functions of PR today: media relations, problem solving, event planning, crisis communication, branding, and speechwriting, creating and managing social media platforms. • Media relations involves working with media for the purpose of informing the public of an organization's mission, policies and practices in a positive, consistent and credible manner. • Problem solving for PR practitioners this means constantly coming up with ways to manage minicrisis as they arise. • Event Planning is the process of planning and coordinating an event, which can include budgeting, scheduling, site selection, acquiring necessary permits, coordinating transportation and parking, arranging for speakers or entertainers, arranging decor, event security, catering, coordinating with third party vendors, and emergency plans. • Crisis communication is a subspecialty of the public relations profession that is designed to protect and defend an individual, company, or organization facing a public challenge to its reputation, which is usually caused by a scandal or misstep by said individual, company, or organization. • Branding (Refer to Question 32 for definition) • Speechwriting is the action and craft performed by speechwriters who write speeches that will be delivered by another person. • Managing Social Media is the practice of managing an individual, company, or organizations social platform. This is usually accomplished by a content director, or media director whose sole focus is to help provide content and image reputation for an individual, company, or organization online. 43. What is meant by “free news coverage?” Free news coverage or “Free Media” is media coverage that is the result of a successful pitched news release, PR stunt, or promotional event free and not paid for by the individual, company, or organization seeking coverage. 44. Learn definitions of public relations. Public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics. Process of managing information from an organization as it affects a targeted audience. 45. Know the parts of the SMCR communication model S Source M Message C Channel R Receiver 46. Identify different types of channels: Public media, Interactive media, controlled media, events/groups, oneonone. • Public Media Also known as “Mainstream Media” refers to newspapers, radio, television, magazines, etc… • Interactive Media Interactive Media refers to the internet, social media, videogames, cell phones, interactive television, etc… • Controlled Media Controlled Media refers to media owned by an institution, such as a corporate magazine (Apple Inc. Magazine). • Events / Groups Events & groups can refer to any club, organization, convention or PR promotional outing. • Oneonone Interpersonal communication is considered “Oneonone”. It’s communication that is usually not to a mass audience. 47. Understand what is meant by “semantic noise.” A form of noise in the communication process that involves a poorly worded or conceived message that is not understandable to the receiver of the message. Usually refers to noise within the message itself (contextual interference). 48. What barriers do we experience in communicating with people? Jargon Insider language or terms and phrases only known by those with similar understanding. Disabilities Physical, mental, or emotional disabilities that cause communication to be changed or hindered in some way. Cultural Differences Anything about a cultures beliefs, practices, traditions, or way of life that causes communication to be altered or blocked. Language Anything from dialect to words or phrases that is not known or understood by a receiver. Listening Skills This can be more than just the ability to “hear” but also refers to the ability to contextually “hear” the meaning behind a message. Communication Skills From the inability to communicate in a logical and cohesive way to a lack of social prowess and social awareness a lack of good communication skills can hinder a message before it ever makes it to the receiver. 49. What is meant by “framing” a story? The particular facts, images, quotes, and point of view that a journalist takes to tell a story represents a single frame on that story. Another journalist might take a different approach to the same story and apply a different frame to it. This idea of framing affects the way the audience perceives the story and the meaning they take from it. 50. We think of publics as “passive” and “active.” Describe each. • Passive Public The challenge with a passive public is it’s hard to get their attention. Messages must be communicated in an entertaining way, which is getting increasingly harder in todays “New Media” society. Messages cannot be too complicated or serious, if they are then they lose the attention of the receiver. • Active Public The active public is less challenging to communicate with. They naturally are more receptive to information. An example of an active public is a person seeking information on product they plan to purchase. They might seek out media related to the product they intended to purchase or communicated with friends, family, or an online community to aid in the decision. They will always be receptive to information rich messages that contribute to understanding and are more likely to appreciate the contextual cues.
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