New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Organic Chemistry 1 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Jernelle John

Organic Chemistry 1 Exam 1 Study Guide CHEM 231

Marketplace > University of Maryland > Chemistry > CHEM 231 > Organic Chemistry 1 Exam 1 Study Guide
Jernelle John
GPA 3.5

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This are a review of the key points from Week 1-5 Notes that will be important to know for exam 1.
Organic Chemistry 1
Dr. Monique Koppel
Study Guide
Organic Chemistry, orgo, Orgo I
50 ?




Popular in Organic Chemistry 1

Popular in Chemistry

This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jernelle John on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 231 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Monique Koppel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Maryland.


Reviews for Organic Chemistry 1 Exam 1 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/01/16
Saturday, October 1, 2016 Exam 1 Study Guide Week 2 - Acid Base Reactions • the reaction of an acid (proton donor) and base (proton acceptor) to produce a conjugate acid and conjugate base according to the Brønsted-Lowry definition • a base with two receptor sites will accept the proton at its more stable position - it will accept the electron at the more stable site which is the site that contains a delocalization of electrons (resonance) - for the example on the right the first option (proton connected to oxygen) is more stable than the second option because the double bond on the oxygen with a positive charge indicates that it can participate in resonance • Equilibrium- always points further to the direction of stronger acid to weaker acid - acid disassociation constant-(K a) • Ka= [H 3 ][A ] / [HA] - pK a -log 10 a • the larger the pKa value, the weaker the acid and vise versa • the weaker the acid, the stronger the conjugate base and vise versa - Hybridization- any structure that can be hybridized to a lower hybridization state due to resonance should be Week 3 - A more stable acid with a negative charge • most electronegative charge • larger size 1 Saturday, October 1, 2016 • resonance • inductive effect- electronegativity of nearby atoms stabilize the atom • more s-character - sp (50% s character) has a more stable acid than sp3 (25% s character) - Lewis Acid and Base • Lewis acid- a compound that can form a new covalent bond by accepting a pair of electrons • Lewis base- can make a new covalent bond by donating a pair of electrons - IUPAC Naming System • number the longest carbon chain and name it based on the number of carbons it contains (3=propane, 4=butane) - number the chain in a way which gives the substituents the lowest number possible • make a list of substituents or alkyls that come off of carbon chain • alphabetize the substituents and add a number before each substituent group ending with the alkane name • Example (on the right) - longest chain contains 8 carbons (octane) - chain contains 2 substituents • one methyl group • one ethyl group • e come before m - Final Name: 5-ethyl-2-methyloctane • Unsaturation- compounds that contain a double or triple bonds - if the carbon chain contains a double bond than it is a alkene group and its longest chain will end in ene • have to add the carbon number at which the double bond lies before adding ene 2 Saturday, October 1, 2016 - Example: • Cycloalkenes- carbon compound that is a ring, attached on all sides - ene indicates that it there will be a double bond - example Week 4 - Newman Projection- a type of diagram visualizing carbon conformation structure • eclipsed- high energy unstable newman projections where bonds are really close to each other and not all are visible • staggered- more stable newman projection where bonds are in between each other • most stable newman projection is in an eclipsed conformation where the largest groups are as far apart as possible from each other - Strain • torsional strain- repulsion of bonding pair electrons due to eclipse confirmaton • steric strain- repulsion of electrons due to crowding of atoms that are not directly bonded to each other - diaxial interaction- carbons in the axial position of chair conformation crowd each other causing steric strain 3 Saturday, October 1, 2016 - chair conformation- cyclohexane • axial position- go up and down • equatorial position- off in angles - more stable because atoms do not crowd each other - cis carbons are those that go in the same directions, both are pointing out at you( pointing up in Newman projection) or both are pointing away from you (pointing down in Newman projection) - trans carbons are those that go in different directions- one is pointing up and one is pointing down - 1,4 cis is more stable than 1,4 trans - 1,3 cis is more stable than 1,3 trans - 1,2 trans is more stable than 1,2 cis - Ring Flip- when we flip the cyclohexane chair • carbons remain in the same direction, but all carbons in the axial position move to the equatorial position and vise versa Week 5 - Chiral Centers Absolue Configuration R and S • assign priority [1-4] based on atomic number to each group assigned to the chiral carbon - if the chiral carbon is directly bonded to two of the same bonds, than look at the next set of atoms until the first point of difference and priority can be assigned - atoms with a double bond are considered twice when assigning priority • spin the molecule so that the lowest substituent (#4) is on a dash, pointing away from us • determine the direction of the other three groups from 1 to 3 - if the groups are clockwise than the conformation is R - if the groups are counterclockwise the the conformation is S 4 Saturday, October 1, 2016 - Stereoisomers- different compounds with the same molecular formula - Constitutional Isomers aka structural isomers • compounds with the same molecular formula, but different connectivity - Stereoisomers- compounds with the same molecular formula and connectivity, but different 3D spacial arrangement • Enantiomers - non-superimposable mirror images • similar to hands (mirror images, but one hand cannot superimpose itself on the other- will always have either fingers that don’t match up or inside of a palm with outside of a palm- left and right hand will never be the same) • Configurational Isomers- isomers that differ in configuration of the substituents - geometrical isomers- isomers that differ in configuration by means of cis and trans • Diasteriomers- stereoisomers that are not superimposable and are not mirror images of each other - diasteriomers must contain at least two chiral centers - 2 compounds are diasteriomers of each other if the absolute configuration of one isomer is the complete opposite of another isomer • one compound is R, R and the other compound is S, S - Chiral vs. Achiral • chiral molecule- a molecule that contains a chiral carbon - chiral carbon- a carbon atom that contains four different substituent groups • chiral center aka stereocenter - if a molecule has a plane of symmetry (when split in half, is a reflection of the other side of the molecule) than it is not a chiral molecule achiral molecule- • - molecule that does not contain any chiral carbons - racemic mixture- a 50/50 mixture of R and S enantiomers 5 Saturday, October 1, 2016 - Cahn Ingold Prelog (CIP) Ranking System- to determine the conformation of a chiral carbon (R or S absolute configuration) • assign priority numbers to substituent groups of chiral carbon based on atomic number - the highest atomic number has the highest priority number - isotopes have a higher priority number than their original atom - if there is a tie (ex. two carbon substituents) move on to the next atom attached until there is a difference in atomic number • double bonds count as two of the same atoms (ex. if there is a carbon-carbon double bond than it counts as C,C when determining priority) • rotate the compound so that the lowest priority number is on a dash • determine the direction based on priority number - the direction from one to two to three - if the direction is clockwise, than we have an R conformation - if the direction is counter-clockwise, than we have an S conformation n - for n chiral centers, 2 stereoisomers maximum are possible - meso compounds- two compounds that are superimposable mirror images of each other • if a compound is meso of another, than it is the same compound - less than 2 stereoisomers • has a center of symmetry - Fischer projection- diagram of a molecule used when there is more than one chiral center in which… • horizontal lines represent the groups that come out of the page (on wedges in a wedge-dash) • vertical lines represent the groups that go in to the page (on dashes in a wedge- dash model) 6 Saturday, October 1, 2016 - If one compound has an R,R configuration, and the other compound has an S,S configuration the two compounds are enantiomers - if one compound has an R,R configuration, and the other compound as an R,S configuration the two compounds are diasteriomers - if one compound has an R,S configuration and the other compound has an S,R configuration than the two compounds are meso compounds 7


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.