Exam 2: Anatomy and Physiology
Exam 2: Anatomy and Physiology 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jeni Erickson on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Study Guide for Exam 2 1. Discuss the classifications of epithelial tissues—how and why they are classified as they are—and the functions of each. a. Epithelial Tissue: There are two different types of epithelial tissue: i. Covering and lining ii. Glandular b. Covering and lining epithelial tissues are classified by layers and shape i. Simple: one layer of cells 1. Function: found where there is no abrasion and is involved in absorption and filtration. ii. Stratified: multiple (more than 1) layers of cells 1. Function: Found where there is a high chance of abrasion and is involved in protection. iii. Pseudo-stratified: one layer of cells, but it is a thick layer and it looks like there is more than one layer. 1. Function: found in areas of little movement and us involved in the secretion and movement of mucus. iv. Squamous: irregular shaped. Have nucleus in the middle of cell v. Cuboidal: square shaped with nucleus in center of the cell. vi. Columnar: oval shaped with the nucleus at the base of the cell. vii. Transitional: dome shaped cells. These line the urinary bladder and the uterus. They stretch out to allow these organs to fill up with something. 2. Describe the basement membrane and its components. a. This is where the stratified squamous epithelium tissue connects to the dense irregular connective tissue. i. Basal lamina: non-cellular sheet of glycoproteins. Glycoproteins are proteins that have a carbohydrate attached to them. They anchor the basement membrane to the connective tissue. The basal layer also functions as a selective filter. ii. Reticular lamina: this is the layer under the basal layer and it is a network of collagen fibers that are held down by the glycoproteins. 3. Differentiate glandular epithelium from covering and lining epithelium. a. Glandular epithelium: makes up glands and is responsible for secretion in the body. b. Covering and Lining epithelium: Cover and line the external surface of the body as well as organs within the body. i. Functions: 1. Establishes boundaries: the apical and basal surfaces 2. Protection: it is the first line of defense for keeping pathogens out of the body. 3. Absorption: decided what will enter the body and regulates how much goes in. 4. Filtration: It filters things based on size and pressure 5. Excretion (glandular): passively removes waste from out bodies. 6. Secretion (glandular): actively (requires energy) move important minerals into other parts of the body 7. Sensory Reception: contains sensory receptors that send feeling signals to the brain from our skin. 4. Define gland, and explain the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands. a. Glands: cell or group of cells of specialized epithelium that secretes substances onto surfaces or into the blood. Sometimes using ducts. b. Two types of glands: i. Exocrine: these glands have ducts. They are mucous glands that contain mucin and release anything that is not needed in the cell. 1. Line the respiratory tract and intestines. ii. Endocrine: these glands do not have ducts. These produce and release hormones, directly into the bloodstream because there is no duct. These glands secrete hormones that then go other places to work in the body. 5. Discuss the structural and functional classification of glands. a. Glandular epithelial tissues are classified by structure and function i. Unicellular: one layer of cells ii. Multicellular: multiple (more than one) layers of cells iii. Merocrine: These are the glands that stay in tact. They secrete a substance through exocytosis. The cells put the substance being removed into a vesicle and push it out of the cell. iv. Holocrine: These glands do not stay intact. When the body wants the substances in these glands, more Holocrine cells are produced and the outside cells are slumped off. They eventually explode and release the substance into the body that way. (morbid- but think holocaust (messy and explode)=Holocrine . Example: hair follicles. 6. List the different classes of connective tissue, and identify the structural elements possessed by all classes. a. Four different classes of connective tissue i. Connective tissue proper 1. Cells: fibroblasts secrete the matrix 2. Fibers: reticular fibers, collagen fibers, and elastic fibers. 3. Ground substance: matrix containing glycoproteins ii. Cartilage 1. Cells: chondrocytes secrete the matrix 2. Fibers: collagen and elastic fibers 3. Ground substance: matrix containing glycoproteins iii. Bone 1. Cells: osteocytes (consists of osteoblasts and osteoclasts) Osteoblasts secrete the matrix. 2. Fibers: collagen and elastic fibers. 3. Ground Substance: matrix that is calcified during ossification and contains minerals (calcium) and glycoproteins. iv. Blood 1. Cells: leukocytes and erythrocytes (do not secrete the matrix) 2. Ground Substance: plasma is the matrix 7. Compare and contrast the structure, location and function of the three types of muscle tissue. a. All muscles are modified for contraction, provide movement and/or heat, and contain the following: i. Sarcolemma: the membrane of a muscle fiber cell. ii. Sarcoplasm: the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber cell. b. Cardiac Muscle: i. Structure: striations, intercalated discs. Fibers are intertwined. One nucleus per fiber. ii. Function: pumps blood through the heart. The Intercalated discs make the cardiac muscle contract together and all at once. Involuntary muscle. iii. Location: heart c. Skeletal Muscle : i. Structure: striations. Fibers are parallel to each other and are multinucleated ii. Function: this muscle provides us with locomotion and postural support. It is a voluntary muscle iii. Location: around bones d. Smooth Muscle: i. Structure: no striation. Fibers are parallel. One nucleus per fiber. ii. Function: aids in the movement of substances through organs. Involuntary muscles iii. Location: respiratory tract and other hollow organs 8. Identify the criteria used to classify muscle tissue. a. The criteria used to classify different muscle tissues are: i. Striations ii. Nervous control iii. Number of nuclei. 9. Identify the functional and supportive components of nervous tissue. a. Functional components: b. Supportive components: 10. Describe the structure and function of cutaneous, mucous, serous and synovial membranes. a. Cutaneous membranes: this is our skin/ our external surface. i. Structure: Consists of stratified squamous epithelium tissue that is filled with keratin and attached to the dermis. (Called keratinized cells-dead cells). It is try tissue and is exposed to air. ii. Function: Protection b. Mucous membrane: these are our internal cavities that produce moisture. i. Structure: Stratified or simple columnar epithelium tissue. It is attached to areolar connective tissue and it lines the body cavities that open to the exterior. It is moist. ii. Function: Produces mucous and deals with absorption and secretion. c. Serous membranes: this is a smooth membrane that secretes serous fluid and keeps the organs able to rub against each other and the skin without getting messes up. i. Structure: Simple squamous epithelium tissue that is resting on areolar tissue that line closed ventral body cavities. It is moist and slippery ii. Types of serous membranes: 1. Pleura: serous membrane lining the thorax and lungs 2. Pericardium: lines the heart cavity 3. Peritoneum: lines the adomenopelivic cavity iii. Function: Secretes a layer that covers the cavity and the inside of the cavity (parietal) and the organs (visceral). d. Synovial Membranes: this is our membrane on our joints and tendons. i. Structure: Does not have epithelial tissue ii. Function: Secretes synovial fluid that cushions and lubricates joints. 11. Discuss the processes involved with normal tissue repair. a. Step one: Inflammation- Chemicals are released by injured tissue cells, which attract macrophages, and mast cells to the injured cite. b. Step two: Capillaries dilate and becomes permeable. This allows white blood cells and plasma to leak into the injured area. (Swelling edema/fluid) c. Step three: Proteins construct a blood clot that prevents further loss of blood and prevents other foreign objects from entering the body. The clot holds the edges of the injured cite together so that healing can begin under it. d. Step four: A scab forms over the blood clot so that the skin can begin to regenerate and other areas can heal. e. Step five: Organization- The blood clot is replaced with granulation tissue, which is jus t tissue with a lot of proteins in it. f. Step six: the skin cells will begin to grow divide and produce collagen fibers that will pull the sides of the injured skin together. g. Step Seven: Macrophages then digest the blood clot and collagen fibers are deposited until the area completely replaces the granulation tissue. h. Step eight: regeneration or fibrosis occurs. If regeneration occurs, then the skin goes back to normal and will be replaced with the same kind of cells that were damaged. If fibrosis occurs, then the area is replaced with fibrous tissue and there will be a scar. This tissue is not as strong as the original tissue. 12. List the factors that regulate tissue repair, and identify the role of each. a. 13. Identify the embryonic origin of the different tissue types. a. Ectoderm: outer layer i. Epidermis ii. Nervous tissue b. Endoderm: inner layer i. Mucous membrane c. Mesoderm: middle layer i. Muscle tissue ii. Connective tissue 1. Bone 2. Cartilage 3. Dermis 4. Hypodermis 14. Know the different types of Vitamins and what they do for the body. a. Vitamin A: Epithelium b. Vitamin B stimulates tissue repair in the heart. c. Vitamin C: connective tissue and blood vessels d. Vitamin D: repair of bones e. Vitamin E: prevents scaring f. Vitamin K: important for blood clotting. 15. Identify the regions of the skin, and discuss the composition of each. a. Epidermis: Top layer; stratified squamous epithelium tissue i. Stratum corneum: dead keratin rick cells ii. Stratum lucidum: dead cells only found in the thick skin iii. Stratum granulosum: the last layer of living cells. Usually 3-5 layers thick and contains granules. 1. Granules either are keratinohyalin granuoles that contain keratin or are lamellated granuoles that contain glycolipids that make the layer water proof and keep water from evaporating off our skin. iv. Stratum spinosum: this layer is called our “prickly layer” because we have desmosomes that attach to cells and make the cell layer prickly looking. v. Stratum basale: This is a single layer of cells at the bottom of the epidermis. This layer is responsible for cell division and contains out stem cells. b. Dermis: Middle layer; dense irregular connective tissue and fibrous connective tissue. Fibers decrease with age. i. Papillary: The upper most part of the dermis that connects to the epidermis. Consists of areolar tissue and it extends into the irregularities of the dermis. ii. Reticular: Consist of dense irregular connective tissue c. Hypodermis: Cushion layer; Adipose tissue. Increases with age 16. Differentiate thick and thin skin. a. Thick skin: This is where skin is prone to abrasion. Thick skin has the stratum lucidum layer that the thin skin does not. b. Thin Skin: This is the skin that is not prone to abrasion and usually contains hair follicles. 17. List the cell types found within the epidermis, and identify their functions. a. Keratinocytes: These cells are the majority of the epidermis. They produce keratin. As they move up through the layers of the epidermis, they collect more and more keratin and end up dying and only having keratin. b. Melanocytes: Cells that produce melanin and are the skin protecting cells in our bodies. They hold the darkening cell pigments, which make our skin look tan. c. Langerhans’s cells: These cells come from the bone marrow and are crucial in the production of white blood cells. They function as immune cells and deal with pathogens that breach the skin’s surface. d. Merkel cells: These cells are located at the base of the epidermis and do not move. They deal with sensory reception and are they reason why we can detect light touch. 18. List the factors that contribute to skin color. a. Melanin: this is found in the melanocytes and give the skin the tan color that it has. It protects us from sunburn. Amounts of these vary from person to person. b. Carotene: these give an orange appearance and are found in the dermis. These are popularly found in Asian descendants and why their skin has a yellow tent to it. c. Hemoglobin: This is found in the blood and carries oxygen through the body. They give off a pinky color and if we didn’t have other pigments in the body, then we would be a pinkish color. (really pale people look pinkish when they are cold 19. Compare and contrast the various glands found with the skin. a. Sudoriferous glands: sweat glands i. Eccrine: covers the surface of the body. Function throughout our entire life and they function for thermoregulation. ii. Apocrine: under our arms and between our legs. They don’t start functioning until puberty. Prevents friction. There is some sort of linkage to mate attraction. They are odorless. They smell comes from a bacterium that feeds on the secretion from the gland. iii. Ceruminous: modified apocrine glands. They produce a liquid sweat with a lot of lipids that is called wax that protects the entry into the ear canal. iv. Mammary: modified apocrine glands for the production of sweat with proteins that is called milk. b. Sebaceous glands i. Oil producing glands. They produce sebum. Associated with the hair follicle and covers the hair so that hair doesn’t break off immediately. Sebum can help prevent water loss. It can also kill bacteria. They respond to hormonal secretions (especially male hormones). Testosterone increases in boys and their skin becomes really oily. 20. Describe the structure of the nail. 1. Nail body: all the parts we can see 2. Free edge: the distal part that we cut off. 3. Lanula: the white portion at the body of the body of the cell. The proximal portion of the nail body. 4. Nail fold: they skin that holds around the body of the nail 5. Nail bed: all of the tissue that is under the nail. 6. Nail matrix: the active growing and dividing part. We cannot see this. 7. Eponychium: tissue that covers the nail matrix. 8. Hyponychium: the attachment of skin to nail on the free edge side. 21. List the parts of a hair follicle, and explain their functions. 1. Shaft: the part we can see a. Medulla: inner portion b. Cortex: c. Cuticle: outermost layer of highly keratinized cells. d.The pigments in the cortex determine hair color. (Melanin and theo-melanin) 2. Root: under the skin 3. Follicle: active dividing part. a. External root sheath b. Internal root sheath. c. Bulb: large portion of the base. d. Papilla: indentation of the bulb i. The bulb contains the matrix, which contains the new hair. e. Arrector pili muscle: this muscle contains and allows the hair to stand up. When hair stands up, it contracts and traps air to stop heat loss. Root hair plexus- if something touches the hair, signals go off and tell the brain something touched you. 22. Discuss the classifications of burns. a. First-degree: partial thickness burn. Only epidermis. Redness, swelling, and pain. Will take 2-3 days to heal. b. Second-degree burn: partial thickness. Partial dermis and epidermis. Redness, swelling, pain, and blistering. 3-4 weeks to heal. c. Third-degree burn: Full thickness burn. Complete loss of function. The only way for this to heal is with assistant. Nerve endings are destroyed. Third degree doesn’t give pain, but the second degree and first degree around it does have pain 23. Identify the various skin disorders by discussing the abnormal physiology that causes them. a. Acne b. Lupus: autoimmune disease of the skin. They are attack there own bodies. The skin appears to look like a wolf bit you. The butterfly rash across the cheeks and over the nose. Mostly in post-pubescent females. c. Psoriasis: itching, scaly skin. Possibly an autoimmune disease. Phototherapy is a treatment. Treat with steroid drugs (They shut down the immune system). Could be genetic, but not necessarily. There are lots of triggers. i. Trauma ii. Infection iii. Hormonal Changes iv. Stress d. Decubitus ulcers: open wounds on the body where it is not getting enough oxygen. The skin begins to rot and smell. Usually due to pressure. e. Vitiligo: pigmentation disorder. Absence of melanocytes in spots of the spot, but not everywhere. Looks like scar tissue. You can be born with this, or you can get it over time. f. Albinism: No pigmentation at all. Genetic condition that prevents the production of tyosinase. g. Freckles: Linked to red heads. Extra amounts of melanocytes. Potential genetic component because it is linked to ethnicities. h. Birthmarks: Baby is born with this pigmentation. Dense collection of dermal blood vessels in the body. 1. Identify the functions of the Integument System: a. Protection: physical protection with hair, chemical protection through the inside of cells, and biological protection through Langerhans cells. b. Regulation of body temperature: We can warm up and cool down through the dilating and constricting of the diameter of the blood vessels. c. Sensation: Nerve cells within the skin allow for touch sensation. d. Metabolic functions: The skin produces vitamin D that produces needed for muscle contractions. e. Maintains blood reservoir: We are able to store extra blood because of the multitude of capillaries in our skin. f. Excretion: We can get ride of hydrogenous water waste through sweat. 2. What are the surface features in the Integument System? a. Ridges: The ridges give a person their grip because they increase friction. They are due to dermal ridges under our epidermis. Different for each person. b. Grooves: These divide our skin into diamonds. In the areas on the skin that have hair, the hair grows at the intersection of each diamond. 3. Identify the tissues that make up the skeletal system. a. Cartilage: i. Hyaline cartilage connective tissue ii. Elastic cartilage connective tissue iii. Fibrocartilage connective tissue b. Bone i. Spongy bone connective tissue ii. Compact bone connective tissue 4. Differentiate appositional and interstitial growth of bone. a. Appositional growth is the growing of the bone’s width. The bone grows from the external surface of the bone. b. Interstitial growth is the internal growth of the bone. The bone is growing within the tissue itself. 5. Name the skeletal divisions and bone classification. List an example from each group. a. Flat bone: skull, ribs, scapula b. Short bone: carpals, tarsals c. Long bone: fibula d. Irregular bone: vertebrae, hipbones e. Sutural bone: the extra pieces of bone between sutures in the skull f. Sesamoid bone: patella 6. Describe the anatomical structure of each classification of bone. a. Flat bones: two flat layers of compact bone with a layer of spongy bone in between it. There is no medullary cavity. b. Long bones: i. Epiphysis: two sections at the end of the bone (round knobs) ii. Diaphysis: the middle section of the bone (rod like) iii. Articular cartilage: the line layer of cartilage on the ends of the epiphysis iv. Periosteum: The most exterior layer of bone composed of dense irregular connective tissue and an osteogenic layer. The osteogenic layer is where we produce more bone (stem cells). v. Medullary cavity: the “hollow” tube center in the diaphysis. Is filled with bone marrow vi. Endosteum: the layer that covers the medullary cavity vii. Compact bone: Surrounds the diaphysis between the periosteum and endosteum. Very thin layer is in the epiphysis. viii. Spongy bone: fills the center of the epiphysis on both ends. Contains red marrow. ix. Epipheseal plate: this is your growth plate found were the diaphysis and epiphysis meet. It is made of hyaline cartilage connective tissue and is where bone growth occurs until around puberty. x. Cells: 1. Osteoblasts: build up bone and secretes the bone matrix. Come from osteogenic cells 2. Osteoclasts: break down bone and deals with calcium balance. 7. Describe the anatomy of compact and spongy bone. a. Compact bone: i. Osteon: the whole section. ii. Canaliculi: the fibers that reach from osteocyte to osteocyte iii. Lamellae: the layers of bone around each central canal iv. Central canal: the whole were a blood vessel or nerve goes through v. Lacuna: bubble surrounding osteocyte vi. Osteocytes: the bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts) vii. Volkam’s canals: Also called perforating canals. carry blood vessels from the periosteum to other parts of bone. They run perpendicular to the surface of the bone. b. Spongy bone i. Trabeculae: this is your spongy bone filled with red bone marrow ii. Osteocytes: cells iii. Lacunae: cytoplasm around the cells 8. List the functions of bone. a. Support: postural support and cradles soft organs b. Protection: protects organs from being damaged like the skull and brain. c. Movement/anchorage: are attached to muscles and tendons and the contraction of the muscles moves our bones for locomotion. d. Mineral storage: calcium and phosphate e. Hematopoiesis: The production of blood cells in the spongy bone red marrow. f. Fat storage: source of energy for the body g. Hormone production: bones produce osteocalcin that regulates insulin, glucose and energy expenditures. 9. Explain the organic and inorganic components of bone and the function of each. a. Organic components of bone: i. Cells and your osteoid, which is your background matrix ii. Collagen fibers, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans in the matrix b. Inorganic components of bone: i. Hydroxyapatites: These are your mineral salts that make up the mass of the bones. Calcium phosphate is the most abundant one and is what calcifies the bone to make it hard. 10. Describe the processes of intramembranous and endochondral ossification, and list the bones that are formed by each process. a. Endochondral ossification: in all bones except for the skull and clavicle i. A hyaline cartilage matrix is present ii. A blood vessel penetrates the cartilage matrix at the diaphysis. iii. The perichondrium changes into the periosteum due to the production of osteoblasts. iv. The osteoblasts form a bone collar around the center of the diaphysis, which becomes the primary center of ossification v. pH becomes more basic which makes cartilage cells burst. vi. pH becoming more basic changes the solubility of calcium, which allows for the calcification of the matrix. vii. Blood vessels move further into the bone and form the periosteal bud. viii. The periosteal bud causes the formation of spongy bone. ix. Osteoclasts then break down parts of the spongy bone in order to create the medullary cavity in the diaphysis. x. Blood vessels arrive at the epiphysis, which forms the secondary ossification center. xi. Spongy bone is formed in the epiphysis and will remain there. xii. Cartilage is maintained at the ends of bones (articular cartilage) and between the diaphysis and proximal epiphysis (epiphyseal plate) b. Intramembranous ossification: occurs only in the skull and clavicle i. Mesenchymal cells produce fibrous connective tissue membrane. ii. Osteoblasts accumulate there and cluster together to create the center of ossification. iii. Osteoblsts begin to deposit the matrix that alters the pH and allows for calcification (collection of calcium salts). iv. Calcium accumulates in the matrix and surrounds the osteoblasts, which will make them die. v. The dying osteoblasts create empty cavities in the trabeculae and spongy bone is formed. vi. Trabeculae harden around the edges of the bone and are reconstructed into compact bone. vii. The spaces in the trabeculae are filled with blood vessels and red bone marrow. viii. The periosteum develops around the compact bone. 11. Describe the processes of growth in length and width of bone. a. Bone growth in length: longitudinal growth i. Occurs towards the diaphysis, not toward the epiphysis. ii. Proliferation zone: The epiphyseal plate consists of cartilage that divides and pushes away from the center of the bone iii. Hypertrophic zone: The cells that are pushed away begin to enlarge iv. Calcification zone: Enlarged cartilage cells then die and calcify. Blood vessels invade the cavity. v. Ossification zone: Spongy bone is formed; osteoclasts digest cells to lengthen the medullary cavity. b. Bone growth in width: appositional growth i. Osteoblasts beneath the periosteum deposit bone on the external surface. ii. Osteoclasts break down bone from inside to widen the medullary cavity so that it does not become too heavy. iii. Marrow cavity enlarges. 12. Discuss the process of bone remodeling. a. Bone remodeling consists of: i. Deposition: The osteoblasts produce a matrix without minerals. We need to add minerals into it so our bodies add calcium and phosphate ions. The minerals crystalize and calcify so that bone can harden. ii. Reabsorption: T lymphocytes activate osteoclasts that secrete enzymes to break down bone. Specifically, it is digesting the calcified matrix and converting the crystalized ions back into solid form (through the addition of hydrochloric acid). These minerals are then released into the interstitial fluid and will enter the blood stream. 13. List the factors that control bone growth, and identify the effects of each. Pay particular attention to the role hormones on calcium. a. Diet: We need to take in appropriate vitamins and minerals so that we can use them and deposit them in the bones. b. Hormones: Multiple hormones play a part in bone growth. i. Parathyroid hormone: produced by the parathyroid glands. 1. Low blood calcium levels stimulate the parathyroid to release PTH. PTH activates the osteoclasts and reabsorption occurs. ii. Calcitonin hormone: from the thyroid gland. 1. High blood calcium levels stimulate the thyroid to release calcitonin. It inhibits osteoclasts and will continue to do so until calcium levels are normal. iii. Growth hormones: Active from embryonic development until puberty to make bones grow as the person ages. iv. Testosterone and Estrogen: Stimulates bone growth and breaks down the epiphyseal plate into the epiphyseal line. c. Vitamins: Vitamin D is needed so that our bodies can absorb calcium out of the digestive tract and move it into the bloodstream. If we do not have vitamin D, it doesn’t matter if we take in calcium or not because it will not be absorbed without vitamin D present. 14. List the types and characteristics of fractures. a. Partial Fracture: Bone is not completely broken. Only a portion of it. b. Complete Fracture: the Bone is broken completely through c. Simple Fracture: bone does not break through the skin d. Compound Fracture: bone breaks through the skin e. Displaced Fracture: The bone loses natural alignment f. Comminuted Fracture: the bone splinters at the site of the break. g. Spiral Fracture: the bone is twisted so far that it breaks. h. Greenstick Fracture: most commonly occurs in kids. One side of the bone breaks and the other side bends. i. Impacted Fracture: one part of the bone is driven forcefully into the other part of the bone. (diaphysis into epiphysis or epiphysis into epiphysis) j. Pathological Fracture: due to disease 15. Describe the events of bone repair. a. Hematoma: This is a blood clot that forms due to the fact that when a bone breaks, blood vessels are also broken and a clot is needed to clog them up. b. Callus: i. Soft callus (fibrocartilagenous) made of granulation tissue forms around the bone. Fibroblasts, osteogenic cells/osteoblasts and chondrocytes help to reconstruct the bone. Phagocytic cells clean up the broken off pieces. ii. Bony callus forms when trabeculae starts to form c. Remodeling: Spongy bone changes into compact bone and straighten outs the bone into its original look. New bone is stronger than older bone. 16. Identify the effects of aging on bone. a. As we age, our protein formation decreases and our bone matrix will decrease. This results in brittle bones. This is why older people are more prone to broken bones when they fall. 17. Identify the causes and effects of the bone disorders discussed in class. a. Rickets: i. Causes: Vitamin D deficiency early in life. ii. Effects: The epiphyseal plate will be very large. Children will be bowlegged because of all the pressure/weight on their leg bones. 1. If you increase vitamin D intake, it will do away. b. Osteomalacia: i. Causes: Vitamin D deficiency in adults ii. Effects: Spurs and depressions in bones occur. The bone is poorly mineralized and soft so it deforms under pressure. c. Padgets Disease: i. Causes: Extensive bone deposition and reabsorption ii. Effects: deformed looking bones as well as high spongy bone to compact bone ratio. 1. Differentiate the axial and appendicular skeletons, identifying which bones belong to each division. a. Axial Skeleton: the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage. b. Appendicular Skeleton: pectoral girdle and upper limbs as well as the pelvic girdle and lower limbs. 2. List the function of the pectoral and pelvic girdles, and identify the bones comprising each. a. Pectoral girdles: Attaches the upper extremities to the axial skeleton. i. Our clavicle and scapula hold our arms to our other limbs b. Pelvic girdles: Attaches lower extremities to axial skeleton. i. Our sacrum and os coxae 3. Describe the various surface markings on bone, listing an example of each. a. Fissures: space between two parts of the same bone b. Foramen: hole c. Meatus: Tunnel-like tube that noting passes through d. Sinus: pockets of space that lighten the skull e. Grooves: indentation or rut in something f. Sulcus: a groove or furrow, often on the skull g. Fossa: indention that has nothing going through it. h. Condyle: rounded protuberance at the end of bones. Forms an junction with another bone. i. Head: bulge above a restricted (smaller area) area j. Facet: smooth area lined with articular cartilage k. Tubercle: rounded bone l. Tuberosity: larger rounded areas m. Trochanter: tubercles on the femur n. Crest: deep ridge o. Line: shallow ridge p. Spine: sharp extension q. Epicondyle: extension above the condyle 4. Discuss the composition of the skull at birth. a. When a skull is forming at birth, there are some pockets of soft fibrous connective tissue between the main bones of the skull. The tissues are called fontanels. They is ossification occurring in these areas, but it is not done until after birth so that the baby can come out of the mother slightly easier. It takes about 1.5 years for the skull to be completely bone because the brain is still growing and development. 5. List the functional and structural classifications of joints, and provide an example of each. a. Synarthroses: immovable joint i. Sutures of the skull b. Amphiarthroses: slightly movable joints i. Pubic sumphasis c. Diarthroses: freely moveable joints i. Knee or neck d. Fibrous: no joint cavity. Mostly synarthritic. i. Sutures: exist between the bones of the skull only. ii. Syndesomosis: joints are joined by fibrous connective tissue. 1. Example: the fibula and tibia joined together by ligament at the ankle. iii. Gomphosis: peg and socket joint. 1. Our teeth are the pegs and they fit into our gums, which is the socket. e. Cartilaginous: no joint cavity i. Synchondroses: hyaline cartilage connects them 1. Ribs and epiphyseal plate ii. Symphyses: fibrocartilage connects them. 1. Pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs. f. Synovial: has a joint cavity. The articulating ends contain articular cartilage (made up of areolar connective tissue and fibrocartilage) to protect them from wear and tear. 6. Identify the components of a synovial joint. a. Articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage covering end of bone b. Joint cavity: space that contains synovial fluid c. Articular/ joint capsule: joint cavity enclosed by a fibrous layer and synovial membrane. d. Synovial fluid: occupies all free space within the joint capsule e. Reinforcing ligaments: thickened parts of fibrous layer that reinforce the joint. f. Nerves and blood vessels: detect pain, monitor joint position, and monitor stretch. i. Menisci- wedges of fibrocartilage found in some synovial joints like the knee. 7. Describe the factors that limit movement at a synovial joint. a. Structural limit: shallow sockets and misfit sockets hinder stability. Deep sockets like the shoulder have great strength and stability b. Ligaments: These prevent excessive and undesirable motions that could hurt the bones. The more ligaments, the less movement we have. The more tension we have on a ligament, the less movement we have. c. Muscle tone: the partially contracted muscles reinforce shoulder and knee joints by stabilizing them. This also restricts movement. 8. Explain the types of movement possible at a synovial joint. a. Gliding: one flat bone surface slips of glides over another flat bone surface. i. Waving your hand b. Angular: any increased or decreased angle between the bone i. Flexion: along the sagittal plane and it is a decrease in the angle of a joint. 1. Chin to chest movement. ii. Extension: increasing the angle of a joint. Usually straightening it out. 1. Raising head to normal straight position iii. Hyperextension: increasing joint angle past normal anatomical positions. 1. Chin to ceiling iv. Abduction: movement of a limb away from the midline of the body 1. Moving arms outward v. Adduction: movement of a limb toward the body. 1. Moving arms towards my sides vi. Circumduction: Moving limbs in circular motions c. Rotational: the turning of a bone on its own axis. (turning head side to side) i. Medial: rotating towards the midline 1. Right leg circles counter clockwise ii. Lateral: rotating away from midline 1. Right leg circles clockwise d. Special Movements: i. Inversion: sole of foot turns medially. (Looking at the sole of the foot) ii. Eversion: sole of foot turns laterally (away from other foot). iii. Protraction: sticking it out (moving mandible forward) iv. Retraction: pushing it back in (bringing mandible back to normal position) v. Supination: twisting the palm up while elbow is bent vi. Pronation: twisting the palm downward vii. Elevation: upward movement (closing mouth) viii. Depression: recovery from elevation (opening mouth) ix. Opposition: movement of thumb to other digits 9. Describe representative joint disorders. a. Sprain: forcible twisting of a joint. Tears ligaments around it. b. Complete dislocation: The loss of alignment between two bones. This will tear everything around it. c. Bursitis: the bursa gets inflames and swells up d. Tendonitis: the inflammation of a tendon sheet e. Arthritis: the inflammation of a joint i. Osteoarthritis: occurs at weight barring joints and is the eroding of the articular cartilage. The bones then grind against each other and become inflamed. ii. Rheumatoid arthritis: Chronic inflammatory disorder. Usually affects both limbs instead of joint one. This is when the immune system attacks its own tissues. iii. Gouty Arthritis: Occurs when there are excessive amounts of uric acid in the blood stream. Common in the big toe joint.
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