Psychology Study Guide - Higginbotham
Psychology Study Guide - Higginbotham Psych 105- Intro to Psychology
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Psych 105- Intro to Psychology
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Silverman on Tuesday March 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 105- Intro to Psychology at Washington State University taught by Jessica Higginbotham in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Psych 105 in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/31/15
Exam 3 Study Guide Chapters 7813 Chapter 7 Thinking Intelligence amp Language Which parts of the brain are dedicated to thinking about certain tasks It depends on what you re thinking about What will you do after this class Frontal Lobe What a cheeseburger tastes like Parietal Lobe About how your favorite song sounds Temporal Lobe Be able to distinguish between mental images and concepts unique characteristics of each examples Mental Images Not only images Includes tates feelings sounds hallucinations dreams etc Images are organized relative to their function in the brain Mental images can also undergo the same manipulations they would if they were actually present Accuracy not 100 accurate Remember seeing the pictures of the penny We basically know what one looks like but it is not very accurate when it comes down to fine detail Concepts Shortcuts that make thinking and communicating more efficient Formal concepts formed by all or none rules or features that define it ex something either is a ball or it isn t Natural concepts formed as a result of everyday experience exthink about a pet theres a lot of different things that can come to mind and they are formed through experience Prototype most typical instance of a concept ex think of an apple you ll think of a nice apple probably not a rotten apple Strategies of problem solving know what they are how they work and be able to apply to an example Thinking Mental Images amp Concepts Diagram on slides Thinking about Problem Solving We use different ways of thinking to solve problems Problem solving thinking and behavior directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available Choosing the right strategy Trial and Error Trial and Error attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do not work Good for solving problems with limited solutions Very time consuming if used in the wrong situation Algorithms Algorithms involves following a specific rule procedure or method that always produces the right answer Systematic Can we use algorithms for every problem Again can be time consuming Heuristics Heuristics experience based techniques used to reduce the number of solution but not guaranteed to be optimal Shortcuts in problem solving Relies on concepts Flexible Trial and error Slow or fast Usually right Less systematic Algorithms Slow or fast Always right More systematic Heuristics Fast Sometimes right Flexible I need to make enchiladas for the first time so Google an enchilada recipe and quickly find one with good reviews and I follow the instructions step by step Algorithms Heuristics Concepts Trial and Error Mental lmages F1909 I m trying to figure out the length of a side of a right triangle and I think I remember the formula is bh2 But turns out I was thinking of areaoops Algorithms Heuristics Concepts Trial and Error Mental lmages F1909 Errors in thinking Gambler s Fallacy Roulette Every numbercolor you choose is independent of the next so even if Red 19 has shown up 10 times it has no more likeness to show up again than any other number Halo Effect if you see someone doing something good you re going to think everything they do is bad Same with the other way around if you see someone doing something bad you ll think they re bad Hyperbolic Discounting Pressing the snooze button in the morning Instant gratification Sleep 9 minutes now as opposed to getting up right then and getting to work on time Errors in thinking stem from heuristics and faulty concepts What is creativity What blocks creativity Trial amp error algorithms heuristics CAN T SOLVE Insight sudden realization of how a problem can be solved the light bulb Aha Creativity is difficult because of functional fixedness and mental sets Functional Fixedness tendency to view objects as functioning only in their usual or customary way exemplars Mental Sets tendency to persist in solving problems with solutions that have worked in the past Decision making strategies be able to recognize when to apply or when they are being applied Why IS IT so many things go to the right Dr Seuss Singlefeature Model decision based on a single feature they go to the right because Dr Seuss drew them them that way Additive Model weighing the options things go to the right because they go to the left because Elimination by Aspects Model make a list of critical features that eliminate a choice and narrow it down Bad decision making ties in with errors in thinking as well Why do we make bad decisions Stress Instant gratification Think that because you know someone else that this worked for it ll work out for you too My friend won the lottery I could too Characteristics of language Symbols letters etc Syntax structure meaning Shared Displacement talk about something that already happened or something that will happen Generative generate new meanings from different words language is growing BinetSimon Test mental age be able to recognize the flaws with this test before it was revised Alfred Binet 1905 BinetSimon Test Mental Age Mental level is expressed in terms of the average abilities of a given age group They become parasites that consume without any benefit to society the work of hale and healthy men talking about children in schools that are below average They take away from people who are at average or above average intelligence Transition from abnormal childhood to criminal childhood On his test he asked things like which of these two pictures are prettier and show them a picture of children and women in a kitchen The Idiot Object tracking coordinating head and eye movement to track a lit match Grasping provoked by tactile excitation Grasping provoked by visual perception Knowledge of food discrimination task Foodseeking complicated by a minor mechanical difficulty wrapped candy Following simple directions and imitation of simple gestures Differentiating idiocy and imbecility Verbal knowledge of objects where is your head Verbal knowledge of images where is the window Naming indicated objects Comparison of two lines of different lengths Repeat back 3 things Differentiating imbecility and debility Drawing from memory Immediate repetition of numbers Similarities between several known objects Comparison of lengths Etc Differentiating debility and normality Reply to an abstract question Reversal of the hands on an analog clock Paper cutting Definition of abstract terms StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale Lewis Terman 1916 StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale Intelligence Quotient IQ Mental AgeChronological Age 100 IQ Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale David Wechsler 1916 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS Variety of Mental Abilities Personality Motivation Cultural Factors Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISC Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Psychometrics what is a standard distribution What does it look like Standardization Given to many people Representative of group Scores establish the norm Normal curve normal distribution standard distribution Reliability Consistently produce similar scores on different occasions Validity Measure what is supposed to measure Predictive value Achievement test Level of knowledge Aptitude test Assess capacity to benefit from education or training Be able to compare and contrast the 9 factor with gardner s theory of multiple intelligences General intelligence idea that there are many abilities that make you intelligent You either had them all or you didnt Louis Thurstone Primary Mental Abilities Verbal comprehension Numerical ability Reasoning Perceptual Speed Chapter 8 Motivation amp Emotion Characteristics of motivation activation persistence intensity Know the theories of motivation and what they can explain and can t recognize examples 3 distinct components Subjective experience Physiological response Behavioral or expressive response How are emotions different than mood Emotions are more acute and instantaneous Instinct theory Motivation stems from evolutionary programing Labels behavior opposed to explaining Fell out of favor in 1920 s Drivereduction theory DriveReduction Theories desire to reduce internal tension of unmet biological needs Homeostasis What can this theory not explain Anything long term we re planners Sometimes we don t eat because we re hungry but because it tastes good or we re bored Optimal Arousal Theory Behavior seeks to maintain an optimal level of arousal Sensation seekers Humanistic Theories Motivation is affected by how we perceived the world others ourselves and our beliefs about our abilities Personal potential Maslow s hierarchy of needs He stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs and when one is fulfilled the next strived to be fulfilled Physiological gt Safety gt Social gt Esteem gt SelfActualization Characteristics of SelfActualization RealismAcceptance accurate perceptions of themselves others reality Spontaneity open behaviorthoughts conform easily Problem Centering focus outside themselves Autonomy privacy independence Continued Appreciation appreciation of simplicity Peak Experiences moments of wonderawe where sense of self is lost Self Determination Autonomy say in what you re doing Mastery feeling confident in what you re doing Purpose what you re doing is contributing to something bigger Deci amp Ryan s SelfDetermination Theory Autonomy Competence Relatedness How does American culture apply what we know about how to REALLY motivate people Competence motivation I can do this Achievement motivation I can do this better than you Achievement motivation is correlated With higher levels of success Grades job performance worker output Chapter 13 The Stress 3 distinct components of emotion be able to give and recognize examples of each Acute Stress Short intense and most commonly encountered Episodic stress Acute stress that is suffered too frequently Often due to selfinflicted unreasonable demands Chronic stress Longterm exposure to stressors Unhappy marriage traumatic experiences unwanted career orjob stress of poverty chronic illness relationship problem political issues dysfunctional families The six basic emotions what makes them basic The Basic Emotions Scared Happy Disgust Surprised Angry Sad Hardwired evolutionary displaying and perceiving But can be blended complex multifaceted Extends across cultures Blind people Expression of emotion is fine Perception is impaired Duchenne smile GuillaumeBenjaminAmand Duchenne de Boulogne Duchenne electrically simulation facial expression 1860 s A real smile will cause the corners of the mouth to turn up cheekbones raised and crows feet around the eyes What is the purpose of emotions Motivation Expenence Decision making Emotional intelligence Capacity to understand and manage emotional experiences perceptions and responses Amygdala in general which two ways can the amygdala sense danger Direct Route Amygdala instant fear response Visual cortex interpretation Threat detected Indirect Longer Route Visual cortex interpretation Thalamus Amygdala fear response Amygdala triggers Hypothalamus SNA cortisol SNS characteristics of fear Sympathetic Nervous System The Hot Headed Increased heart rate Slightly increased blood pressure Decreased skin temperature The Cold Feet Increased heart rate Increased blood pressure Increased temperature Display rules examples Social and cultural regulations governing human expression JamesLange theory of emotion Facial Feedback Hypothesis expression of an emotion causes subjective experience of emotion People with botox often experience dampening of emotional expression and less likely to recognize emotional expressions in others We don t tremble and run because we are afraid we are afraid because we tremble and run What did waiter cannon provide to reject Walter Cannon 1927 1 Physiological reactions are similar in many emotions 2 Behavioral reactions are often faster than physiological 3 Artificially inducing physiological changes does not induce emotion 4 Emotional reactions occur without the CNS Schachter amp Singer experiments see book for more clarity Schachter amp Singer 1962 a Participants receive injection of epinephrine b Informed vs not informed c Experience situation that is either irritating or humorous Little support by research Cognitive appraisal theory of emotion examples Emotional responses are triggered by a cognitive evaluation Smith amp Lazarus 1988 Emotions are caused by cognitive appraisal and personal meaning How are emotions ultimately triggered What does it depend on Emotions are triggered in multiple ways Complex emotions pride shame guilt Simple emotions fear excitement joy Chapter 13 Stress Health amp Coping Know a GOOD and accurate definition for stress Stress Reaction to a stimulus that disturbs mental or physical equilibrium InvertedU relationship between pressure and performance There is an optimum stress point KNOW WHAT S NOT THE DEFINITION OF STRESS the book s definition Know what too low and too high amounts of stress correlate with What doesn t kill you Seery et al 2010 Some adversity allows people to handle future stressors better Too little stress or too much is correlated with low life satisfaction and high levels of global distress 3 different kinds of stress explain give examples Acute Stress Short intense and most commonly encountered Episodic stress Acute stress that is suffered too frequently Often due to selfinflicted unreasonable demands Chronic stress Longterm exposure to stressors Unhappy marriage traumatic experiences unwanted career orjob stress of poverty chronic illness relationship problem political issues dysfunctional families statistics on stress What did Walter Cannon figure out The 1st Pathway Increased respiration increased HR increased BP blood flow to muscles decreased metabolism pupil dilation 1 Hypothalamus activates sympathetic nervous system 2 SNS activates adrenal medulla 3 Adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine amp norepinephrine The second pathway HPA axis Exposure to intense and prolonged stress Hans Selye 1976 The 2nd pathway the HPA Axis 1 Enlarged adrenal glands 2 Stomach ulcers weight loss 3 Shrinkage of thymus glands and lymph glands General Adaptation Syndrome Alarm State SNSH PA activation Resistance tate Urge to maintain homeostasis adaptation Exhaustion Stage Resources are exhausted Breakdown of HPA system Personality explanatory styles and how they affect stress responses halffull Optimistic explanatory style halfempty Pessimistic explanatory style Social support Social Supports Socially isolated people are twice as likely to die over a given period than people who have strong social relationships Lundstad et al 2010 Risk factor equivalent 15 cigarettesday Social Supports Chronic loneliness predicts poorer physical and mental health higher death rates and decreased cognitive functioning Hawkley amp Cacioppo 2010 1950 s study asks college students to rate their parents level of love and caring 50 years later 87 of those who had rated their parents as being low in loving and caring had been diagnos How to deal with stress Problemfocused coping Aimed at directly changing or managing a threatening or harmful stressor Emotionfocused coping Aimed at relieving or regulation the emotional impact of a stressful situation Culture focused coping Can influence the choice of coping strategies Americans emphasize personal autonomy and personal responsibility while dealing with problems Less likely to seek social support than say Asian cultures Members of collectivistic cultures seek more help with their problems The textbook
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