INS3003 exam 1 review
INS3003 exam 1 review INS3003
Popular in Introduction to International Affairs
verified elite notetaker
Popular in International Studies
This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Ralph on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to INS3003 at Florida State University taught by Whitney Bendeck in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 187 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Affairs in International Studies at Florida State University.
Reviews for INS3003 exam 1 review
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/01/16
Introduction to Realism 1. Classical Realism (Hans Morgenthau) a. Response to US idealism b. Pursuit of power (realpolitik) 2. Neorealism (Kenneth waltz) a. Aka structural realism b. Assumptions i. States are rational unitary actors ii. States seek security iii. Anarchy c. Balance of power i. Alliances ii. Bandwagoning iii. Balancing d. Polarity i. Unipolarity (hegemonic stability theory) ii. Bipolarity iii. Multipolarity e. Security dilemmaprisoners dilemma (game theory) i. Relative gains = zero sum ii. Absolute gains = nonzero sum Realism & the Origins of Major Power Wars 1. WW1 a. Germany and the Security Dilemma b. Balance of power and Reasons for its Demise i. Power Transition ii. Russia and Preventative War 2. Interwar to WW2 a. Pyrrhic Victory b. Balance of Power? c. League of Nations i. Japan (Manchukuo) & Italy d. Appeasement e. Nazi Germany as a Revisionist State i. Mearsheimer’s viewpoint 3. Cold War Erupts a. Division of PostWar Europe b. EastCentral Europe = Soviet Satellites c. Marshall Plan d. NATO (1949) Warsaw Pact (1955) e. BiPolar world = Balance of Power Realism and the Cold War 1. Nature of the Cold War a. Suez Canal Crisis i. Nasser ii. Suez War (1956) iii. Lessons We Can Learn b. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) 2. Cold War Deterrence a. Weighing the Risks b. Conventional vs. Nuclear Weapons c. Impact of Nuclear Deterrence d. Nuclear Power and a Peaceful End to the Cold War 3. Ending the Cold War a. Decline of Soviet Military Power, Influence and Economy b. East-Central Europe c. The Fall 4. Will We Miss the Cold War? Introduction to Neo-Liberalism 1. What realism doesn’t explain… 2. Liberalism a. History of cooperation (Westphalia forward) b. Historical roots c. Classical liberalism d. Neo-liberalism i. Collective security ii. Cooperation under anarchy iii. Reciprocity 1. Implications 2. Interdependence 3. Collective goods 4. Absolute/ Non-zero sum gains (in contrast to relative/zero-sum gains) 3. Prisoners dilemma according to liberals Neo-Liberalism, Continued 1. Prisoners’ Dilemma According to he Liberals a. Repetitive Contact i. Shadow of the future ii. Cost of defection b. Mutuality of interests i. Robert Axelrod Study ii. Tit-for-Tat 2. Ways to increase the Cost of Defection a. Reputation Costs b. Monitoring i. Ex. Nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) 3. Complex Interdependence (pros and cons) 4. International Organizations (pros and cons) 5. Critiques of Liberalism… a. Ethnocentrism b. One Size Fits All Model The Rise of China (Zhongguo) 1. China’s glory days and decline (Qing dynasty) th 2. China in the 20 century a. Nationalist period (guomindang) i. Civil war 1928-1949 ii. 2ndSino-Japanese war (WWII) b. peoples republic of china = communist era i. Mao Zedong policies 1. Relations with USSR 2. Great leap forward ; sino-soviet split and cultural revolution 3. Relations with US ii. Deng Xiaoping 1. Economic reforms 2. Tiananmen Square 1989 iii. Jiang Zemin to Hu Jintao to Xi Jinpig 3. What happens now? Is china threat? Nationalism and the Nation-State 1. Nation State = New concept 2. Vertical and horizontal legitimacy 3. Hard, soft and smart power (Nye) 4. Pre-nation-state 5. Creation of the modern nation-state a. France-Louis XIV 6. Nationalism and ethnic violence 7. Process and purpose of colonization a. Boundary drawing 8. Decolonization a. Its challenges b. Issue of statehood 9. Problem of the “artificial” state a. Recall vertical and horizontal legitimacy 10. Role of non-states today 11. Is every state a nation? Is every nation a state Two Dominate Theories of International Relations (1. Realism) Realism Main point: find a solution and system that promotes peace and not war Can be done through a balance of power between the states Statecentered view o Realists assume state are national unitary actors Rational: behavior is predictable and decisions ensure survival o Primary actor in international systems: state Realists don’t see NGOs as most powerful Dominate theory throughout the cold war period Focuses on national security o Ensures the survival of the state o Prioritize own security over security of others States are power hungry and utilize realpolitik o Realpolitik coined by realists – “power politics” Believe we live under constant anarchy because there is no single global power over the states Polarity Views security through sections of states joined together as powerhouses o Unipolarity One major pole/power Hegemon Current status of international relations with US as hegemon Hegemonic stability theory: hegemon so powerful that it can deter any threats Unstable under realists p.o.v o Bipolarity B.O.P System during cold war between US and USSR o Multipolar Where we are headed with emerging powers of China, India, Russia, Brazil, EU Very unstable Too many players possible collective action problem o CAP: increased number of actors increased chance of problems because not everyone will agree on solution or best outcome Realists see polarity as a “quest for power” Alliances If you establish B.O.P increased equilibrium globally decreased chance of war Alliances help to achieve B.O.P o Enemy of my enemy is my friend o Should never be permanent States are always changing Bandwagoning: alliance system where weaker powers flock to major powers for protection Relative gains = zero sum —realists favor o Gains of one might be at expense of another My interests Your interests “I win” “You lose” Absolute gains = nonzero sum o Gain together My Our Your interests interests interests “I win” “win/win” “You lose” Selfhelp state: states that do not have strong allies and cannot rely on them or the UN to help them in time of need o How states act when they are responsible for their own survival o Israel perfect “realist state” 2 main branches of realism Classical o “Early version” o Morgenthau’s “Politics Among Nations” 1948 o Connection between state behavior and state leader If the individual is power seeking and aggressive, state will be too o States want power, neighbors also want power Competition war To avoid war, prepare for war—prevent with fear Neorealism (structural realism) o “Soft version” o developed with the end of cold war o Kenneth Waltz “Theory of International Politic” 1979 Not all states are power hungry, but all want to survive Coined selfhelp Prisoners Dilemma 2 convicts are arrested and are presented with the chance of freedom if they rat the other convict out Demonstrates the importance of communication Realists say there is no communication between prisoners o Play as a “one chance” game You have to make the right decision on the first time o During cold war, politicians used this mindset thinking if we should arm with nuclear weapons If we disarm and the USSR disarms minimal consequences We don’t trust USSR will disarm and we don’t communicate USSR doesn’t trust we will disarm Liberals say states do talk, so prisoners talk Collective effort o States work with each other to achieve common goals More rational o Both prisoners ending up with less time = compromise Repetitive contact: meeting many times with other player o Creates relationship Trust positive relationship o “Shadow of the future”—know we will meet again, want to be have good relations in future o Cost of defection Sanctions, trade embargos etc. “Punishment” Increase cost of defection increased cost for states to behave How to increase Emphasize reputation cost o Damaged reputation increased cost Hard power = use forces Soft power = persuasion Monitoring o States more inclined to keep word Nuclear Non Prolif treaty states can possess nuclear energy but not an offensive capability for nuclear power Mutuality of interest o Assumes we have common goals Liberals focus on finding these common interests and using them to work together Focus on what brings us together, not what drives us apart o Friendly relations with states that otherwise might be enemies Robert Axelrod Found that people suggest either cheating or cooperating when asked how to solve PD Titfortat o Reciprocity when the first move is positive If first is positive, every after will be too Defection decreased because cooperation better results Shadow of the future + repetitive contact positive actions increased cooperation World War I, InterWar, WWII How it happened Did not start due to assassination of Ferdinand Unification of Germany—went from 39 states 1 state Otto Von Bismarck o Practitioner of Realpolitik o Ruler of new Germany Negotiating alliances for the new state tension (realists don’t trust states—didn’t know why he was making alliances) o Security dilemma Those not in the alliances felt they had 2 choices to ensure Germany didn’t grow too much and harm them o 1. Stop growth—tactic used in WWI—clearly didn’t work o 2. Befriend them—went into play after WWII power transitions are most likely time for war (realists) o don’t occur peacefully because one state is always ending up with less The Wars major alliance o triple entete: Brit, France, Russia US joins later o Central powers: Germany, Austria, Hungary Italy in the start, later swtiches Death toll ~ 15 million Ottoman, German, Russian and Hungarian empires fall Ends with treaty of Versailles PostWar Period Pyrrhic victory: victory isn’t worth the work it took to get there o More is lost than gained o Brit, France, US lost entire generation of men o Most of war fought in france destruction No B.O.P in Europe o Brit could not maintain peace multipolar Europe League of Nations and Interwar period Pres. Wilson created but congress did not ratify US never joined Tried to accomplish peace through cooperation No way to enforce cooperation o No military Member states had to provide military units and no one was strong enough to do so postwar o Enforced sanctions o No way of making states stay Failed at maintaining peace o Japan invades Chinese territory of Manchuria Manchukuo o Italy invades Ethiopia Germany violated Treaty of Versailles and was openly armed LoN failed to address Germany WWII o Realists blame lack of B.O.P for WWII Do not blame LoN because no one thought it would work o Liberals say it could have worked if US had joined Mearshimer’s Assumptions on States (Realist Viewpoint) 1. Great powers are main actors in world politics and we line in anarchy 2. All states possess offensive military capability 3. States can never be certain of other states intentions 4. Survival is primary goal of state 5. States are rational actors o powers fear each other o function according to selfhelp no one was in system that could stop Germany from becoming a hegemon liberals say we will miss cold war because we had a B.O.P o no hot war o half a century of peace Cold War Rise of Cold War ~75 mil. People died in WWII BENDECK DID NOT LECTURE ON WWII After WWII US tried to weaken Germany o Divided it up between 4 allied powers “cold” war because we had a B.O.P Marshall Plan (1948): offering economic aid to the states of Europe o Brit, US, France merge to 1 econ unit USSR threatened by this (didn’t know what intentions were) Blockaded Berlin Berlin air lift o 1949 official German split War Period genuine concern of nuclear war Proxy Wars: wars on the periphery between smaller power states o Vietnam War USSR “victory” War between 2 nuclear powers is unwinnable o Rational power would never engage Power of deterrence Spread of communism increased USSR power Role of Egypt Suez Canal import for good Gamal Abdel NasserPresident of Egypt 1956 o Both powers in Cold War were trying to buy over Nasser for canal control Nasser recognized this and played both sides Aswan High Dam Project US financed when Nasser “pledged loyalty” o Recognized Nasser was playing them, pulled support o Nationalized canal, Brit loses control o Israel occupied Sinai Peninsula US encourages all 3 powers to stop OPEC sanctions against Israel, oil embargo against Brit and France Why? Risk of USSR threatening Brit and France with attack cold war hot war If USSR attacks a US ally in Europe, US has to get involved “if you attack one of our allies in Europe, it’s the same thing as attacking us” Eisenhower Cuban Missile Crisis USSR seeking to “nuclearize” security dilemma for US Both sides end up backing down o USSR backs down first after US ultimatum If USSR doesn’t dismantle, US engages war Realists focus on importance of deterrence in conflict Ending the Cold War Soviet system comes crashing down o China pulls out of USSR alliance o USSR 10year war with Afghanistan in 1979 Gorbachev rises to power o Implements political and economic reforms o Fall of Berlin wall o Malta conference Met with Bush senior Negotiated end of war Gorbachev recognized US would become hegemon Peaceful end to war Realists say US possessed advantage o Liberals say that US and USSR leaders started communication end of war Realism vs. Liberalism American foreign policy peace through strength o When youre strong enough you can deter threats Realists power transition upset o History shows they can be peaceful Realists promote diplomacy but don’t believe it can guarantee safety o “speak softly but carry a big stick” Roosevelt utilize diplomacy but be ready to use force NeoLiberalism dominate theory now Emphasis on cooperation starting with treaty of Westphalia 1648 o Europe recognizes state sovereignty o Concert of Europe 1815; major powers agreed they would communicate o LoN Why did it fail? Realists idea Liberals institution Historical Roots Enlightenment o Ideas Promoted rights of individual Government should work for people People should have a say in government o 2 things come from enlightenment liberal movement democracy French revolution o People demanded rights spread through Europe classical liberalism political, social, economic change in Europe Political: as you empower people they become citizen govt. works for people people have say in govt. voting rights democracy Social: active citizens have more rights to care about Economic: industrial revolution, capitalism, free market enterprise o Giver people chance to benefit from politics and economics Classical Liberalism Constitution based on these ideas o Granted citizens rights defined by liberalism Neoliberalism 20 century Europe Modern theory of INS Main focus: institutions, cooperation, communication, collective efforts and promotion of democracy Technology nuclear weaponry o Prevent war, not war catalyst Global interconnection with powers across the globe through IGOs, NGOs, MNCs Critiques from NonWestern world Ethnocentric view o Western culture > others One size fits all model Rise of China Qing Dynasty Last dynasty Chinas “weak” period o This was the raritymany people see Chinas current successful period as the rarity o Conservative views of Confucius Coincided with rise of West Each western country wanted a piece of china, never colonized fall of Qing 1912 Fall of Qing o Chinese revolution > end of 2000 years of imperial rule o Sun Yatsen “father of modern china” Wanted china to be like Americas dem. Rep. o Died Chaing Kai Shek Established new party Republic of China China as a National Government “Party”, not countrywide system Fought against Chinese communism 19471949 civil war and japenese invasion o Unconditional surrender with Japan o post WWII still in power, communism had grown Communism takes over Chaing Kai Shek fleas to Taiwan o Claims this as new China Problems within UN for which area is actually china Taiwan hold seat for short period Leninist communism Peoples Republic of China Mao Zedong takes over China when Shek flees Communist regime of Beijing China and US enemies o China becomes closer with USSR and helps N. Korea in Korean War o US recognizes Taiwan as China o Mao does not follow USSR model “Great Leap Forward”: movement to industrialize and surpass Brit in manufacturing force people into communes o starving, no possessions o Produced false numbers to look like the system was working not enough food produced greatest famine in history at least 30 million starved Backyard steel furnaces: Mao requested people to produce steel at home in free time o USSR splits form China 1950 SinoSoviet split during cold war start of US and China relations PostCommunist China Mao launches cultural revolution to “purify china’s culture” o Purge o Use of children militants to purify the population of anyone against Mao Used children because they couldn’t comprehend consequences o ~30 million died Mao’s death toll = ~77 million Realizes he is destroying his country, turns to US o Wanted in the UN o Invites US pingpong team over to open relations with US in April 1971 PingPong diplomacychinese were able to open doors to relations with US and hold their status without looking weak Kissinger travels to China 1971, meets with Mao secretly o Vietnam war o Start small trade o Allowed china into UN Taiwan kicked out Deng Xiaoping Mao dies 1976 Deng Combing communism and capitalism open door trade, economic reform, open door policy o No political reforms o Communist style control Countries start negotiating with China for land and corporations head manufacturing Tiananmen Square incident o 1989 protests for democracy month long protest for civil rights military sent in to disperse, open fire human rights charge Recent Rulers all Politicalhardliners Jiang Zemin o Invited into WTO 2001 Hu Jintao o Great fire wall of China o 2008 Olympics Xi Jinping o Increased military build up and build up of islands Threat of China Realists China threat Will continue to grow economically and militarily Wants to be hegemon of east Liberals Not threat Cooperation’s and mutual involvement no conflict China is not stronger and never will be stronger than the US Nation State Legitimacy Core idea of how a entity becomes a nationstate Established through relations between government and people 2 types Vertical connection from top to bottom begins with ruling power establishing right to rule Horizontal moving across who is apart of the community being ruled o Culture, language, religion, nationality etc. Power Nye established 2 types Hard Power “Coercive power wielded through inducements or threats”Nye o Powers utilize military capacity Soft Power Capability to persuade others o Accomplished by attraction and emulation Smart Power Military strength is there but countries use diplomacy and communication more effectively Creating the Nation-State France Feudal Europe was divided into very small countries Louis XIV ruled 1643-1715 o Achieved vertical legitimacy from treaty of Westphalia o Helped unify the French people French identity First understanding of citizen Nationalism played huge rule in French revolution o Spread during Napoleonic wars o Helped redraw map of Europe in 1900s unified Germany and Italy Nationalism Though played a role in the creation of the nation-state, also led to the violent fall of many empires o Turkish empire Massacre of Armenians Nation state system crafted in western world o Natural in the West Happened on its own- fit Europe- was not forced Post WWII we have the UN o Cannot be a member if you are not a state Made state status mandatory to participate Decolonization countries needing to claim their own land Decolonization, Colonization, formation of the nation state Imperialism o Industrialization need for natural resources Africa and Asia Once you have the resources, you need markets Colonies Africa heaviest colonized o No major wars between major powers during the African conquest Major powers sat down and literally drew up map of African and gave pieces to each power No consideration for history, language, culture and how these new lines might split tribes or groups and force them into new groups Middle East o Iraq Kurds, Shia, other ethnic groups that do not like each other forced into 1 nation state Decolonization o Begins to occur after WWII How can champions of liberalism and democracy continue championing their control over the world? o Does not always go smoothly o Nations devolved into civil war after given state status State-by-state basis for why the wars occurred Many of the civil wars proxy wars in cold wars Once an independent state is created, major powers want them as an ally o As former colonies gained freedom and independence, they were recognized as states and were able to brought into the international system UN did not thoroughly assess the former colonies to see if they met the qualifications of statehood Artificial States Artificial states o Colonies that became states but were not able to be legitimate states due to colonization-era boundary drawing Grant them statehood but the people within the area have nothing in common Share different history, culture, religion etc. Tensions within the state are extremely high Leader in power that many groups within the state may not agree with UN granted statehood to have more members in the international system o Increased number of civil wars than wars between states since WWII- Holste still dealing with this today Non-states and failed states Criteria to meet statehood 1988 Palestine “declared” themselves as a state o Bring to UN to have them vote on statehood Status currently: “non-member observer state” of UN Cannot actively participate because they are not recognized as state Taiwan is a non-state entity that does not have international rights o Has diplomatic relations with 22 UN states o Meets all criteria but China will not allow them to become a state China has veto power as a member of the 5 country security council Kosovo o From breakdown of Yugoslavia o 2008 Kosovo declared its statehood but is being contested by Serbia o Most of UN sees it as a state Is every state a nation? Is every nation a state? There are states in which not everyone living there would consider themselves a nation and they do not hold homogenous culture or groups that would dictate nationality On the flip, there are groups of people that share commonalities and could be a state but do not have a government to represent them
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'