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international affairs fsu

international affairs fsu


School: Florida State University
Department: International Studies
Course: Introduction to International Affairs
Professor: Whitney bendeck
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: INS3003 exam 1 review
Description: this study guide includes all the lecture outlines from class, condensed and more straight forward notes and graphs/images where applicable
Uploaded: 10/02/2016
18 Pages 9 Views 21 Unlocks

Donald Hendry (Rating: )

Introduction to Realism  

what is neo-realism?

1. Classical Realism (Hans Morgenthau)

a. Response to US idealism

b. Pursuit of power (realpolitik)

2. Neo­realism (Kenneth waltz)

a. Aka structural realism

b. Assumptions

i. States are rational unitary actors

ii. States seek security

iii. Anarchy

c. Balance of power

i. Alliances

ii. Bandwagoning

iii. Balancing

d. Polarity

i. Uni­polarity (hegemonic stability theory)

ii. Bi­polarity

iii. Multi­polarity

e. Security dilemma­prisoners dilemma (game theory)  i. Relative gains = zero sum

ii. Absolute gains = non­zero sum

Realism & the Origins of Major Power Wars 

1. WW1

a. Germany and the Security Dilemma

b. Balance of power and Reasons for its Demise i. Power Transition

ii. Russia and Preventative War

2. Interwar to WW2

what is realism (Hans Morgenthau)

Don't forget about the age old question of political science uconn

a. Pyrrhic Victory

b. Balance of Power?

c. League of Nations

i. Japan (Manchukuo) & Italy

d. Appeasement

e. Nazi Germany as a Revisionist State

i. Mearsheimer’s viewpoint

3. Cold War Erupts

a. Division of Post­War Europe

b. East­Central Europe = Soviet Satellites

c. Marshall Plan

d. NATO (1949) Warsaw Pact (1955)

e. Bi­Polar world = Balance of Power 

Realism and the Cold War 

1. Nature of the Cold War

a. Suez Canal Crisis

i. Nasser

ii. Suez War (1956)

iii. Lessons We Can Learn

b. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

2. Cold War Deterrence

a. Weighing the Risks

b. Conventional vs. Nuclear Weapons

c. Impact of Nuclear Deterrence

d. Nuclear Power and a Peaceful End to the Cold War 3. Ending the Cold War

a. Decline of Soviet Military Power, Influence and Economy b. East-Central Europe

c. The Fall

4. Will We Miss the Cold War?

Introduction to Neo-Liberalism 

1. What realism doesn’t explain…

2. Liberalism

a. History of cooperation (Westphalia forward)

b. Historical roots

c. Classical liberalism

d. Neo-liberalism

i. Collective security

ii. Cooperation under anarchy

iii. Reciprocity

1. Implications

2. Interdependence

3. Collective goods

4. Absolute/ Non-zero sum gains (in contrast to  

relative/zero-sum gains)

3. Prisoners dilemma according to liberals

Neo-Liberalism, Continued 

1. Prisoners’ Dilemma According to he Liberals  We also discuss several other topics like gvsu physics

a. Repetitive Contact

i. Shadow of the future

ii. Cost of defection

b. Mutuality of interests

i. Robert Axelrod Study

ii. Tit-for-Tat

2. Ways to increase the Cost of Defection

a. Reputation Costs

b. Monitoring

i. Ex. Nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT)

3. Complex Interdependence (pros and cons)

4. International Organizations (pros and cons)

5. Critiques of Liberalism…

a. Ethnocentrism

b. One Size Fits All Model  

The Rise of China (Zhongguo) 

1. China’s glory days and decline (Qing dynasty) 2. China in the 20th century

a. Nationalist period (guomindang)

i. Civil war 1928-1949

ii. 2nd Sino-Japanese war (WWII)

b. peoples republic of china = communist era

i. Mao Zedong policies

1. Relations with USSR

2. Great leap forward ; sino-soviet split and  

cultural revolution

3. Relations with US

ii. Deng Xiaoping

1. Economic reforms

2. Tiananmen Square 1989

iii. Jiang Zemin to Hu Jintao to Xi Jinpig

3. What happens now? Is china threat?

Nationalism and the Nation-State 

1. Nation State = New concept

2. Vertical and horizontal legitimacy

3. Hard, soft and smart power (Nye)

4. Pre-nation-state

5. Creation of the modern nation-state

a. France-Louis XIV

6. Nationalism and ethnic violence

7. Process and purpose of colonization

a. Boundary drawing If you want to learn more check out an inflationary gap exists when ad and sras

8. Decolonization

a. Its challenges

b. Issue of statehood

9. Problem of the “artificial” state

a. Recall vertical and horizontal legitimacy

10. Role of non-states today

11. Is every state a nation? Is every nation a state

Two Dominate Theories of International Relations (1. Realism) 


Main point: find a solution and system that promotes peace and not war ∙ Can be done through a balance of power between the states

∙ State­centered view

o Realists assume state are national unitary actors 

 Rational: behavior is predictable and decisions ensure survival

o Primary actor in international systems: state

 Realists don’t see NGOs as most powerful

∙ Dominate theory throughout the cold war period

∙ Focuses on national security

o Ensures the survival of the state

o Prioritize own security over security of others  

∙ States are power hungry and utilize realpolitik

o Realpolitik coined by realists – “power politics”  

∙ Believe we live under constant anarchy because there is no single global power  over the states


∙ Views security through sections of states joined together as power­houses o Uni­polarity

 One major pole/power

 Hegemon

∙ Current status of international relations with US as 


 Hegemonic stability theory: hegemon so powerful that it can deter  any threats

 Unstable under realists p.o.v  

o Bi­polarity

 B.O.P

 System during cold war between US and USSR Don't forget about the age old question of egoistic suicide definition

o Multi­polar

 Where we are headed with emerging powers of China, India, 

Russia, Brazil, EU

 Very unstable

∙ Too many players  possible collective action problem

o CAP: increased number of actors  increased 

chance of problems because not everyone will agree

on solution or best outcome 

∙ Realists see polarity as a “quest for power”


∙ If you establish B.O.P  increased equilibrium globally  decreased chance of  war

∙ Alliances help to achieve B.O.P

o Enemy of my enemy is my friend

o Should never be permanent

 States are always changing

∙ Bandwagoning: alliance system where weaker powers flock to major powers for  protection

∙ Relative gains = zero sum   —realists favor 

o Gains of one might be at expense of another Don't forget about the age old question of chem 111 study guide

My interests “I win”

Your interests “You lose”

∙ Absolute gains = non­zero sum o Gain together


interests “I win”


interests “win/win”


interests “You


∙ Self­help state: states that do not have strong allies and cannot rely on them or the  UN to help them in time of need

o How states act when they are responsible for their own survival

o Israel­ perfect “realist state”

2 main branches of realism  

∙ Classical 

o “Early version”

o Morgenthau’s “Politics Among Nations” 1948

o Connection between state behavior and state leader

 If the individual is power seeking and aggressive, state will be too o States want power, neighbors also want power

  Competition  war

 To avoid war, prepare for war—prevent with fear

∙ Neo­realism (structural realism)

o “Soft version”

o developed with the end of cold war

o Kenneth Waltz “Theory of International Politic” 1979

 Not all states are power hungry, but all want to survive We also discuss several other topics like sala co is contemplating the replacement

 Coined self­help

Prisoners Dilemma  

∙ 2 convicts are arrested and are presented with the chance of freedom if they rat  the other convict out 

∙ Demonstrates the importance of communication

∙ Realists say there is no communication between prisoners 

o Play as a “one chance” game

 You have to make the right decision on the first time

o During cold war, politicians used this mindset thinking if we should arm  with nuclear weapons

 If we disarm and the USSR disarms  minimal consequences

∙ We don’t trust USSR will disarm and we don’t 


∙ USSR doesn’t trust we will disarm

∙ Liberals say states do talk, so prisoners talk

∙ Collective effort

o States work with each other to achieve common goals

 More rational 

o Both prisoners ending up with less time = compromise

∙ Repetitive contact: meeting many times with other player 

o Creates relationship

 Trust  positive relationship 

o “Shadow of the future”—know we will meet again, want to be have good  relations in future

o Cost of defection

 Sanctions, trade embargos etc. 

 “Punishment”

 Increase cost of defection  increased cost for states to behave

 How to increase

∙ Emphasize reputation cost

o Damaged reputation  increased cost

∙ Hard power = use forces

∙ Soft power = persuasion 

∙ Monitoring

o States more inclined to keep word

 Nuclear Non Prolif treaty­ states can possess

nuclear energy but not an offensive 

capability for nuclear power 

∙ Mutuality of interest

o Assumes we have common goals

 Liberals focus on finding these common interests and using them  to work together 

∙ Focus on what brings us together, not what drives us apart

o Friendly relations with states that otherwise might be enemies

Robert Axelrod 

∙ Found that people suggest either cheating or cooperating when asked how to solve PD

∙ Tit­for­tat

o Reciprocity when the first move is positive 

 If first is positive, every after will be too

∙ Defection decreased because cooperation  better results

∙ Shadow of the future + repetitive contact  positive actions  increased  cooperation

World War I, Inter­War, WWII 

How it happened 

∙ Did not start due to assassination of Ferdinand

∙ Unification of Germany—went from 39 states  1 state

∙ Otto Von Bismarck

o Practitioner of Realpolitik 

o Ruler of new Germany

 Negotiating alliances for the new state  tension (realists don’t  trust states—didn’t know why he was making alliances)

o Security dilemma 

∙ Those not in the alliances felt they had 2 choices to ensure Germany didn’t grow  too much and harm them

o 1. Stop growth—tactic used in WWI—clearly didn’t work

o 2. Befriend them—went into play after WWII 

∙ power transitions are most likely time for war (realists)

o don’t occur peacefully because one state is always ending up with less The Wars 

∙ major alliance

o triple entete: Brit, France, Russia

 US joins later

o Central powers: Germany, Austria, Hungary

 Italy in the start, later swtiches

∙ Death toll ~ 15 million

∙ Ottoman, German, Russian and Hungarian empires fall

∙ Ends with treaty of Versailles

Post­War Period 

∙ Pyrrhic victory: victory isn’t worth the work it took to get there 

o More is lost than gained

o Brit, France, US lost entire generation of men

o Most of war fought in france  destruction 

∙ No B.O.P in Europe

o Brit could not maintain peace  multi­polar Europe 

League of Nations and Inter­war period 

∙ Pres. Wilson created but congress did not ratify  US never joined  ∙ Tried to accomplish peace through cooperation

∙ No way to enforce cooperation

o No military

 Member states had to provide military units and no one was strong  enough to do so post­war

o Enforced sanctions

o No way of making states stay

∙ Failed at maintaining peace

o Japan invades Chinese territory of Manchuria  Manchukuo

o Italy invades Ethiopia

∙ Germany violated Treaty of Versailles and was openly armed 

∙ LoN failed to address Germany  WWII

o Realists blame lack of B.O.P for WWII 

 Do not blame LoN because no one thought it would work

o Liberals say it could have worked if US had joined

Mearshimer’s Assumptions on States (Realist Viewpoint) ∙ 1. Great powers are main actors in world politics and we line in anarchy ∙ 2. All states possess offensive military capability

∙ 3. States can never be certain of other states intentions

∙ 4. Survival is primary goal of state

∙ 5. States are rational actors 

o powers fear each other

o function according to self­help

∙ no one was in system that could stop Germany from becoming a hegemon  ∙ liberals say we will miss cold war because we had a B.O.P

o no hot war

o half a century of peace

Cold War

Rise of Cold War 

∙ ~75 mil. People died in WWII BENDECK DID NOT LECTURE ON WWII ∙ After WWII US tried to weaken Germany 

o Divided it up between 4 allied powers

∙ “cold” war because we had a B.O.P

∙ Marshall Plan (1948): offering economic aid to the states of Europe o Brit, US, France merge to 1 econ unit

 USSR threatened by this (didn’t know what intentions were) 

Blockaded Berlin  Berlin air lift

o 1949 official German split

War Period 

∙ genuine concern of nuclear war

∙ Proxy Wars: wars on the periphery between smaller power states o Vietnam War

 USSR “victory”

∙ War between 2 nuclear powers is unwinnable

o Rational power would never engage 

∙ Power of deterrence 

∙ Spread of communism  increased USSR power

Role of Egypt 

∙ Suez Canal­ import for good

∙ Gamal Abdel Nasser­President of Egypt 1956

o Both powers in Cold War were trying to buy over Nasser for canal control  Nasser recognized this and played both sides

 Aswan High Dam Project 

∙ US financed when Nasser “pledged loyalty”

o Recognized Nasser was playing them, pulled 


o Nationalized canal,  Brit loses control

o Israel occupied Sinai Peninsula

 US encourages all 3 powers to stop  OPEC sanctions against 

Israel, oil embargo against Brit and France

∙ Why? Risk of USSR threatening Brit and France with 

attack  cold war  hot war

∙ If USSR attacks a US ally in Europe, US has to get 


∙ “if you attack one of our allies in Europe, it’s the same 

thing as attacking us”­ Eisenhower 

Cuban Missile Crisis

∙ USSR seeking to “nuclearize”  security dilemma for US

∙ Both sides end up backing down

o USSR backs down first after US ultimatum

 If USSR doesn’t dismantle, US engages war

∙ Realists focus on importance of deterrence in conflict 

Ending the Cold War 

∙ Soviet system comes crashing down

o China pulls out of USSR alliance 

o USSR 10­year war with Afghanistan in 1979 

∙ Gorbachev rises to power

o Implements political and economic reforms

o  Fall of Berlin wall

o Malta conference

 Met with Bush senior

∙ Negotiated end of war

 Gorbachev recognized US would become hegemon 

∙ Peaceful end to war

∙ Realists say US possessed advantage

o Liberals say that US and USSR leaders started communication  end of  war

Realism vs. Liberalism 

∙ American foreign policy­ peace through strength 

o When youre strong enough you can deter threats

∙ Realists­ power transition  upset

o History shows they can be peaceful

∙ Realists promote diplomacy but don’t believe it can guarantee safety  o “speak softly but carry a big stick”­ Roosevelt

 utilize diplomacy but be ready to use force


∙ dominate theory now

Emphasis on cooperation 

∙ starting with treaty of Westphalia 1648

o Europe recognizes state sovereignty

o Concert of Europe 1815; major powers agreed they would communicate

o LoN

 Why did it fail? 

∙ Realists­ idea 

∙ Liberals­ institution  

Historical Roots  

∙ Enlightenment

o Ideas

 Promoted rights of individual 

 Government should work for people

 People should have a say in government

o 2 things come from enlightenment

 liberal movement

 democracy

∙ French revolution 

o People demanded rights  spread through Europe  classical liberalism    political, social, economic change in Europe

∙ Political: as you empower people they become citizen 

govt. works for people  people have say in govt.  voting 

rights  democracy

∙ Social: active citizens have more rights to care about

∙ Economic: industrial revolution, capitalism, free market 


o Giver people chance to benefit from politics and economics

Classical Liberalism 

∙ Constitution based on these ideas

o Granted citizens rights defined by liberalism


∙ 20th century Europe

∙ Modern theory of INS

  ∙        Main focus: institutions, cooperation, communication, collective efforts and  promotion of democracy 

∙ Technology  nuclear weaponry 

o Prevent war, not war catalyst

∙ Global inter­connection with powers across the globe through IGOs, NGOs,  MNCs

Critiques from Non­Western world 

∙ Ethnocentric view

o Western culture > others 

∙ One size fits all model 

Rise of China

Qing Dynasty 

∙ Last dynasty

∙ Chinas “weak” period

o This was the rarity­many people see Chinas current successful period as  the rarity

o Conservative views of Confucius 

 Coincided with rise of West

∙ Each western country wanted a piece of china, never 

colonized  fall of Qing 1912

∙ Fall of Qing

o Chinese revolution ­> end of 2000 years of imperial rule

o Sun Yatsen “father of modern china”

 Wanted china to be like Americas dem. Rep. 

o Died  Chaing Kai Shek

 Established new party

Republic of China 

China as a National Government 

∙ “Party”, not country­wide system 

∙ Fought against Chinese communism

∙ 1947­1949­ civil war and japenese invasion 

o Unconditional surrender with Japan

o post WWII still in power, communism had grown

∙   Communism takes over  Chaing Kai Shek fleas to Taiwan 

o Claims this as new China 

  Problems within UN for which area is actually china  

∙   Taiwan hold seat for short period 

∙   Leninist communism 

Peoples Republic of China 

∙ Mao Zedong takes over China when Shek flees 

∙ Communist regime of Beijing

∙   China and US enemies 

o China becomes closer with USSR and helps N. Korea in Korean War o US recognizes Taiwan as China

o Mao does not follow USSR model

 “Great Leap Forward”: movement to industrialize and surpass Brit  in manufacturing  

∙   force people into communes 

o starving, no possessions

o Produced false numbers to look like the system was 

working  not enough food produced  greatest 

famine in history  at least 30 million starved 

∙   Backyard steel furnaces: Mao requested people to produce 

steel at home in free time

o USSR splits form China 1950

 Sino­Soviet split during cold war

  start of US and China relations

Post­Communist China  

∙ Mao launches cultural revolution to “purify china’s culture”

o Purge

o Use of children militants to purify the population of anyone against Mao  Used children because they couldn’t comprehend consequences  o ~30 million died  Mao’s death toll = ~77 million 

∙ Realizes he is destroying his country, turns to US

o Wanted in the UN

o Invites US ping­pong team over to open relations with US  in April 1971  Ping­Pong diplomacy­chinese were able to open doors to relations  with US and hold their status without looking weak

∙ Kissinger travels to China 1971, meets with Mao secretly

o Vietnam war

o Start small trade

o Allowed china into UN 

 Taiwan kicked out 

Deng Xiaoping 

∙ Mao dies 1976 Deng

∙ Combing communism and capitalism  open door trade, economic reform, open  door policy

o No political reforms

o Communist style control

∙ Countries start negotiating with China for land and corporations  head  manufacturing 

∙ Tiananmen Square incident 

o 1989­ protests for democracy month long protest for civil rights  military sent in to disperse, open fire human rights charge

Recent Rulers 

∙ all Political­hardliners

∙ Jiang Zemin

o Invited into WTO 2001

∙ Hu Jintao

o Great fire wall of China

o 2008 Olympics

∙ Xi Jinping

o Increased military build up and build up of islands

Threat of China  


∙ China threat

∙ Will continue to grow economically and militarily

∙ Wants to be hegemon of east


∙ Not threat

∙ Cooperation’s and mutual involvement  no conflict

∙ China is not stronger and never will be stronger than the US

Nation State 


∙ Core idea of how a entity becomes a nation­state

∙ Established through relations between government and people  ∙ 2 types


∙ connection from top to bottom

∙ begins with ruling power establishing right to rule


∙ moving across

∙ who is apart of the community being ruled

o Culture, language, religion, nationality etc.


∙ Nye established 2 types 

Hard Power 

∙ “Coercive power wielded through inducements or threats”­Nye o Powers utilize military capacity

Soft Power 

∙ Capability to persuade others

o Accomplished by attraction and emulation

Smart Power 

∙ Military strength is there but countries use diplomacy and communication more  effectively 

Creating the Nation-State 


∙ Feudal Europe was divided into very small countries ∙ Louis XIV ruled 1643-1715

o Achieved vertical legitimacy from treaty of Westphalia o Helped unify the French people

  French identity  

∙ First understanding of citizen

∙ Nationalism played huge rule in French revolution

o Spread during Napoleonic wars

o Helped redraw map of Europe in 1900s  unified Germany  and Italy  


∙ Though played a role in the creation of the nation-state, also led  to the violent fall of many empires

o Turkish empire

 Massacre of Armenians  

∙ Nation state system crafted in western world

o Natural in the West

 Happened on its own- fit Europe- was not forced

∙ Post WWII we have the UN

o Cannot be a member if you are not a state  

 Made state status mandatory to participate  

∙ Decolonization  countries needing to claim their own land  

Decolonization, Colonization, formation of the nation state ∙ Imperialism  

o Industrialization  need for natural resources

 Africa and Asia

 Once you have the resources, you need markets

∙ Colonies  

∙ Africa heaviest colonized

o No major wars between major powers during the African  conquest

 Major powers sat down and literally drew up map of  African and gave pieces to each power  

 No consideration for history, language, culture and  how these new lines might split tribes or groups and  

force them into new groups  

∙ Middle East

o Iraq

 Kurds, Shia, other ethnic groups that do not like each  other forced into 1 nation state

∙ Decolonization

o Begins to occur after WWII

 How can champions of liberalism and democracy  

continue championing their control over the world?

o Does not always go smoothly

o Nations devolved into civil war after given state status  State-by-state basis for why the wars occurred

 Many of the civil wars  proxy wars in cold wars

∙ Once an independent state is created, major  

powers want them as an ally  

o As former colonies gained freedom and independence,  they were recognized as states and were able to brought  into the international system

 UN did not thoroughly assess the former colonies to  see if they met the qualifications of statehood  

Artificial States 

∙ Artificial states

o Colonies that became states but were not able to be  legitimate states due to colonization-era boundary drawing  Grant them statehood but the people within the area  have nothing in common

 Share different history, culture, religion etc.  

 Tensions within the state are extremely high

∙ Leader in power that many groups within the  

state may not agree with  

∙ UN granted statehood to have more members in the  international system

o  Increased number of civil wars than wars between states  since WWII- Holste

 still dealing with this today  

Non-states and failed states  

∙ Criteria to meet statehood  

∙   1988 Palestine “declared” themselves as a state

o Bring to UN to have them vote on statehood

 Status currently: “non-member observer state” of UN ∙ Cannot actively participate because they are  

not recognized as state

∙ Taiwan is a non-state entity that does not have international  rights

o Has diplomatic relations with 22 UN states  

o Meets all criteria but China will not allow them to become a state  

 China has veto power as a member of the 5 country  security council  

∙ Kosovo  

o From breakdown of Yugoslavia

o 2008 Kosovo declared its statehood but is being contested  by Serbia

o Most of UN sees it as a state  

Is every state a nation? Is every nation a state? 

∙ There are states in which not everyone living there would  consider themselves a nation and they do not hold homogenous  culture or groups that would dictate nationality

∙ On the flip, there are groups of people that share commonalities  and could be a state but do not have a government to represent  them

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