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Unit 2 Study Guide for Music 101

by: Zackary Windham

Unit 2 Study Guide for Music 101 Music 101

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A comprehensive look at the musical concepts, historical context, important pieces, and influential artists from the Medieval through Baroque eras.
Introduction to Music
Hannah C. McLaughlin
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zackary Windham on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Music 101 at Brigham Young University taught by Hannah C. McLaughlin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music in Music at Brigham Young University.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Music 101­ Study Guide for Unit 2, Medieval through Baroque (400­1750 C.E.) Contents­ Historical Context, Musical Concepts, Artists, Songs Historical Context Medieval Period­ 400­1450 C.E. ­Music during this time is mainly sung in churches and monasteries. ­Gregorian chants are sung in the Catholic church.  ­Along with the increase of popularity of polyphony comes a more defined notation  system. ­Concept of organum grows out of improvisatory customs; first polyphonic music. ­Music begins to leave the church as troubadours and trouvéres play more secular  music for the masses.  ­The Crusades happen, creating stories to be sung about.  ­The Medieval people develop a love for puzzles and intricacies.  Renaissance­ 1450­1600 C.E. ­More and more amateurs begin entering the music field.  ­Friends begin to sing music together; the Italian madrigal is conceived. ­The madrigal catches on in England. ­Humanism catches on as a growing idea, inspired by the ancient cultures of Greek and Rome.  ­Religious music begins to become more complex and more personal. ­The Reformation begins with Martin Luther and his 95 theses.  ­The Catholic church begins the Counter­Reformation and enlist Palestrina to try and  create more beautiful music to draw people back towards their church.  Baroque­ 1600­1750 C.E.  ­Emotion in music begins to be emphasized.  ­Music shifts from being modal to emphasizing a tonic.  ­Opera begins to become popular as Florentine musicians tried to recreate Greek  drama. ­The English mix the Italian opera and the English masque to form the English opera. ­Bach begins to write pieces for Lutheran congregational worship. ­Handel writes the Messiah, and popularizes the oratorio.  ­Baroque instruments begin to be more finely tuned and intricately made.  ­The Baroque suite becomes popular.  ­The concerto is developed.  ­The fugue is also developed, and Bach takes this idea and plays with it as much as he  can in The Art of Fugue.  Musical Concepts Plainchant­ single­line melody, free flowing, generally used in church music. Gregorian chants­ a collection of songs used in the Catholic church, typically all  plainchant; Pope Gregory the Great is attributed with codifying these. Polyphony­ Already mentioned in Unit 1, but becomes important later in medieval  period. Organum­ Form of polyphony that grew out of the improvisatory custom of adding an  interval of a fifth or fourth to a Gregorian chant. Ars nova­ meaning new art, it was a form of art inspired by cultural clashes with the  East.  Chanson­ generally secular songs set to fixed text forms. Madrigal­ an aristocratic form of poetry for cultivated amateurs; generally centered on  topics of love, humor, satire, etc. Often used word­painting, using the music to  emphasize the words.  Motet­ a sacred work with a Latin text, for use in the Mass and other religious services. Mass­ a Catholic ritual, involving the Ordinary which remains the same in every Mass,  and the Proper which changes based on what is being celebrated. The Ordinary  includes the Kyrie (prayer for mercy), Gloria (prayer of praise), Credo (confession of faith), Sanctus (another prayer of praise), and the Agnus Dei (which means “Lamb  of God”). Basso continuo­ a type of notation where the bottom of the chord is written and the  type of chord is notated above; used in operas.  Major­minor tonality­ a focus on a specific key in music. Opera­ a large­scale drama that is sung. Recitative­ musical declamation in opera; somewhat like speech. Aria­ a melody or song in opera, where the story has frozen for a character to express  him/herself.  Masque­ a type of English entertainment that combined vocal and instrumental music  with poetry and dance.  Ground bass­ a basso continuo in opera, usually laid down underneath recitative.  Lutheran cantata­ an elaboration on chorales; like a musical sermon, essentially.  Oratorio­ a large­scale musical work for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra that was  generally based on a biblical story.  Suite­ a group of short dances, usually performed only by instruments. An international  idea that included dance ideas from many cultures.  Concerto­ instrumental form of piece based on the opposition between two dissimilar  bodies of sound; usually an ensemble against a soloist.  Ritornello form­ ensemble plays a refrain between virtuosic outbursts by the soloist.  Fugue­ contrapuntal composition in which a single theme (the subject) pervades the  piece; based on the principle of imitation. Exposition­ the part of a fugue that ends once all the voices have stated the subject.  Artists Hildegard of Bingen (1098­1179)­ wrote for the Catholic church. Reportedly had  visions as a child which intensified later in her life. Raised in a monastery. Her style  resembles Gregorian chants but more expressive, with more melismas.  Notre Dame School­ a group of composers who specialized in popularizing the early  forms of polyphony, such as organum. Guillaume de Machaut (1300­1377)­ a poet­composer of the Ars nova. Loves riddles,  chivalry; wrote secular and religious music.  Jacque Arcadelt (1507­1568)­ a highly influential composer who specialized in writing  madrigals.  John Farmer (1570­1603)­ an English composer who popularized the idea of the  madrigal in England.  Josquin des Prez (1450­1521)­ part of the humanizing movement. His music is rich in  feeling and more personalized than previous religious works. Giovanni Pierluigi de Palestrina (1525­1594)­ composed specifically for the Catholic  church; wrote over 100 masses.  Henry Purcell (1659­1695)­ an influential English composer who wrote in many genres  and popularized the English opera.  Johann Sebastian Bach (1685­1750)­ the essence of the Baroque style, Bach wrote  many cantatas, fugues, and concertos and was extremely influential.  George Frideric Handel (1685­1759)­ began writing operas, then moved into English  oratorios. Wrote Messiah.  Antonio Vivaldi (1678­1741)­ grew up as the son of a violinist; was extremely prolific,  wrote over 230 violin concertos.  Songs I would recommend listening to the songs as you study the notes. Highlight = Medieval Highlight = Renaissance Highlight = Baroque Alleluia, O virga mediatrix­ Late 12  Century ­Written by Hildegard of Bingen  ­A plainchant, written for Mass during feasts for the Virgin Mary. ­Monophonic, nonmetric, conjunct melody with expressive leaps and melismas.  ­A cappella. Three part structure; choir sings alleluia at beginning and end, with a verse  by the soloist in between. ­A prayer to the Virgin Mary.  Gaude Maria virgo­ Early 13  Century ­Part of the Notre Dame school. ­An organum. ­A cappella; Upper voices exchange short, repeated ideas. Bottom voice is slow  moving.  ­Intervals of fifths and octaves. ­Polyphonic; melismas. ­Another prayer to the Virgin Mary.  th Ma fin est mon commencement­ Mid­14  Century ­Written by Guillaume de Machaut ­A polyphonic chanson ­A cappella; three voices, singing on open hollow cadences.  ­Duple meter, ABaAabAB form (uppercase is refrain, lowercase is verse). ­Non­imitative polyphony ­The text is a puzzle by the composer; a rondeau.  Il bianco e dolce cigno­ 1538 ­Written by Jacques Arcadelt ­An Italian madrigal, written for amateur performers.  ­A cappella; four voices, mostly homophonic but with imitative polyphony near the end. ­Duple meter. ­Mainly consonant and conjunct.  ­The text is a 10­line poem by Alfonso d’Avalos.  Fair Phyllis­ 1599 ­Written by John Farmer.  ­An English madrigal, written for amateur performers.  ­A cappella, four voices. Textures shifts from monophonic to imitation to homorhythmic.  ­Shifts from duple meter to triple meter. ­Lots of word painting. ­The text is a lighthearted English poem.  Ave Maria… virgo serena­ 1480s? ­Written by Josquin de Prez. ­A Latin motet, for use in religious services. ­A cappella, four voices. Imitative polyphony, with the final line being homorhythmic.  ­Shifts from duple meter to triple meter then back.  ­Consonant, hollow cadences.  ­Text is a prayer to the Virgin Mary, with a personal prayer from the composer at the  end. Gloria, from Pope Marcellus Mass­ 1567 ­Written by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina ­A religious piece for the Mass Ordinary.  ­A cappella for a six­part choir. A monophonic opening, then homorhythm with some  polyphony.  ­Slow duple meter. ­Full, consonant harmony.  ­Text is a hymn of praise.  Dido and Aeneas, Act III, Opening and Lament­ 1689 ­Written by Henry Purcell ­From an English opera based on Virgil’s Aeneid.  ­Baroque­era instruments accompanying voices.  ­Opening is a jaunty, playful tune in triple meter. The lament is a slow aria in triple  meter.  ­Lament follows a chromatic ground bass.  Wachet auf, Nos. 1 and 4­ 1731 ­Written by Johann Sebastian Bach ­A cantata.  ­Four­part choir with Baroque era instruments; imitative polyphony in lower voices. ­Insistent dotted rhythm in orchestra.  ­Major key. ­Text is a call from a watchman to Jerusalem.  Messiah, Nos. 18 and 44­ 1742 ­Written by George Frideric Handel. ­An English oratorio. ­Lots of melismas.  ­Hallelujah chorus is homorhythmic with some polyphony.  ­No. 18 follows a da capo form, A­B­A’.  Water Music, Suite in D Major, Alla hornpipe­ 1717 ­Written by George Frideric Handel ­A dance suite (Baroque suite) ­Three part form, A­B­A. ­No voices; just instruments.  ­Triple meter. ­Lots of leaps and trills; somewhat disjunct.  Spring, from The Four Seasons, Op. 8, No. 1­ 1725 ­Written by Antonio Vivaldi ­A concerto for solo violin. ­Ritornello as a unifying theme, with solo violin playing flashy, fast scales and trills. ­Expresses musical images of spring, such as birds, brooks, breezes, and storms.  ­Basso continuo.  Contrapunctus 1, from The Art of Fugue­ 1749 ­Written by Johann Sebastian Bach ­A fugue. ­Can be played on solo keyboard or with four different voices. ­Listen for the imitative entries of the same subject. ­Minor key; closes on a major chord. 


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