Study guide for midterm
Study guide for midterm COUN 5010
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lori Abramowitz on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COUN 5010 at University of Colorado - Denver taught by Dr. Schaefle in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Counseling Theories in Counseling at University of Colorado - Denver.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Midterm Study Guide CPCE 5010 *The stars indicate words or phrases that I could not locate anywhere in the book or on the powerpoints. I did some basic research on them to find out what they mean. The self of the Counselor SelfAwareness: (taken from the first ppt Self of the Counselor) Helps limit the emotional brain overriding the other brain, reduce distortions and biases, helps with ethical practice, and how do you expect your clients to go where you won’t go yourself? *Blind Spots: also called implicit biases is the bias in judgment and/or behavior that results from subtle cognitive processes. Cultural competence: (pg. 2728) cannot be simply reduced to cultural awareness and sensitivity, to a body of knowledge, or a to a specific set of skills. Requires a combination of all these factors. o Learn more about how your own cultural background has influenced your thinking and behaving. Take steps to increase your understanding of other cultures. o Identify your basic assumptions, especially as they apply to diversity in culture, ethnicity, race, gender, class, spirituality, religion, and sexual orientation. Think about your assumptions are likely to affect your professional practice o Examine where you obtained your knowledge about culture. o Remain open to ongoing learning of how the various dimensions of culture may affect therapeutic work. Realize that this skill does not develop quickly or without effort o Be willing to identify and examine your own personal worldview and any prejudices you may hold about other racial/ethnic groups o Learn to pay attention to the common ground that exist among people of diverse backgrounds. o Be flexibly in applying the methods you use with clients. Don’t be wedded to a specific technique if it is not appropriate for a given client o Remember that practicing form a multicultural perspective can make your job easier and can be rewarding for both you and your clients. *Cultural encapsulation: Personal reality is based on one set of assumptions; insensitivity to cultural variations among individuals; accepts unreasoned assumptions without proof or ignores proof because it might disconfirm one’s personal assumptions; unwilling to evaluate other viewpoints; demonstrates minimal attempts to accommodate the behavior of others different from him/her; trapped in one way of thinking that resists adaptation and rejects alternatives. Qualities of successful counselor: (pg 19) Qualities and characteristics of counselors are significant in creating a therapeutic alliance with client. The follow qualities all start as “effective therapists” o Have an identity they know who they are, what they are capable of becoming, what they want out of life and what is essential. o Respect and appreciate themselves they can give and receive help and love out of their own sense of selfworth and strength. They feel adequat3e with others and allow others to feel powerful with them. o Make choices that are life oriented they are ware of early decisions they made about themselves, others, and the world. They are not the victims of these early decisions, and they are willing to revise them if necessary. They are committed to living fully rather than settling for mere existence. o Are authentic, sincere, and honest they do not hide behind rigid roles or facades. Who they are in their personal life and in their professional work is congruent. o Have a sense of humor they are able to put the events of life in perspective. they have not forgotten how to laugh, especially at their own foibles and contradictions. o Make mistakes and are willing to admit them they do not dismiss their errors lightly, yet they do not choose to dwell on misery. o Generally live in the present they are not riveted to the past, nor are they fixated on the future. They are able to experience and be present with others in the “now”. o Appreciate the influence of culture they are aware of the ways in which their own culture affects them, and they respect the diversity of values espoused by other cultures. They are sensitive to the unique differences arising out of the social class, race, sexual orientation, and gender. o Possess effective interpersonal skills they are capable of entering the world of others without getting lost in this world, and they strive to create collaborative relationships with others. They readily entertain another person’s perspective and can work together toward consensual goals. o Becoming deeply involved in their work and derive meaning from it they can accept the rewards flowing from their work, yet they are not slaves to their work. o Are passionate they have the courage to pursue their dreams and passions, and they radiate a sense of energy. o Are able to maintain health boundaries although they strive to be fully present for their clients, they don’t carry the problems of their clients around with them during leisure hours. They know how to say no, which enables them to maintain balance in their lives. Transference: (pg. 70) Is the client’s unconscious shifting to the analyst of feelings, attitudes, and fantasies (both positive and negative) that are reactions to significant others in the client’s past. Takes place when clients resurrect these early intense conflicts relation to love, sexuality, hostility, anxiety, and resentment; bring them into the present; experience them; and attach them to the therapist. Countertransference: (pg31) Counselors projections that influence the way he/she perceives and reacts to a client. This phenomenon occurs when the counselor is triggered into emotional reactivity, when he/she responds defensively, or when he/she loses ability to be present in a relationship because of his/her own issues become involved. *Role of “unconventional” and systemic interventions in cultural competence: skills of culturally competent counselors: (pg. 2527) Dimensions of competency involves three areas o Beliefs and Attitudes: Counselors are aware of their positive and negative emotional reactions toward people from other racial and ethnic groups that may prove detrimental to establishing collaborative helping relationships. Seek to understand and examine the world from the vantage point of their clients o Knowledge: Counselors specifically know about their own racial and cultural heritage and how it affects them personally They learn about their client’s background and do not impose their personal values o Skills: Counselors take responsibility for education their clients about the therapeutic process including setting goals, appropriate expectations, legal rights, and the counselor’s orientation. Also adapt and modify their interventions to accommodate cultural differences. o The discussion of these skills were on pg 44 Counselors must examine their expectations, attitudes, biases, and assumptions about counseling process and about persons from diverse groups. therapists understand themselves as social and cultural beings and possess at least a minimum level of knowledge and skill that they can bring to bear on any counseling situations. Understand what their clients need and avoid forcing clients into a preconceived mold Crucial to listen to clients and determine why they are seeking help and how best to deliver the help that is appropriate for them Counselors resist making value judgments for them Be mindful of diversity and social justice issues Psychoanalytic 1) What are the cultural factors that went into the theory? 2) What are its strengths? (pg. 90) client can use awareness of the past to make significant changes in the present and in future directions. Weakness? (pg. 92) From feminist perspective there are distinct limitation to a number of Freudian concepts (i.e. Oedipus and Electra complexes), fathers are also absent from hypothesis about patterns of early development. Has been criticized for being irrelevant to contemporary culture and being appropriate only to an elite, highly educated clientele. 3) What are some factors of the counselor that influence the process and outcome of counseling? 4)How is it similar or different from other theories? (pg 6) it is similar to Adlerian. Both are psychodynamic and both study childhood experiences but Adlerian does not focus on unconscious dynamic. Main goals of therapy: (pg. 67) Two goals of Freudian psychoanalytic therapy are to make 1. Make the unconscious conscious and 2. To strengthen the ego so that behavior is based more on reality and less on instinctual cravings or irrational guilt. However, the PowerPoint for this lecture listens three: Insight, illuminating drives, making unconscious conscious Characteristics of the counselor/client relationship: (pg. 6971) Classical analyst stands outside the relationship, comments on it, and offers insightproducing interpretations. Contemporary relational psychoanalysis the therapist does not strive for an objective stand. Focuses on the hereandnow transference as on earlier reenactment. o Transference: significant aspect of relationship is manifested through transference reactions. o Workingthrough: to produce change, the transference relationship must e worked through. o Countertransference: Therapist’s countertransference reactions are inevitable. Not all countertransference is detrimental to the therapeutic process. What are defense mechanisms, how do they operate, what purpose do they serve, recognize the names: (pg. 6263 sorry I did not feel like typing out the whole chart) *Counselors stance in psychoanalysis (i.e. genuineness versus anonymity): Role of id, ego, superego: (pg. 60) o Id: Original system of personality; at birth a person is all id. Lacks organization and is blind, demanding, and insistent. Ruled by pleasure principle, which is aimed at reducing tension, avoiding pain, and gaining pleasure, the id is illogical, amoral, and driven to satisfy instinctual needs. o Ego: has a contract w/external the external world of reality. “Executive” that governs, controls, and regulates the personality; “traffic cop” which mediates between the instincts and the surrounding environment. Ruled by reality principle, geo does realist and logical thinking and formulates plans of action for satisfying needs. o Superego: judicial branch of personality. Includes person’s moral code, the main concern being whether an action is good or bad, right or wrong. Psychosocial and psychosexual stages: (pg. 65 sorry I did not feel like typing out the whole chart) Adler/Individual psychology 1) What are the cultural factors that went into the theory? a. Experienced Anti-Semitism and horrors of WWI. Sociopolitical context of the time contributed to Adler’s emphasis on humanism and the need for people to work together. 2) What are its strengths and weakness with different groups? a. Importance of context, focus on health (not pathology), holistic perspective, understanding individuals goals and beliefs, freedom within social constraints, proactive and social justice elements b. Focus on self as locus of change and responsibility, assumes western nuclear family unit, some clients want counselor to be the expert and provide answers 3) What are some factors of the counselor that influence the process and outcome of counseling? a. Collaborative, understanding client contexts and beliefs, social world, identify mistaken beliefs and help provide courage and re-education. 4)How is it similar or different from other theories? (see tables in book) a. humanistic like Rogerian, working collaboratively with client like Rogerian, client/counselor relationship is very helpful but not the agent of change, whereas with Rogerian is agent of change. Giving insight and interpretation unlike existential/gestalt. -Main goals of therapy: Collaborative, to identify mistaken goals and faulty assumptions. Not “sick”, but “discouraged” (lacking courage). “Symptoms are attempted solutions”. Finding faulty assumptions and mistaken goals. Reorientation- facilitated through changes in awareness, shifting rules of interaction, process and motivation. Reeducation. All aspects of ourselves much be understand within the context of family and society. -Characteristics of the counselor/client relationship: egalitarian and cooperative, mutually constructed goals, communication and acting in “good faith”. Providing encouragement to discouraged clients. Based on mutual trust and goal-setting. -Fictional finalism/guiding self ideal: “If I could achieve this, it would be perfect”. An imagined life goal that guides a person’s behavior. Replaced by guiding self ideal: Striving towards superiority or perfection -Explanations of human behavior: all behavior is goal- oriented: teleological. Striving for connection, social relatedness drives people. -Phenomenological orientation: subjective reality- how we interpret reality and the meaning we attach to what we experience. paying attention to the individual way in which people perceive their world. Includes individual’s perceptions, thoughts, feelings, values, beliefs, convictions, and conclusions. -Role of “mistaken Beliefs”: faulty assumptions that we have, this thing that you believe is true but is not working anymore. -Role of Social interest: being concerned with others, strive for betterment of humanity, sense of empathy for others. - Gemeinschaftsgefühl : social interest and community feeling. Refers to the individual’s awareness of being part of the human community and to individuals’ attitudes in dealing with the social world. We strive to contribute to society (empathy). As we do, inferiority decreases, we are more whole -Life Goals: Building friendships (social task), establishing intimacy (love-marriage task), and contributing to society (occupational task). All tasks require the development of psychological capacities for friendship and belonging, for contribution and selfworth, and for cooperation. -Stages of treatment: ~phase 1: establish the relationship. Collaborative relationship with client, progress is only made when there is an alignment of goals between therapist and client. Build relationship before dealing with “the problem”. More attention to subjective experience than techniques. ~ phase 2: assessing the individual’s psychological dynamics: get deeper understanding of client’s lifestyle, how they relate to the world at large. Two interview forms: objective (information about how problem began, precipitating events, medical history, social history, why client chose therapy, lifestyle assessment- family constellation) and subjective (counselor helps client to tell their life story as completely as possible- get patterns about the person’s life, what works for the person. “as if”- what would you do if you did not have this problem?). ~phase 3: encourage self-understanding and insight: interpret the findings of the assessment as an avenue for promoting self- understanding and motivations in a client’s life. Bringing hidden purposes and goals to awareness. Interpretation by counselor of hidden motivations, goals, etc. ~phase 4: reorientation and reeducation: action-oriented phase. Putting insights into practice. Helps clients discover more functional perspective. Reorientation is shifting rules of interaction, process and motivation. Encouragement to build courage. Person Centered/Rogerian 1) What are the cultural factors that went into the theory? 2) What are its strengths and weakness with different groups? Strengths: focuses on universal, has some generalizability. Weakness: optimism doesn’t recognize institutional barriers, assumption that what is true for middle class heterosexual white males was generalizable to all. 3) What are some factors of the counselor that influence the process and outcome of counseling? Counselor’s attitude, not techniques make the difference, a lot of what counselor does not do, be present in the moment, clients are able to make changes. 4)How is it similar or different from other theories? (see tables in book) person centered and existential put emphasis on insight, people moving in positive direction, importance of person to person connection. -Main goals of therapy: help person to become more congruent. Move towards openness to experience, trust in self, internal source of evaluation, willingness to continue growing. Clients define own goals, gain greater degree of independence. -Characteristics of the counselor/client relationship: tool for greater understanding, equitable relationship, process is open, counselor provides “necessary and sufficient” conditions, self actualizing tendency is activated, “shared journey”. -Role of research: audio tapes, reviewed sessions. Successful session were ones where counselor were showing empathy and unconditional positive regard. -Unconditional positive regard (and its limits): deep and genuine caring for the client as a person. Nonpossessive, not contaminated by evaluation or judgment of the client’s feelings, thoughts, or behavior as good vs. bad. “I’ll accept you as you are”. Not possible for therapists to genuinely feel acceptance and unconditional caring at all times, but if therapists have little respect or active dislike, therapy most likely will not work. -“necessary and sufficient”: The three conditions that counselor has to provide are necessary and sufficient for change. -Role of subjective experience: in both existentialism and humanism share a respect for the individual differences and subjective nature of the human experience. -Attitude of counselor: belief in inner resources of the client that creates the therapeutic climate for growth. Be present, focus on the moment. -Conditions for change: congruence- model authenticity for client, unconditional positive regard- no evaluation or judgement we can accept person AND not like them, accurate empathy- be present and aware, explain client’s feeling back to them in a way they understand, makes sense to them. Provide these conditions, then wait. Simple but not easy. Client has the ability and the responsibility- good for long-term. -Actualizing tendency: directional process of striving toward realization, fulfillment, autonomy, and self-determination. Therapy is rooted in the client’s capacity for awareness and self-directed change in attitudes and behavior. -Faith/trust in clients: believing that they have the power to change. ▯ Existential ▯ Characteristics of Counselor/Client Relationship The quality of this relationship is important because it is the stimulus for positive change in a client. I/Thou relationship is present in order to achieve true dialogue ▯ Main Goals of Therapy The central goal is increased awareness of self. Other therapeutic goals include: 1. To help clients become more present to both themselves and others 2. To assist clients in identifying ways they block themselves from fuller presence 3. To challenge clients to assume responsibility for designing their present lives 4. To encourage clients to choose more expanded ways of being in their daily lives ▯ Freedom and Responsibility, their relationship and role in therapeutic process Freedom implies that we are responsible for our lives, for our actions, and for our failures to take action. Living an authentic existence requires us to assume responsibility for our choices. Therapists helps clients discover the choices they have, how thy avoid freedom and encourages them to learn to risk using their freedom. ▯ Role of Techniques Existential therapy is not techniqueoriented, but interventions they do use are focused on understanding the subjective world of the client ▯ Role of Awareness The greater our awareness, the greater our possibilities for freedom. Since Self Awareness is at the root of most other human capacities, the deicison to expand it is fundamental to human growth. Increase self awareness is aim of all counseling. ▯ Role of the Relationship As relational human beings, we strive for connectedness with others Loneliness, uprootedness, and alienation can be seen as failure to develop ties with others and nature We sometimes don’t trust ourselves to search within, but rather ‘sell out’ in order to become what others expect of us. ▯ Authenticity Implies that we are living by being true to our own evaluation of what is a valuable existence for ourselves; it is the courage to be who we are (p. 140). ▯ Existential Guilt Being aware of having evaded a commitment, or having chosen not to choose. Not living up to our own expectations and feeling guilty that we are not doing what we know is possible for us to do It can be a powerful source of motivation toward transformation and living authentically ▯ Bad Faith JeanPaul Sartre said that people fail to acknowledge their freedom and choice which results in emotional problems. Since this freedom is hard to face, people tend to invent excuses by saying, “I can’t change now because of my past conditioning” Sartre considers this “bad fait”. No matter we have been, we can make a choice to change. ▯ What are the cultural factors that went into the theory? The context is postWWII. Many were seeing the wreckage of Europe and had questions about how one moves on from this wreckage and what the meaning of life was. ▯ What are its strengths and weaknesses with different groups? ▯ Strengths Highly relevant in working in multicultural context because it focuses on human experiences like love, anxiety, suffering and death ▯ Weakness Excessively individualistic and ignore social problems that cause human problems Some clients feel they do not have much of a choice over their environment which could result in a deep sense of frustration and powerlessness Does not work for clients who want a structured and problemoriented approach to counseling ▯ Similarities/Differences to other theories Similar to Gestalt because not technique bound, self –awareness (in different way) ▯ Main Goals of Therapy Clients must expand their awareness or what they are experiencing in the present moment. Through this awareness, change automatically happens. ▯ Characteristics of the counselor/client relationship I/Thou relationship and quality of therapist’s presence important Creating a relationship is at heart of Gestalt therapy ▯ Contact What it is: o Contact is made by seeing, hearing, smelling, touching, and moving. o Effective contact means interacting with nature and with other people without losing one’s sense of individuality Pre requisites for good contact are clear awareness, full energy, and the ability to express oneself How it’s useful: o Contact and resistance to contact reveals how clients can grow Why it matters: o Contact is considered the lifeblood of growth ▯ Resistance to Contact Introjection: accept others beliefs and standards without assimilating them to make them congruent with who you are. Projection: disown certain parts of ourselves and assign them to others Retroflection: turning back onto ourselves what we would like to do to someone else (ex. selfharm) Deflection: process of distracting or veering off, so it is difficult to maintain a sustained sense of contact (ex. Overuse of humor, beat around the bush, etc) Confluence: blur the differentiation between the self and the environment. (ex. Absence of conflict, slowness to anger, etc) ▯ Self support vs. environmental support Perls tried to move people from environmental support (relying on the environment to self support (relying on self) ▯ What is the role/purpose of client behavior Resistances, disturbances, and interruptions to contact are developed as coping mechanisms and often prevent us from experiencing the present moment ▯ Role of Insight (?) ▯ Role of awareness With greater awareness, comes greater choice Awareness: have capacity to face, accept, and integrate denied parts as well as to fully experience their subjectivity ▯ Reasons “the now” is important Focusing on the past can be a way to avoid coming to terms with the present Therapists use “what” and “how” questions, but don’t ask “why” in order to promote being in the present ▯ Four principles Holism: The sum of a person is greater than its parts. Field Theory: everything is relational and in flux. When one thing moves, everything else does. (Ex. Reintroducing the wolves, more trout because less elk) The FigureFormation Process: If therapist pays attention to the environment and how client might manipulate or organize individuals, the important things will move to the front. Organismic Self Regulation: Humans naturally self regulate ▯ Role of the counseling experience The counseling experience makes clients aware of how behaviors that were once part of creatively adjusting to past environments may be interfering with effective functioning and living in the present ▯ Impasse Stuck point that occurs when external support is not available or the customary way of being does not work (Ex. Wanting a hug from partner after work and partner cannot give hug at that time. Client should work past that impasse and rely on self to soothe) Therapist helps client get through the impasse without rescuing or frustrating them, but rather allows them to feel it in full ▯ What are the cultural factors that went into the theory? Gestalt means form, structure, figure, shape 1950s; Post WWII ▯ What are its strengths and weaknesses with different groups? ▯ Strengths Approach takes client’s context into account Gestalt therapists strive to approach clients with an open mind Particularly good with bicultural clients who need to reconcile what appears to be diverse aspects of their two cultures ▯ Weakness Limitations with clients who have been culturally conditioned to be emotionally reserved Some can’t express emotions directly to their parents (Empty Chair technique would be inappropriate) ▯ Similarities/Differences to other theories Similar to Existentia
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