psychology 2101 psyc 2101-001
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ymani Brewer on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psyc 2101-001 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Dr. Jane Gaultney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see research methods in Psychology (PSYC) at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 5: Scientific Method 1. Identify research question 2. Collect background information 3. Use background information to develop hypothesis 4. Test hypothesis with an experiment 5. Observe & collect data 6. Make a conclusion Quantitative Research Process 1. Choose topic 2. Review literature 3. Develop a theory to explain observations 4. Develop a hypothesis (if…then.) 5. Test hypothesis using appropriate methodology 6. Analyze & interpret data 7. Relate findings back to starting theory & larger literature 8. Communicate findings 9. Rinse & repeat Hypotheses What will happen? (not why) Use the general implication form If theory X is true, then DV will change in response to differences in the IV Technically should be nondirectional For every experimental hypothesis, there is a null (no change/difference) hypothesis Experimental Hypothesis (H1): Predicts change/difference/association We find change so we can assume H1 is true? o No because one study doesn’t allow us to test all possible explanations for the change o And because we were testing the null Null hypothesis (H0): Predicts no change o We can find change, allowing us to rule out the H0, but that doesn’t automatically prove H1 *Now we can rule out the null hypothesis but we can’t prove the experimental hypothesis* Chapter 6: conducting a good experiment Physiological (e.g. Caffeine during sleep restriction) Experience (e.g. working memory training) Stimulus (e.g. music and pain) Participant characteristic (e.g. hypertension among adults with disability) Things to be controlled Extraneous variables o increase variability between groups more likely to err by concluding there is a significant difference that isn’t really true o An extraneous variable increased the variability between the groups making it look like the groups are significantly different when they really aren’t Nuisance Variables o Increase variability within groups o May obscure effect of independent variable (less likely to find a significant difference when there really was one) o Because of the within group spread it appears the groups are not significantly different when they really are different Taking control A. Randomize (works best for large samples) B. Eliminate C. Hold constant D. Balance E. counterbalance Chapter 7 Cultural (mis?)communication and (mis?)measurement What is culture? How has your culture shaped you? How might your culture lead you to misinterpret or misrepresent research findings Role of culture in research o Are cultural differences real? Maybe. o Are cultural differences artificial? Maybe. Kagen/Rogoff & Waddell irrelevant tasks not practiced Dasen cultural differences in knowledge base Nyiti Confusion due to language What cultural influences might produce (real or artificial) cultural differences in psychological measures? o Economic, religious, family values o Communication styles o Stereotypes o Group nonequivalence o Differences in health care, diet, other extraneous variables o Familiarity with language of questions o Others
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