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Midterm Study Guide

by: Megan Carmosino

Midterm Study Guide HIST 171

Marketplace > Colorado State University > HIST 171 > Midterm Study Guide
Megan Carmosino

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About this Document

These notes answer all past writing prompts and include page numbers for further reference. They also answer the four main questions for this section.
World History, 1500-Present (GT-HI1)
Daniel Mark Stephen
Study Guide
history, world
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Carmosino on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 171 at Colorado State University taught by Daniel Mark Stephen in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 368 views.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Sunday, October 2, 2016 Study Guide 1 World History Hello everyone! For this study guide I have answered all of the writing prompts we have received so far and included all of the page numbers for the textbook, so if you want to do additional readings you can. I hope you find this study guide to be useful and good luck on the exam! - Main Questions   • How and why did the center of the global economy shift from Asia to Europe during the period from 1500-1750?     - The center of the global economy shifted for two many reasons, The rapid expansion of European trade and the isolationist behaviors of Asia. Before the 1500's Chinese Maritime expansion was huge, and the Chinese trade network expanded considerably, making it one of the trading centers of the world. Then India became huge because of their vast spice trade, this put Asia on top. When Europe began their maritime expansion they also began to increase their trade systems. Eventually Europe became a center of mercantilist trading.  Especially with expansions into the new found colonies, west Africa, and the addition of the  Atlantic Slave Trade, Asia was pushed to the side. Additionally Asian countries like China and Japan both had very strict trading policies that made trading with them almost impossible. This only furthered the shift to Europe. (chapters 18-19, 21)     • Define the term State Centralization and explain how it occurred in different world regions in the early modern period.    - State Centralization is when a developing country rises in power and then       begin to concentrate that power to a focal point via military, government, money, religion, etc. A good example of a centralized state would be the Ottoman Empire.    - Ottoman Empire- went from paying army with land grants to collecting taxes and using tax revenue to pay for personal guards and fund the military. This transition began Afton the Ottoman Empire conquered the Byzantine cities. This gave the country access to the money economy, which enabled them to collect cash taxes as revenue. This further developed the country and enabled them to 1 Sunday, October 2, 2016 fund their military with canons and firearms, as well as, led them to the height of the Ottoman Empire's power under Sultan Suleiman I. (pg.479-482)    - England- tried to become a centralized state through a firearm infantry by raising indirect taxes in the beginning. Then, when that failed, the aristocracy force the royals to fund the military separate from taxes, forcing them to use the royal estates. Additionally the ruling class pushed for a centralized naval state and won. (pg. 525)    • Define the term Exceptionalism and explain why it is problematic in describing Europe during the period 1500-1750.   - Exceptionalism is the belief that a country, state, institution, movement, time period, etc. is unique and special in some way, thus allowing it to not conform      to normal rules.   - It can be problematic to describe all of Europe in this way, because so many countries could be considered "exceptional". For example, China's porcelain was unique only to them. Or you can look at two of the main religions as      "exceptional" considering both Catholic and Islamic states believed they had greater power. The Ottoman Empire with their religious taxes could be considered "exceptional". • How did modern science and the European Enlightenment lay the groundwork for industrial  and political modernity?   - Modern science and the European Enlightenment eventually lead to the industrial revolution, and the many religious revolutions. By debating theories and creating a culture for scientific exploration enable the invention of many new technologies and mathematics that advanced society as a whole. For example, the vacuum which lead to the steam engine, or Calculus which is used still today. Additionally, with all of these people beginning to question the world, it lead to many scientist and others questioning religions. Specifically, Catholicism was enraged by discoveries made by Galileo and many other scientist because they felt it attacked the church and went against religion. Some of the new philosophies that came out of this era also lead to future skermishes with religion.       (chapter 17) - Chapter 16   • How was the Ottoman harem a space that both limited and developed the powers of royal women?     2 Sunday, October 2, 2016 - In the Ottoman Harem a majority of the wives were slaves turned into concubines. They were restricted to being only in the Harem, but were able to influence outside parties via the eunuchs. Additionally, if a concubine gave birth to a boy she would be given privileges which included having a say on       the decisions made by the central administrations. (pg. 485)  • Although Charles V, as Holy Roman Emperor, wanted to prevent the Ottomans from advancing into the Balkans, what events distracted his attention from this situation?   - During the same time that Charles V was attempting to fight of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, he was hit with revolts in Iberia, the Lutheran reformation, and a renewed war with France. These issues prevented him from being able to effectively fight off the Ottoman Empire. (pg. 476) • What role did gunpowder weapons play in the Ottoman rise to power?   - By acquiring firearms, the Ottoman Empire was able to overwhelm and take over my countries. For, example, the Persian Safavids in Iran. The use of      firearms also helped the Ottoman Empire centralize their government through expansion and enforcement. (pg. 469-473) • What kind of training and education did Christopher Columbus have that prepared him for his voyages in 1492, and affected how he interpreted his findings?   - Christopher Columbus was entirely self taught. He read many books in order to learn subjects like geography and cartography. Do to his readings and faulty calculations, he very wrongly believe the ocean stretching between Europe and Asia was short. He also believed he was predestined to help reclaim Jerusalem before the second coming of Christ. Because of his lacking      education, Christopher believed he landed somewhere off the main cost of      India, when in reality he landed in the Caribbean Islands. (pg.467) - Chapter17   What kind of relationship did the Stuart kings of England have with parliament?     • - The Stuart Kings of England had a very tense relationship with Parliament. The ruling class generally did not approve of how the kings used the tax revenue,  and blocked them on many decisions. Including the decisions revolving around centralizing the state. The king wished to fund troops on tax       revenue, but 3 Sunday, October 2, 2016 Parliament forced the king to use the royal estates in order to fund them. (pg. 525)    • How did the chartered scientific societies, such as the Royal Society of London, work?     - Scientific societies were established near the mid 1600's. They included       administrative staff, scientist, and other members. These societies hosted numerous discussions, had competitions, awarded prizes for scientific achievements, and organized many different field trips and expeditions. A lot of the time the societies would print notable research, or other works by their members. Although numerous societies did not permit women to be members. (pg. 503)     • Explain limitations on state revenue during the period 1450-1550 and how states attempted to overcome these limitations.     - It began with funding armies and courtiers with the Land- Grant system. This system involved hiring individuals then paying them in land. This gave the       owner of the land a form of tax revenue from tenant farmers. After the states began to Centralize they were able to bring in money from their conquests. For example, Spain was able to bring in silver and gold from the new colonies in the Americas. When the states brought in precious metals they were able to begin a cash based taxation system. As expantion became more prominent the funds started to run low, so the states began to fund through indirect taxes. For example, in the Ottoman empire they had  the "jizya".       (chapters 16-17)    • How did Louis XIV use Versailles to maintain his rule as an absolute monarch?     - Versailles became a political playground for Louis XIV. By building a lavish palace so far from Paris, it forced courtiers and other people seeking the       king's favor to come to Versailles and spend a lot of money to keep up       with the partying and fashions. This enable Louis XIV to bypass them       with central bureaucratic institutions. (pg. 522)   - Chapter 18/19   • What kind of goods did the Portuguese acquire in West Africa during the 16th and 17th centuries, and what do these goods reveal about Africa and Portugal?     - They acquired mostly slaves to be their workforce behind their numerous new colonies. (pg. 571)  4 Sunday, October 2, 2016 • What are some of the complications in the estimating the numbers of Africans removed from Africa during transatlantic slave trade, from the 15th-19th centuries?   - Many different African countries traded slaves to different countries at different      rates. Some countries like the Kongo permitted a few thousand slaves to be sold each year. Another conflict arose in the war and raids of African slaves. Portugal raided an estimated 15,000 slaves a year using musketeers.(pg. 576) • How was the economic and political theory of mercantilism tied to the plantation slave system?   - Mercantilism is the belief that trade relations bring a good economy. During the 16-17th centuries the Atlantic Slave trade developed, which was a huge system of trade amongst many different major countries. This all began because there was an increased demand for slave labor on plantations. (pg.      580-587) • What did the Portuguese discover about sailing down the west coast of Africa in 1434, and how did that change the relationship between Europe and West Africa?   - They discovered new islands off the coast of Africa which they claimed. It was also discovered by Portuguese mariners that you could safely sail down the      coast and return by sailing out to the Atlantic. This discovery increased      explorations and trade between the West Africa and Europe. (pg.571) - Chapter 20   • What were the succession practices of the nomadic Turkic peoples and how did these cause problems for the Mughals?     - They claimed lineage from  Gengis Khan, but most of the time they had to invent bloodlines to support themselves.     • What role did religious rivalry play in the relationship between the Mughals and Safavid Persia?     - Due to Sunni Mughals and Shiite Persians claiming each other as nonbelievers and having general hate for the other, continuous skirmishes would break out between the two countries. This only increased the competitiveness between Mughals and Safavid Persians. This also greatly upset the Mughals who were slightly indebted to the Persians. Additionally, Safavid Persians tended to look down on Indian culture in general.(pg. 606)    5 Sunday, October 2, 2016 • What were the four ministries created by Akbar for the governance of the Mughal Empire and how did they represent a first but gradual step in the direction of state centralization?     - The four ministries were Military, taxation and revenue, legal and religious       affairs, and the royal household. This separation enabled power to be spread more evenly and still be concentrated within the four Ministries. (pg.612)    • How did the lives of Islamic Women under Mughal authority compare with the lives of Hindu women outside of Mughal rule?     - Mughal women in the Harem, mostly concubines, were restrained to the Harem, but were able to influence political decision by controlling the Eunuchs and giving birth to a son. Meanwhile Hindu women,  where mostly isolated in the home. They were raised to bear child and maintain the household. (pg. 616)  - Chapter 21   • Explain what a "high-level equilibrium trap" is in relation to population and what led China to reach that point by 1800.     - A "high-level equilibrium trap" is when the land has reached its max potential for feeding a population. When china began to incorporate sugarcane, potatoes, sweet potatoes, indigo, maize, peanuts, and tobacco into its agriculture they experienced a population boom.  Then there was an increase in urbanization due to increased internal trade, which again doubled population. The worst aspect of a "high-level equilibrium trap" is that when the max land yield is reach, that country will slowly slip into poverty. (pg.628)    • In what ways was the western Europe interested in China?     - Western Europe became infatuated with Chinese porcelain. (pg. 633)    • How did the Tokugawa limit the power of the competing daimyo and centralize Japan around the new shogun, and is there a way to determine if these policies were successful or not?     - The Tokugawa forced loyalty by making reluctant "outer" daimyos, and their       most important underlings, live in the capital, Edo, for a year. This limited the stubborn daimyos power over their land. These policies were very effective in cutting their power and it increased commerce along the roads the daimyos had to constantly travel. (pg. 647)   6 Sunday, October 2, 2016 •   How did some groups circumvent the traditional Japanese Sakoku (closed country) policies of seclusion?     - The Jesuits were allowed to remain trading partners because they didn’t try to convert anyone. Eventually American colonies broke through by force with naval commander Matthew Perry. (pg.648)   7


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