Pathophysio Exam 2 Study Guide
Pathophysio Exam 2 Study Guide NURB 340
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Forbeck on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NURB 340 at University of Indianapolis taught by Moore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Pathophysiology in NURSING at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
NURB 340: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY EXAM 2 Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology 1. What are the three types of mortis? 2. What are the types of injuries? 3. What is anaplasia? 4. What is metaplasia? 5. What is hypertrophy? 6. What is somatic death? 7. What is an intentional vs. unintentional injury? 8. What is apoptosis? 9. What is necrosis? 10.What is hyperplasia? 11.What is dysplasia? 12.What is atrophy? 13.Aging vs disease? 14.What is hypoxic injury? Biology of Cancer and Tumor Spread Questions: 1. Explain the difference in neoplastic and normal cells? 2. Distinguish between cell proliferation and cell differentiation 3. Describe the five phases of cell cycle 4. Describe the process of tumor development 5. Explain the initiation-promotion-progression theory of carcinogenesis 6. What is the difference in benign and malignant tumors? 7. What is the hallmark sign of cancer? 8. What are the different tumor cell markers? 9. Describe each tumor cell marker? 10.A tumor is staged at T2, N3, M3. What is the prognosis? Probably not good depending on.. a. Current health status b. Location of the tumors c. Type of cancer 11.How can our immune system be used to fight cancer? 12.What are the environmental factors that cause cancer 13.What is the MYC gene? 14.What does CAUTION stand for? 15.What is cell differentiation? 16.What are tumor suppressor genes? 17.What is the difference between proto-oncogene and oncogene? 18.What is metastasis? 19.What is cell proliferation? 20.What is carcinogenesis? 21.What is the most common symptom of cancer? 22.What is neuroma? 23.What is nephroblastoma? 24.What are transferrin? 25.What are hemosiderin? 26.What are symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure? 27.What is TNM? 28.What are symptoms of lead exposure? 29.What are symptoms of mercury poisoning? Pediatric Cancer 1. A hospitalized child with leukemia is receiving chemotherapy. The mother states the child is requesting fried chicken. How should the nurse respond? a. Fried foods may cause nausea or vomiting during chemo b. Any food requested should be given because they need the calories c. Coatings on fried foods may irritate the child’s mouth and cause bleeding d. Foods from the outside should not be brought into the hospital for potential infection 2. A nurse is caring for a 15-year-old who is receiving chemo for leukemia. The nurse expects that the patient is most concerned about? a. Missing time at school b. Limiting social activities c. Being dependent while enjoying the sick role d. Feeling different in regards to body image 3. A 5-year-old girl is receiving a course of chemo. One day the nurse observes the child crying. The child states, “all my hair is gone and everyone stares at me. What is the nurses’ best response? a. Let’s take the hair off your doll so you two look alike b. Let’s ask your mother to bring a hat for you until your hair grows back c. You just think everyone is staring at you because you feel funny about your hair d. You shouldn’t have to look at yourself without hair so I’m going to take the mirror out of your room. 4. What is Wilms’s Tumor? 5. What is leukemia? 2 6. What is retinoblastoma? 7. What is Hodgkin’s lymphoma? 8. What is Ewing’s sarcoma? 9. What is rhabdomyosarcoma? 10.What is Burkett lymphoma? 11.What is non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma? 12.What is sarcoma? 13.What are some causes of childhood cancers? 14.What are carcinomas? ANSWERS Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology Answers: 1. (1) Algor Mortis- Postpartum reduction of body temperature. a. Fall gradually after death b. The more rapidly c. After 24 hours the body temperature equals the environment (2) Livor Mortis- Gravity causes blood to settle in the more dependent, or lowest tissues which develop a purple discoloration a. Incisions don’t bleed now b. Skin loses its elasticity and transparency (3) Rigor Mortis- When the body becomes are as a board 3 a. 6 hours after death acid compounds accumulate within the muscles and they stiffen b. Smaller muscles get hard first like the jaw. c. Within 12-14 hours the entire body is affected d. Body becomes totally flaccid at 36-62 hours. 2. The different types of injuries include hypoxic injury (from lack of oxygen), free radicals and reactive oxygen species injury (occurs in chemical and radioactive injury) Chemical injury (caused by exogenous such as alcohol or endogenous like birth defects), unintentional or intentional injuries, infectious injuries, or immunologic and inflammatory injury. 3. Anaplasia is poor cellular differentiation and is the hallmark sign of cancer. 4. Occurs when one mature cell type is replaced by a different mature cell types. A response to chronic inflammation or irritation. Change may be a result from Vitamin A deficit. 5. Hypertrophy is an increase in the SIZE OF THE CELL resulting in enlarged tissue mass. Caused by increased workload like weight lifting for your muscles. 6. Somatic death is just simply dead. Entire person is dead. No circulation or breathing. 7. Intentional injury is suicide and homicide. Ranks between the second and fourth leading cause of death in 1-34 years. EX: strangulation or chemical exfixulants. Unintentional occurs mainly in men. Leading cause of death in 1- 34 year olds. 8. Apoptosis is the normal dying of our cells. EX: RBC or skin. If they don’t die then they build up. 9. Necrosis is when a group of cells dies. The process of cell death depends on the cause. 4 10.Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cell that result in an increased tissue mass. 11.Dysplasia is when the cells vary in shape and size, large nuclei is present, and mitosis increases. This can result from chronic irritation, infection, or precancerous change. 12.Atrophy is a decrease or shrinking in cellular size. Can affect any organ. IT is like when you wear a cast and when you take it off your arm is smaller and weaker. 13.Aging Degenerative extracellular changes. Binding of collagen, structural alterations of fascia, tendons, ligaments, bones, and joints. Cellular aging. Atrophy, decreased function and loss of cells. Tissue and systemic aging. Progressive stiffness or rigidity. Fragility, Vulnerable to falls, functional decline, disability 14.ischemia is the most common cause of cellular injury. It is a result of lack of oxygen, loss of hemoglobin, decreased production of RBCs, or poisoning of oxidative enzymes. Biology of Cancer and Tumor Spread Answers: 1. Neoplastic cells are cancer and is one of the most aggressive forms. It no longer responds to body controls. It has excessive growth and cuts the normal cells off from nutrients. 2. Cell proliferation is an increase in number of cells by mitosis. Cells can mutate spontaneously as a result of carcinogens. Cell differentiation start as cell, but depending on what they are affected by will turn into different or specialized cell. 3. Interphase (cell grows and makes a copy) and, prophase, metaphase (cell divides to make a copy), anaphase, and telophase 4. Stage 0, The cancer is in place but has not spread or metastasized. Stage 1 there is small cancer or tumor that has not grown deep into tissue. 5 Stage 2 and 3 larger cancer or tumor has grown deeper into nearby tissue. In lymph nodes but no other parts of the body. Stage 4: cancer spread to other organs and may be caused by metastatic cancer. 5. Initiation – exposure of cells to a carcinogenic agent that causes them to be vulnerable to cancer transformation Promotion – allows for the prolific growth of cells triggered by multiple growth factors and chemicals Progression – manifests when tumor cells acquire malignant phenotypic changes that promote invasiveness, metastatic competence, autonomous growth tendencies 6. Benign is more similar to normal cells and their growth is slow without expansion. Benign is rare and only life threatening in certain areas such as the brain. Malignant varies in size and shape and grow rapidly. Malignant metastasizes and is life threatening. 7. Anaplasia 8. CA 15-3, CEA, hCG, Catecholamine, PSA, and CA-125 9. CA 15-3: tumor marker for tracking breast cancer; liver, lung a. CEA: Colorectal cancer and cancers of the pancreas, lung, and stomach b. hCG: gestational trophoblastic tumors, germ cell cancer of the testis c. Catecholamine: Pheochromocytoma and related tumors d. PSA: prostate cancer e. CA-125: ovarian cancer 10.A,B, and C 11.We can use immunotherapy which prompt our own immune system to fight. 12.Second hand smoke, occupational hazards such as working in a coal mine, sun exposure, air pollution, and infections. 13.MYC gene is myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog. It is basically like a light switch. When a gene is one, it allows the tumor to grow. BUT when you turn the gene off, the tumor stops growing as well! 14.C- Change in bowel or bladder habits A- A sore doesn’t heal U- Unusual bleeding or discharge 6 T- Thickening or lump I – Indigestion or difficulty swallowing O- Obvious changes in wart or mole N- Nagging cough or hoarseness 15.Cell differentiation is when they start as a cell, but depending on what they are affected by, turn into different more specialized cells. 16.Tumor suppressor genes are also known as anti-oncogenes. They stop division of damaged cells to prevent mutations. 17.Proto oncogenes regulate normal cell proliferation. Oncogenes are mutated. They are independent and don’t listen to the regular system in the cells. They also allow cells to grow and expand. 18.Metastatic is made up of undifferentiated cells and can spread into surrounding tissue. 19.Cell proliferation is when the cells divide during mitosis at a rapid rate which increases the risk for errors to occur and the cells may lose control of mitosis. 20.Carcinogenesis is the process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. 21.Fatigue 22.Neuroma is a tumor formed on a nerve cell that is typically symptomless and may be malignant. 23.Nephroblastoma is also known as Wilms’ disease and is cancer of the kidneys. 24.Transferrin is a problem with the beta globulin group that binds and transports iron in the blood serum. 25.Hemosiderin is an iron storage complex and is only found within cells. 26.Symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure include dull headache, weakness, dizzy, n/v, shortness of breath, confusion, blurred vision, and loss of consciousness. 27.TNM is a cancer staging system that describes the stage of cancer. 7 28.Symptoms of lead exposure include developmental delay, learning difficulties, irritability, loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, abdominal pain, and vomiting. 29.Symptoms of mercury exposure include nervousness, mood swings, insomnia, headache, abnormal sensations, muscle twitching, tremors, weakness, and muscle atrophy. Pediatric Cancer 1. B 2. D 3. B 4. Wilms’s tumor is rare, but is cancer of the kidneys or nephroblastoma. It is associated with a genetic malfunction. Signs and symptoms are abdominal pain and swell, blood in the urine, and fever. 5. Retinoblastoma is cancer of the eye. It is caught between the 12-18 months of age because when parents take pictures there will be a white spot in their eye. 6. Hodgkin’s lymphoma is caused by reed Sternberg and develops in the lymph. The common first sign is painless enlargement of the lymph nodes. Found in ages 15-19. 7. Ewing’s sarcoma is cancer in the bone marrow AND in the tissue around the bone and us usually on long bones. 8. Rhabdomyosarcoma is cancer involving soft tissue, connective tissue, or bone. It can occur anywhere but some common sites are head and neck, arms and legs, trunk, and urinary. 9. Burkett lymphoma is B cell lymphoma. It grows very rapidly and has a STRONG association with exposure to Ebsten Barr virus. Diagnosed between ages 5-10 10.Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is not associated with reed Sternberg. It is more common than Hodgkin. It is malignant growth in lymphocytes. 11.A sarcoma is a malignant tumor of connective tissue 8 12.Causes of childhood cancers include chromosome abnormalities, tumor-suppressor gene inactivation, prenatal exposures, and childhood exposure. 13.Carcinoma is cancer coming from the epithelial tissue or of the lining of internal organs. 9 10
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