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Study Guide #2

by: Appolonia Redmon

Study Guide #2 psyc 3330

Appolonia Redmon

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About this Document

This study guide is for exam #2
Abnormal psychology
Study Guide
Abnormal psychology
50 ?




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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Appolonia Redmon on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psyc 3330 at Georgia Southern University taught by Conrad in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Abnormal psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia Southern University.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.1 Body dysmorphic disorder dsm­5 • Preoccupation with one or more perceived deficits in appearance • Others find the perceived defect(s) slight or unobservable • The person has performed repetitive behaviors or mental acts (e.g.,  mirror checking, seeking reassurance, or excessive grooming) in  response to the appearance concerns • Preoccupation is not restricted to concerns about weight or body fat   Etiology • Tend to be detail oriented • Examine one feature at a time and become engrossed in small flaws • Consider attractiveness to be very important Treatment • Interact with people who could be critical of their looks • Avoid activities that reassure them on their appearance Hoarding disorder: dsm­5 • Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless  of their actual value • Perceived need to save items • Distress associated with discarding • Symptoms result in the accumulation of a large number of possessions that clutter active living spaces to the extent that their intended use is  compromised unless others intervene Etiology • Poor organizational abilities • Unusual beliefs about possession of objects Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.2 • Avoidance behaviors • Extreme emotional attachment to possessions • Feel comforted by objects and fear losing them Treatment • Get rid of possession • Enhance insight and help foster desire to change • Deep brain stimulation  Posttraumatic stress disorder dsm­5 • Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence in one  or more of the following ways: • Experiencing the event personally • Witnessing the event in person • Learning that a violent or accidental death or threat of death occurred to a close  other • Experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to aversive details of the event(s)  other than through the media (i.e., police officers) • At least one intrusion symptom • At least one avoidance symptom • At least two symptoms of negative alterations in cognitions and mood,  beginning after the event • At least two symptoms of changes in arousal and reactivity • Symptoms began or worsened after the trauma and continue for at least 1 month Acute stress disorder dsm­5 • Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violation (either  directly experienced, witnessed, heard about) • Presence of 9 symptoms from any of the following categories: • Intrusion symptoms • Negative mood • Dissociative symptoms Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.3 • Avoidance symptoms • Arousal symptoms • Duration is 3 days to 1 month after the trauma • Causes clinically significant distress or impairment Etiology and treatment of trauma­related disorders Risk factors • Genetic risk • High activity in the fear circuit • Childhood exposure to trauma • Attend selectively to cues of threat • Neuroticism and negative affectivity • Mowrer’s two­factor model Severity and type of trauma • Rates are doubled among those with a second tour of duty • NYC and 9/11 • Those exposed to most severe trauma are likely to develop PTSD • Traumas caused by humans are more likely to cause PTSD than natural disasters Neurobiology • Hippocampus • Volume is smaller among those with PTSD • Hippocampal volume could increase the risk that a person will respond to  reminders of the trauma even in safe contexts • Hippocampal deficits may interfere with organizing coherent narratives Treatment Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.4 • Medication: • SSRIs • Psychological: • PTSD • Exposure treatment • Extinguish fear response • Imaginal exposure • ASD • Early intervention Obsessive­compulsive disorder dsm­5 • Obsessions and/or compulsions   Obsessions:   • Recurrent, intrusive, persistent, unwanted thoughts, urges, or images • Person tries to ignore, suppress, or neutralize the thoughts, urges, or images • Compulsions  : • Repetitive behaviors or thoughts that a person feels compelled to perform to  prevent distress or a dreaded event • Person feels driven to perform repetitive behaviors or thoughts in response to  obsessions or to adhere to rigid rules • Acts are excessive or unlikely to prevent the dreaded situation • Obsessions or compulsions are time consuming or cause clinically significant  distress Etiology • Cognitive Behavioral Models • Adaptive value • Responses for reducing threat become habitual and difficult to override • Individuals know that their obsessions/compulsions are irrational (this is key) • Thought suppression Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.5 • People with OCD may try harder than most to suppress their obsessions— backfires • Tend to believe that thinking about something can make it more likely to occur • Intense feelings of responsibility Treatment • Medication: • Antidepressants (clomipramine) • Psychological: • Exposure and response prevention (ERP) Social anxiety disorder: dsm­5 criteria • Marked and disproportionate fear consistently triggered by exposure to potential  social scrutiny • Exposure to the trigger leads to intense anxiety about being evaluated negatively • Trigger situations are avoided or else endured with intense anxiety  Panic disorder: dsm­5 criteria • Recurrent unexpected panic attacks • At least 1 month of concern or worry about the possibility of more attacks  occurring or the consequences of an attack, or maladaptive behavioral changes  because of the attacks  Agoraphobia: dsm­5 criteria • Disproportionate and marked fear of anxiety about at least 2 situations where it  would be difficult to escape or receive help in the event of incapacitation,  embarrassing symptoms, or panic­like symptoms • Might include: • Being outside of the home alone • Traveling on public transportation Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.6 • Being in open spaces • Being in enclosed spaces • Standing in line or being in a crowd • These situations consistently provoke fear or anxiety  • These situations are avoided, require the presence of a companion, or are  endured with intense fear or anxiety  Generalized anxiety disorder: dsm­5 criteria • Excessive anxiety and worry at least 50% of days about a number of events or  activities (e.g., family, health, finances, work, and school) • The person finds it hard to control the worry • The anxiety and worry are associated with at least 3  of the following: • Restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge • Easily fatigued • Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank • Irritability • Muscle tension • Sleep disturbance  Contributing factors risk & etiology Gender Women: • More vulnerable to anxiety disorders • More likely to report symptoms  • Experience different life circumstances  • More biological reactivity to stress Men: • More social pressure to face their fears • Believe more in personal control over situations Culture • Kayak­angst • Taijin kyofusho • Koro Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.7 • Susto  Fear conditioning  • Mowrer’s two­factor theory: • Classical conditioning • Operant conditioning  • Extensions of Mowrer’s original model Neurobiology • Fear circuit  • Amygdala • Medial prefrontal cortex • Pathway may be deficient in those with anxiety disorders • Neurotransmitters • Serotonin • GABA • Norepinephrine  Personality • Behavioral inhibition • Infancy  • May set stage for later development of anxiety  • Predictor of social anxiety  • Neuroticism  • Experience frequent or intense negative affect  Cognitive • Sustained negative beliefs about the future • Safety behaviors • Perceived lack of control • Attention to threat  E tiology   Specific Phobias • Little Albert • Are phobias conditioned?  Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.8 • Prepared learning • Evolution  • Learn to react to stimuli that are life­threatening  Social Anxiety Disorder • Behavioral factors • Classically conditioned to fear similar situations • Operant conditioning reinforces behavior  • Cognitive factors • Unrealistically negative beliefs • Overly negative in evaluating performance in social situations  • Attend more to internal cues  Panic Disorder  • Neurobiological factors • Locus coeruleus • Behavioral factors: Classical Conditioning • Cognitive factors in panic disorder • Anxiety sensitivity index • Genetics  Agoraphobia • Fear­of­fear hypothesis • Negative thoughts about consequences of experiencing anxiety in public  Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Tendency to experience general distress more than intense fear • Cognitive factors • Worry can be reinforcing  • History of trauma • Find it hard to understand and label feelings  Treatment of anxiety disorders Exposure Therapy • Include as many features of feared object as possible Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.9 • Conducted in as many contexts as possible  CBT • Challenge: • Beliefs about negative outcomes  • Expectations about not being able to cope  Extinction • Form of learning  • Mindfulness  Psychological treatments • Phobias­ In vivo exposure • SAD­ Role plays, social skills training, ceasing safety behaviors • Panic Disorder­ Panic control therapy (PCT), cognitive treatment,  psychodynamic treatment • Agoraphobia­ Systematic exposure • GAD­ Relaxation training  M  edications    • Anxiolytics • Benzodiazepines (BZs) • SNRIs • Tends to be preferred over BZs • D­cycloserine (DCS) • Enhances learning  • Can enhance the effectiveness of exposure  Depressive disorders Dsm­5 criteria for major depressive episode ・ Five or more of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2­ week period and represent change from previous functioning; at least one  symptom is depressed mood or loss of pleasure: ・ Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day; either subjective report or  observation made from others ・ Diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.10 Significant weight loss when not dieting, or weight gain, or increase or decrease  ・ in appetite ・ Insomnia or hypersomnia ・ Psychomotor agitation or retardation ・ Fatigue or loss of energy ・ Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt ・ Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness ・ Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide Major depressive disorder: dsm­5 criteria ・ Sad mood or loss of pleasure in usual activities ・ Meet criteria for at least one major depressive episode ・ Symptoms present nearly every day, most of the day, for at least 2 weeks; more  severe than normative responses to significant loss Persistent depressive disorder: dsm­5 criteria Depressed mood for most of the day more than half of the time for 2 years (or 1  ・ year for children and adolescents) ・ At least two of the following: ・ Poor appetite or overeating ・ Sleeping too much or too little Low energy ・ ・ Poor self­esteem ・ Trouble concentrating or making decisions ・ Feelings of hopelessness ・ Symptoms do not clear for more than 2 months at a time ・ Bipolar disorders not present Bipolar disorders Dsm­5 criteria for manic and hypomanic episodes ・ Distinctly elevated or irritable mood Abnormally increased energy or activity ・ ・ At least three of the following are noticeably changed from baseline (four if  mood is irritable): ・ Increase in goal­directed activity or psychomotor agitation Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.11 ・ Unusual talkativeness; rapid speech Flight of ideas or subjective impression that thoughts are racing ・ ・ Decreased need for sleep ・ Increased self­esteem; belief that one has special talents, powers, abilities ・ Distractibility, attention easily diverted ・ Excessive involvement in activities that are likely to have painful consequences ・ Symptoms present most of the day, nearly every day Manic and hypomanic episodes ・ For manic episode: ・ Symptoms last 1 week, require hospitalization, or include psychosis ・ Symptoms cause significant distress or functional impairment ・ For hypomanic episode: ・ Symptoms last at least 4 days ・ Clear changes in functioning are observable to others, but impairment is not  marked ・ No psychotic symptoms present Bipolar I and II : dsm­5 criteria  ・ Bipolar I Disorder: ・ Criteria have been met for at least one manic episode ・ Occurrence of manic episode not better explained by another disorder ・ Bipolar II Disorder: Criteria have been met for at least one hypomanic episode AND at least one  ・ major depressive episode ・ There has never been a manic episode ・ Occurrence of hypomanic episode and major depressive episode not better  explained by another disorder ・ Symptoms cause clinically significant distress E tiology   Biological factors ・ Neurotransmitters ・ Norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin ・ Reward system Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.12 Brain functions: ・ ・ Anterior cingulate cortex ・ Dorsolateral cortex ・ Striatum ・ Cortisol dysregulation Social factors ・ Childhood adversity ・ Early parental death ・ Physical or sexual abuse ・ Negative life events ・ Loss of job, key friendship, romantic partner ・ Interpersonal difficulties ・ Low social support ・ Expressed emotion ・ Interpersonal loss, isolation, relationship concerns Psychological factors ・ Depression ・ Neuroticism ・ Cognitive theories: ・ Beck’s Theory ・ Hopelessness Theory ・ Rumination Theory Bipolar Disorders ・ Predictors of mania: ・ Reward sensitivity ・ Sleep deprivation Treatment of mood disorders Psychological treatments Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.13 Depression ・ Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) ・ Cognitive Therapy Mindfulness­based cognitive therapy (MBCT) ・ ・ Behavioral Activation (BA) Therapy ・ Behavioral Couples Therapy Bipolar disorders ・ Psychoeducation ・ Learn about symptoms of disorder ・ Expected time course Triggers ・ ・ Treatment strategies Biological Treatments Depression ・ Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) ・ Antidepressant drugs: ・ MAOIs ・ Tricyclics ・ SSRIs Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation ・ Bipolar Disorders ・ Mood­stabilizing medications: ・ Lithium ・ Other classes of mood­stabilizing drugs: ・ Anticonvulsants ・ Antipsychotics Antidepressants ・ Risk factors for suicide Study Guide #2 Weeks 4,5, and 6 notes Pg.14 ・ Belief in suicide myths ・ Psychological disorders ・ Depression, impulse control disorders, panic disorder, eating disorders ・ Neurobiological factors ・ Serotonin and cortisol ・ Social factors ・ Economic recession ・ Celebrity suicide Psychological factors ・ ・ Intention of suicide Preventing suicide ・ Talk about it! ・ 80% who attempt suicide but do not die report that they are glad to be alive or  are ambivalent about death ・ Treat the associated psychological disorder ・ Treat suicide directly ・ Public health ・ Limit access to means


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