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Comprehensive Chapter Two Test Guide

by: Kazendi Simon

Comprehensive Chapter Two Test Guide CHEM 1211K

Marketplace > Georgia State University > CHEM 1211K > Comprehensive Chapter Two Test Guide
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Redox Equations Oxidation Net Ionic Equations Mass % % Yield In depth rules for the periodic table Solubility rules
Principles of Chemistry I
Dr. Kerr
Study Guide
Math, General Chemistry
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kazendi Simon on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1211K at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Kerr in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 101 views.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chemistry Test Two Comprehensive Guide  Chapter 4: Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions Key Vocabulary Terms:  Law of Conservation of Mass: states that matter can be changed from one form into  another, mixtures can be separated or made, and pure substances can be decomposed, but  the total amount of mass remains constant.  o Balancing equations by balancing atoms  The study of the numerical relationship between chemical quantities in a chemical  reaction is called stoichiometry.  The reactant that limits the amount of product is called the limiting reactant.  Reactants not completely consumed are called excess reactants.  The theoretical yield is the amount of product that can be made in a chemical reaction  based on the amount of limiting reactant.   The actual yield is the amount of product actually produced by a chemical reaction.   The percent yield is calculated as follows:  actual yield o theoreticalyield x100 Reaction Stoichiometry:  The coefficients in a chemical reaction specify the relative amounts in moles of each of  the substances involved in the reaction.  2 molecules of C H8 r18ct with 25 molecules of O  to 2orm 16 molecules of CO  and 18 2 molecules of H O2 o 2C H 8l)18 25O (g) 2 16CO (g) + 28H O(g) 2  The ratio of the coefficients acts as a conversion factor between the amount in of the  reactants and products.  Example: Suppose That We Burn 22.0 Moles of C H ; how8Ma18 Moles of CO  Form? 2 o 2C H 8l)18 25O (g) 2 16CO (g) + 28H O(g) 2 22.0molC H 16molCO 2 =176molCO o 8 182molC H 2 8 18 o The combustion of 22 moles of C H  ad8s 186 moles of CO  to the at2osphere. Solutions:  When table salt is mixed with water, it seems to disappear or become a liquid, the  mixture is homogeneous. o Homogeneous mixtures are called solutions.  The component of the solution that changes state is called the solute.  The component that keeps its state is called the solvent.  If both components start in the same state, the major component is the  solvent. Solution Concentration:  Solutions are often described quantitatively, as dilute or concentrated. o Dilute solutions have a small amount of solute compared to solvent. o Concentrated solutions have a large amount of solute compared to solvent. Solution Concentration: Molarity: A common way to express solution concentration is molarity (M). o Molarity is the amount of solute (in moles) divided by the volume of solution (in  liters). amountof solute(¿mol) o Molarity (M = volumeof solution(¿L) Remembershe prefers¿usemLsobeready¿convert o Solution Dilution:   Often, solutions are stored as concentrated stock solutions.  To make solutions of lower concentrations from these stock solutions, more solvent is  added. o The amount of solute doesn’t change, just the volume of solution:  The concentrations and volumes of the stock and new solutions are inversely  proportional: o Moles solute in solution I = moles solute in solution II o M x1V =1 xV 2 2 Electrolyte and Nonelectrolyte Solutions:  Materials that dissolve in water to form a solution that will conduct electricity are called  electrolytes.  Materials that dissolve in water to form a solution that will not conduct electricity are  called nonelectrolytes.  Ionic substances such as sodium chloride that completely dissociate into ions when they  dissolve in water are strong electrolytes. o In contrast to sodium chloride, sugar is a molecular compound. o Most molecular compounds (except for acids), dissolve in water as intact  molecules.  Binary Acids: Acids are molecular compounds that ionize when they dissolve in water. o The molecules are pulled apart by their attraction for the water. o When acids ionize, they form H+ cations and also anions. o The percentage of molecules that ionize varies from one acid to another. Acids that ionize virtually 100% are called strong acids. + −  HCl (aq)  H  (aq) + Cl  (aq)  Acids that only ionize a small percentage are called weak acids.  HF (aq)  ↔  H (aq) + F  (aq) Strong and Weak Electrolytes:  Strong electrolytes are materials that dissolve completely as ions. o Ionic compounds and strong acids o Solutions conduct electricity well  Weak electrolytes are materials that dissolve mostly as molecules, but partially as ions. o Weak acids o Solutions conduct electricity, but not well o When compounds containing a polyatomic ion dissolve, the polyatomic ion stays  together. + −  HC H2O 3(a2)  H  (aq) + C H O 2(a3)2 Dissociation and Ionization  When ionic compounds dissolve in water, the anions and cations are separated from each  other this is called dissociation. o Na S(2q)  2Na  (aq) + S   (aq)2–  When compounds containing polyatomic ions dissociate, the polyatomic group stays  together as one ion. + 2−  o Na SO2 (aq4  2Na  (aq) + SO 4 (aq)  When strong acids dissolve in water, the molecule ionizes into H+ and anions. + 2−   H 2O  4aq)  Na  (aq) + SO 4 (aq) The Solubility of Ionic Compounds: When an ionic compound dissolves in water, the resulting solution contains: o Not the intact ionic compound itself, but its component ions dissolved in water. However, not all ionic compounds dissolve in water. o If we add AgCl to water, for example, it remains solid and appears as a white  powder at the bottom of the water. In general, a compound is termed soluble if it dissolves in water and insoluble if it does  not. Precipitation Reactions:  Precipitation reactions are reactions in which a solid forms when we mix two solutions. o Reactions between aqueous solutions of ionic compounds produce an ionic  compound that is insoluble in water.  The insoluble product is called a precipitate.  No Precipitation Means No Reaction: Precipitation reactions when two aqueous solutions are mixed. Predicting Precipitation Reactions 1. Determine what ions each aqueous reactant has. 2. Determine formulas of possible products. o Exchange ions. o (+) ion from one reactant with (–) ion from other.  o Balance charges of combined ions to get the formula of each product. 3. Determine solubility of each product in water. Use the solubility rules. If product is  insoluble or slightly soluble, it will precipitate. 4. If neither product will precipitate, write no reaction after the arrow. 5. If any of the possible products are insoluble, write their formulas as the products of the  reaction using (s) after the formula to indicate solid. Write any soluble products with (aq)  after the formula to indicate aqueous. 6. Balance the equation. 7. Remember to only change coefficients, not subscripts. Representing Aqueous Reactions:  An equation showing the complete neutral formulas for each compound in the aqueous  reaction as if they existed as molecules is called a molecular equation. o 2KOH(aq) + Mg(NO )  (aq)3 2  2KNO  (3q) + Mg(OH)  (s)2  In actual solutions of soluble ionic compounds, dissolved substances are present as ions.  Equations that describe the material’s structure when dissolved are called complete ionic  equations. Ionic Equation:  Rules of writing the complete ionic equation: o Aqueous strong electrolytes are written as ions.  Soluble salts, strong acids, strong bases o Insoluble substances, weak electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes are written in  molecule form.  Solids, liquids, and gases are not dissolved, hence molecule form Ionic Equation:  Notice that in the complete ionic equation, some of the ions in solution appear unchanged on both sides of the equation. These ions are called spectator ions because they do not  participate in the reaction.  Basically spectator ions are the ions seen on both the reactant and yield side that is  crossed out when finding the Net Ionic Equation. Acid–Base and Gas­Evolution Reactions  Two other important classes of reactions that occur in aqueous solution are 1. Acid–base reactions 2. Gas­evolution reactions.  Acid–base Reaction: An acid reacts with a base and the two neutralize each other,  producing water (or in some cases a weak electrolyte). o An acid–base reaction is also called a neutralization reaction.  Acid–Base and Gas­Evolution Reactions: In a gas­evolution reaction, a gas forms  resulting in bubbling.  In both acid–base and gas­evolution reactions, as in precipitation reactions, the reactions  occur when the anion from one reactant combines with the cation of the other. o  Many gas­evolution reactions are also acid–base reactions. Acids and Bases in Solution +  Acids ionize in water to form H  ions. o More precisely, the H from the acid molecule is donated to a water molecule to  + form hydronium ion, H O 3  Bases dissociate in water to form OH ions.  o Bases, such as NH that do not contain OH ions, produce OH by pulling H off  3  water molecules.  In the reaction of an acid with a base, the H  from the acid combines with the OH from  ­  the base to make water.  The cation from the base combines with the anion from the acid to make the salt. Gas­Evolving Reactions Some reactions form a gas directly from the ion exchange. Other reactions form a gas by the decomposition of one of the ion exchange products into a gas and water. Oxidation–Reduction Reactions: The reactions in which electrons are transferred from one reactant to the other are called  oxidation­reduction reactions. o These are also called redox reactions. o Many redox reactions involve the reaction of a substance with oxygen.  4Fe(s) + 3O  (2)  2Fe O  2s)3(rusting)  2C H (l) + 25 O2 (g)  16CO  (g) + 18H O (g) (combustion) 8 18 2 2  2H  2g) + O  2g)  2H O(g2  Combustion as Redox Redox without Combustion: Reactions of Metals with Nonmetals: Consider the following reactions: o 4Na(s) + O  (g2 → 2Na O(s) 2 o 2Na(s) + Cl  (g2 → 2NaCl(s) The reactions involve a metal reacting with a nonmetal. In addition, both reactions  involve the conversion of free elements into ions. Redox Reaction:  The transfer of electrons does not need to be a complete transfer (as occurs in the  formation of an ionic compound) for the reaction to qualify as oxidation–reduction. o For example, consider the reaction between hydrogen gas and chlorine gas:  H 2(g) + Cl 2 (g) 2HCl (g)  When hydrogen bonds to chlorine, the electrons are unevenly shared, resulting in  an  increase of electron density (reduction) for chlorine and a decrease in electron density  (oxidation) for hydrogen. Oxidation and Reduction:  To convert a free element into an ion, the atoms must gain or lose electrons. o Of course, if one atom loses electrons, another must accept them.  Reactions where electrons are transferred from one atom to another are redox reactions.  Atoms that lose electrons are being oxidized, while atoms that gain electrons are being  reduced. o 2Na(s) + Cl  (2) →  2Na Cl (s) –  + –  Na → Na –+ 1e    – oxidation)  Cl2 + 2e  → 2 Cl  (reduction) Oxidation States:  For reactions that are not metal + nonmetal, or do not involve O , w2 need a method for  determining how the electrons are transferred (oxidation state the electron flow in the  reaction). o Even though they look like them, oxidation states are not ion charges! Identifying Redox Reactions  Oxidation: An increase in oxidation state  Reduction: A decrease in oxidation state  Carbon changes from an oxidation state of 0 to an oxidation state of +4. o Carbon loses electrons and is oxidized.  Sulfur changes from an oxidation state of 0 to an oxidation state of –2. o Sulfur gains electrons and is reduced. Redox Reactions:  Oxidation and reduction must occur simultaneously. o If an atom loses electrons another atom must take them.  The reactant that reduces an element in another reactant is called the reducing agent. o The reducing agent contains the element that is oxidized.  The reactant that oxidizes an element in another reactant is called the oxidizing agent. o The oxidizing agent contains the element that is reduced. o 2Na(s) + Cl  (2) → 2 Na Cl  (s)–  Na is oxidized, while Cl is reduced.  Na is the reducing agent, and Cl 2  the oxidizing agent. Combustion Reactions:  Combustion reactions are characterized by the reaction of a substance with to form one or more oxygen­containing compounds, often including water. o Combustion reactions also emit heat.  For example, natural gas (CH )4reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water: Combustion: Ethanol, the alcohol in alcoholic beverages, also reacts with oxygen in a combustion  reaction to form carbon dioxide and water.


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