NTR 213 Exam 2 Study Guide
NTR 213 Exam 2 Study Guide NTR 213
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by bjwall on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTR 213 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Dr. Seth Armah in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Nutrition in Nutrition at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 Info Increased consumption of refined CHO implicated as one of the causes of the current obesity epidemic and rising incidence of chronic diseases Whole grain ingredients o Refined grain products only contain the endosperm Endosperm - __________ part of the kernel, made up of starch, contains kernels protein Bran – _________ layer, contain most of the fiber and good source of many vitamins and minerals Germ – ________of kernel, embryo where sprouting occurs, source of oil and is rich in vitamin E When we eat plants, we eat the energy stored in ________. What are gestational diabetes? Know the structures of monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, maltose, sucrose, lactose, glucose What is hypoglycemia? What is the best documented health problem associated with CHO intake? Refined sugars contain calories but lack ____and other nutrients. Carbohydrates contain 3 things. Name them. What are the 3 monosaccharides? Which one is considered blood sugar? Which one is the sweetest sugar and occurs naturally in fruits and honey? Which one is only found in a few foods, milk is the most common? What are the 3 disaccharides? Which one is found in barley? Which one is found in fruits, veggies, grains, and table sugar? Which one is the main carbohydrate in milk? What does soluble mean? What does insoluble mean? Chapter 4 Definitions Enrichment – addition to food of specific amounts of nutrients to replace those lost during processing Refined – foods that have undergone processing that changes or removes various components of the original food Sugar Unit – sugar molecule that cannot be broken down to yield other sugars Monosaccharide – CHO made up of a single sugar unit Disaccharide – CHO made up of 2 sugar units Polysaccharide – CHO made up of many sugar units linked together Glucose – 6-Carbon monosaccharide that is the primary form of CHO used to provide energy in the body; most important; blood sugar Fructose (fruits & veggies) Galactose (milk sugar) Maltose (formed when starch is digested, chew bread) – 2 glucose Sucrose (table sugar) – glucose & fructose Lactose (milk sugar found in milk & ice cream) – galactose & glucose Glycogen – storage form of CHO in animals, made up of many glucose molecules linked together in a highly branched structure Starch – CHO found in plants, made up of many glucose molecules linked in straight or branched chains Fiber is type of complex CHO that cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes, cannot be absorbed in small intestine and passes to large intestine Soluble Fiber – fiber that dissolves in water or absorbs water and is readily broken down by intestinal microflora. It includes pectins, gums, and some hemicelluloses (beans, oats, apples, seaweed) Oligosaccharide – CHO made up of 3 to 10 sugar units Insoluble Fiber – fiber that does not dissolve in water and is less readily broken down by bacteria in the large intestine. Includes cellulose, some hemicellulose, and lignin. Lactose Intolerance – inability to completely digest lactose due to a reduction in the levels of the enzyme lactase Resistance Starch – starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine of healthy people Glycemic Response – the rate, magnitude, and duration of the rise in blood glucose that occurs after food is consumed Insulin – a hormone made in the pancreas that allows glucose to enter cells and stimulates the synthesis of protein, fat, and liver and muscle glycogen Glucagon – a hormone made in the pancreas that raises blood glucose levels by stimulating the breakdown of liver glycogen and the synthesis of glucose Glycolysis – anaerobic metabolic pathway that splits glucose into 2 3-C pyruvate molecules; the energy released from 1 glucose molecule is used to make 2 ATP molecules Anaerobic Metabolism – metabolism in the absence of O Aerobic Metabolism – metabolism in the presence of O. It can completely break down glucose to yield CO2, H2O, and ATP Ketone or Ketone Body – acidic molecule formed when there is not sufficient CHO to breakdown acetyl-CoA Diabetes Mellitus – disease characterized by elevated blood glucose due to either insufficient production of insulin or decreased sensitivity of cells to insulin Type 1 Diabetes – form of diabetes caused by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency Autoimmune Disease – disease that results from immune reactions that destroy normal body cells Chapter 5 Info Triglycerides consists of _____glycerol and ____fatty acids Saturated fatty acids manifest as _____at room temperature. Monosaturated fatty acids contain ____double bond(s) Polyunsaturated fatty acids contain ____double bond(s) What is hydrogenation? What are the dietary sources of omega-3? What are the dietary sources of omega-6? What are the essential fatty acids? What makes them essential fatty acids? During the process of hydrogenation, _____ _____ _____ are created More than 90% of cholesterol in the body is found in the ____ _____ Name some of the sterols found in plants Name some of the sterols found in animals Where does digestion begin? Micelles are formed from? What does an emulsifier do? Name the 4 major types of lipoproteins Very low density lipoproteins are made where? What do they do? What is referred to as good cholesterol? What is referred to as bad cholesterol? What is the 2 ndleading cause of death? Name some of the risk factors for heart disease ______% of total calories from fat – recommendation Chapter 5 Definitions Triglyceride – major type of lipid in food and the body, consisting of 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule Fatty Acid – (structure of triglyceride) - molecule made up of a chain of carbons linked to hydrogens, with an acid group at one end of the chain Phospholipids – type of lipid whose structure includes a phosphorus atom Sterol – type of lipid with a structure composed of multiple chemical rings Saturated Fatty Acids – fatty acid in which the C atoms are bonded to as many H atoms as possible; it therefore contains no C-C double bonds Unsaturated Fatty Acids – fatty acid that contains one or more C-C double bonds; may be either monounsaturated or polyunsaturated Essential Fatty Acids – a fatty acid that must be consumed in the diet because it cannot be made by the body or cannot be made in sufficient quantities to meet the body’s needs Plant oils are generally low in saturated fatty acids Tropical Oils – term used in the popular press to refer to the saturated plant oils – coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil – that are derived from plants grown in tropical regions Hydrogenation – process used to make partially hydrogenated oils in which H atoms are added to the C-C double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids, making them more saturated. Trans fatty acids are formed during the process Emulsifiers – a substance with both water-soluble and fat- soluble portions that can break fat into tiny droplets and suspend it in watery fluid Phosphate Group – chemical group consisting of 1 phosphorus atom and 4 O atoms Lipid Bilayer – 2 layers of phosphoglyceride molecules oriented so that the fat-soluble fatty acid tails are sandwiched b/n water soluble phosphate-containing heads Lecithin – phosphoglyceride composed of glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acids, phosphate group, and molecule of choline; often used as an emulsifier in foods Cholesterol – a sterol, produced by liver and consumed in the diet, which is needed to build cell membranes and make hormones and other essential molecules Monoglycerides – glycerol molecule with one fatty acid attached Micelle – particle formed in small intestine when products of fat digestion are surrounded by bile acids. It facilitates the absorption of lipids Lipoprotein – particle that transports lipids in the blood Chylomicron – lipoprotein that transports lipids from mucosal cells of small intestine and delivers triglycerides to other body cells Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDLs) – lipoprotein that transports cholesterol to cells
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