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Exam II Study Guide: Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I

by: Audrey Hernandez

Exam II Study Guide: Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I PHCL 2600

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Biology > PHCL 2600 > Exam II Study Guide Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I
Audrey Hernandez
GPA 3.6

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The study guide briefly covers the broad basics that were discussed during the neurophysiology section. The study guide asks questions and leaves blanks for the students to fill in as a study exerc...
Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology
Dr. Frederick Williams
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Audrey Hernandez on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHCL 2600 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Frederick Williams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology in Biology at University of Toledo.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Exam II Study Guide Nervous system divisions ❖ What are the two different neuron cell types? ➢ Neurons and neuroglial cells ■ Name the different details for each part in the spaces provided ● Dendrites ◆ ◆ ◆ ● Soma ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ What are Nissl bodies? ➢ ● Axon ◆ ◆ ◆ ● Synapse ◆ ◆ ◆ ■ List the differences between the two axon transport styles known as retrograde and anterograde Anterograde Retrograde ■ What types of neuroglial cells are there? ● Oligodendrocytes, Astrocytes, Microglia, Ependymal, Satellite, and Schwann cells Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Exam II Study Guide ● The basics of the chart have already been filled out, complete the chart with what is known about the following cells Oligodendrocytes AstrocytesMicroglia Ependymal Satellite Schwann CNS or CNS CNS CNS CNS PNS PNS PNS? Is it Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes capable of cell division? Does create No No No Yes No No cerebrospin al fluid? Does it No Yes No No No No contribute to the blood brain barrier? Does it Yes, but just theNo No No No Yes myelinate? ends of the cell How does it aid the neuron? ❖ The nervous system is broken into two systems know as the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system ➢ What makes up these two different systems? ■ CNS ● Brain and spinal cord ■ PNS ● Everything outside of the CNS ● What are the subdivisions and what are basics of what they do? (Fill the blanks provided) ◆ Automatic ➢ Sympathetic ■ ➢ Parasympathetic Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Exam II Study Guide ■ ◆ Somatic ➢ ◆ Enteric nervous system ➢ ➢ What are the different functions they help with? ■ CNS ● Voluntary and involuntary movements ● Understanding of sensory input ■ PNS ● Keeps a monitor on environmental factors ❖ Write down the differences between kinesin and dynein Kinesin Dynein Neuron classification ❖ Fill in the table below with information about the types of polar neurons and other neuron types. Unipolar Bipolar Multipolar Location of soma Location of dendrites Location of axon CNS/PNS/ or both? Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Exam II Study Guide Interneurons Motoneurons Sensory Neurons Type of polar cell? CNS/PNS/both? ❖ The process of myelination if generally when the cell wraps around and around itself to insulate either a single segment of an axon, or to loosely bundle several axons together ➢ What is multiple sclerosis? ■ An autoimmune disease that targets the myelinating cells ➢ Describe the purpose of unmyelinated segments of the axon? ■ To increase the speed of action potential propagation Neural impulses and action potentials ❖ How are action potentials created? ➢ Incoming signals are graded and summarized to see if an action potential will be created ■ Excitatory postsynaptic potentials increase the likelihood of an action potential being created ■ Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials decrease likelihood of an action potential being created ➢ The opening and closing of ion channels to cause a change in membrane potential to cause depolarization. ➢ Anesthetics work by keeping these ion channels closed so there is no change in membrane potential ➢ What are they types of channels that contribute to the influx of ions? ■ Passive or leak channels ■ Gated channels ● Ligand-gated ● Voltage-gated ● Mechanically-gated ➢ What does it mean for an action potential to be “all-or-nothing”? ■ An action potential must reach the threshold of -55mV in order to propagate and continue down the axon, or else it will just die out ❖ Write out the Nernst equation and explain its use (answer below) ➢ Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Exam II Study Guide +​ +​ -​ +​ ❖ The following equation, V​ = (61.m​/ z) * log( (p​ [K​ ]​ +k​​ [No​ ]​Na​ [Cl​i​) Cl​p​ [i​ ]​ k​ i​ p​ [Na​ ]​+p​ [Cl​]​ ) ) , factors in the different permeabilities of the ions. This equation is Na​ i​ Cl​ o​ known as what? (Answer below) ➢ ❖ After an action potential is sent it the neuron undergoes what is known as a “refractory period” and can not send another on right away. ➢ Describe the differences between an absolute and a relative refractory period (answer below) ■ ➢ How does this refractory period relate the action potentials direction of propagation? (Answer below) ■ ■ If saltatory propagation works with myelinated axons while the continuous propagation work with unmyelinated axons, which one is going to be faster? (Answer below) ● ■ If the temperature in the environment decreases, will this impact the speed of action potential propagation at all? ● Yes it well, it will make it go slower Neurotransmitters ❖ Electrical signals are different from chemicals in which they..? ➢ Do not rely on neurotransmitters, but conduct directly at the gap junctions of two cells ❖ Chemical synapses can have the axon terminal touring or located near different parts of the postsynaptic neuron. What are the different parts the axon terminal can touch? ➢ Dendrites, soma, axon ➢ Chemical synapses are dependent on neurotransmitters to transmit signals, but what qualifies as neurotransmitters? ■ There are two kinds, neuropeptides that are created in the soma and packed then transported to the axon terminal. And smaller molecules that are made in the axon and packed into vesicles at the axon terminal. ■ Neurotransmitters are dependent on calcium cations and must also be made in the neuron ➢ When neurotransmitters are released they no not always flood the receptors in order to not overload the postsynaptic neuron. What are the different pathways a neurotransmitter can go? ■ Go to the receptor and act upon it Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Exam II Study Guide ■ Diffuse out of the synapse gap to a 2nd location ■ Be taken up again to be recycled or reused by the neuron ➢ What is the difference between a metabotropic receptor and an ionotropic receptor? ■ Ionotropic receptors are fast acting ■ Metabotropic receptors are separate from the ion channel and can either act directly or indirectly on it


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