CMST 202 group study guide for first exam
CMST 202 group study guide for first exam CMST 202-01
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Popular in Nonverbal Communication
Popular in Communication Studies
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by tara marie buss on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMST 202-01 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Emily Sauter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Nonverbal Communication in Communication Studies at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
For each chapter you should know: 1. the basic topic; 2. the broad outline of the experiment (you don’t need to know specifics, like number of participants); 3. key terms and definitions; 4. major findings; and 5. (if applicable) limitations to the study **Include lecture notes where applicable (for example, last week’s lecture on chronemics highlighted key findings) Part I. BEGINNING PERSPECTIVES 0. Lecture on the Nature of Human Communication (9/1) Humans are similar to animals in that we use nonverbal cues. We are different than animals because we as humans use symbols. What is communication? Communication is the management of messages for the purpose of creating meaning this is largely intentional. Nonverbal communication: messages other than words that are either sent with intent or typically interpreted by a receiver as meaningful. Symbolic: transcends the physical properties of the thing Properties of symbolic: Abstract meaning lies in the mind of the beholder There is no “meaning” in nature Ambiguous the same symbol has many different meanings to many different people in different contexts Receiverbased property Arbitrary We can make anything “mean” whatever we want it to mean Sender based property Symbol systems: clothing, art, dance, music, and architecture The SMCR model: transmission model interested in how messages are transmitted Sender Message Channel Receiver The message moves through the channel from sender to receiver Using symbols to communicate: The Source/Sender has an idea, now you need to encode the idea, and then send → Using the channel, you send the message and perhaps there is noise, meaning you might not be hearing the message (literally and figuratively) → goes to Receiver → Receiver then “attends” to message → receiver decodes message → hopefully receiver comes up with an idea → then feedback How do we generate meaning? Culture, values, history, and personal values and beliefs How do we react to messages? “What does she mean by that?” Meaning is idiosyncratic Culture, Values, History, Personal values and beliefs. Are the ideas of the sender and the receiver the same at the end? Potentially not In summary: Communication is a human, symbolic activity The symbols we use are abstract, ambiguous, and arbitrary Symbols can be put into symbol systems Communication can be understood as a complex sendertoreceiver model 1. Perspectives on Defining and Understanding Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal comm defined all messages other than words that people exchange in interactive contexts Kinesics The study of body movements when speaking (speeches, presentations, interpersonal Comm, etc.) o gestures, facial expressions, eye behavior, posture o Body movement has many different explanations (hand movement can mean different things to different people) o Body language is culturally specific Emblems Nonverbal cues that have a verbal counterpart (the peace sign we make with our hands mean peace) Regulators Nonverbal signs that regulate, modulate and maintain the flow of speech during a conversation (confused look) Illustrators Gestures that illustrate what is being said (saying "I want you" and then points at you) Affective displays Facial movements that display emotion (wide eyes when surprised) Adapters Postural changes that are made at a low level of awareness (scratching a head when confused) Vocalics refers to how you say words rather than what you say. Contact codes Spacial Communication and/or proxemics. o Spacial communication/proxemics how you use space/territory to communicate 2. Perspectives on Nonverbal Communication Skills Social skills are essential to how we initiate, maintain, and manage relationships. 9 behaviors that demonstrate skillful and competent communication Response Latency: the time it takes after one person finishes talking and the next person begins talking. Eye Gaze: amount of time the person in the conversation spends looking in the general direction of the other person’s face. Eye Contact: amount of time spent looking directly into the other person’s eyes. Smiles: frequency or total number of smiles in the conversation. Head movements: the number of head nods that signal understanding Adaptors: finger tapping, hair twirling, fidgeting Volume: the loudness of talk Vocal Variety: level of expressiveness in tone, pitch, pace, and other vocal qualities Talk time: total amount of time spent talking or duration of speaking The Conversational Skills Rating Form: rates how well communication behaviors were used in a conversations 4 Fundamental Dimensions of essential skills of competent behavior Coordination o How well verbal speaking turns are managed, maintaining flow, and starting and ending of topics Attentiveness o Shows attention, concern for, or interest in the topic o Behaviors include head nodding, eye contact, leaning in, talking about self and partner Composure o Involves anxiety and nervousness/ Confidence & assertiveness Expressiveness o The level of animation and activity in the conversation o Behaviors include smiling, gestures, facial expression, vocal variety, and pace Used successfully an individual is perceived as competent in interpersonal behavior. 3. Perspectives on Nonverbal Research Methods People conduct research to learn more about nonverbal communication. Informal Research Example: collect information to make decisions. Good research is systematic. Systematic: Planned, organized, orderly, and methodical. It follows a regular, orderly series of steps to obtain answers to questions. It allows others to understand how the information was obtained and to repeat the study if needed. Two Approaches to Research: o Research Questions: A questions or prediction used when people wish to describe nonverbal communication. Researchers using a descriptive approach may start with an idea or a general theory of nonverbal communication, or they may start by determining an important group or setting to study. o Research Question Types: (1) finding descriptive categories; ex: what are the different styles of walking, (2) finding relationships between things; ex. How do people perceive individuals who use very high levels of touch and eye contact, and (3) finding differences in one thing based on another thing; ex. Do people from different cultures display different amounts of touch? o Hypothesis: An educated guess. o Hypothesis Types: (1) predicting relationships; ex. The closer people sit, the more likely they are to touch one another, and (2) looking for differences; ex. People from southern areas in the US touch more than people from northern areas of the US. o Differences between the Two Approaches: The starting point of the research The descriptive approach of research questions work from the ground up, or get the answer from the data itself. The hypothesis approach decides beforehand in specific terms what to look for and examines only the hypothesis. After the research is conducted Researchers using a research questions rely on their own interpretations of the data and the interpretations of their subjects while researchers using the hypothesis approach explain their findings based on the theory they had. Part II. NONVERBAL CODES Section A. APPEARANCE AND ADORNMENT CUES 4. The Effect of Television Advertising and Programming on Body Image Distortions in Young Women (weight standards, the ideal way a women would think she would need to look like causing health problems leading to eating disorders.) 5. HurryDate: Mate Preferences in Action ( Physical attributes, weight, height, age, education, attitudes towards sex, and number of children. People in general will choose people with good height and the right race they are attracted to.) 6. Beauty and the Labor Market ( The study of economics of the discrimination in the labor market against yet another group “The ugly” obverse favoritism of beauty.) 7. Women’s Appearance and Clothing within Organizations (Attractive workers are more productive workers than unattractive workers productivity model. ) Consumer discrimination: enhances workers interactions customers prefer those attractive individuals Attractiveness enhances the ability to engage with co workers and consumers Occupational crowding: confining unattractive workers in certain occupations depresseesdepresses the wages of all workers in those occupations 8. Black Uniforms and Aggression in Professional Sports 1. Color uniforms carry the same connotations as the basic colors 2. Black uniforms look more evil, mean, and aggressive 3. Testing teams with black uniforms to see if they are more penalized than the rivals 4. To test penalty records due to uniforms effect on judges or on actual players behavior 9. The Smell of Love How do humans announce and excite sexual availability Smoke can dramatically affect our moods, it's evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives. Attraction value resides strickly in ther plesentness not their sexyness To inspire stranger curiosity or at least a smile 10. The Effects of Perfume Use on Perceptions of Attractiveness and Competence Chpt:9 Section B. KINESIC CUES: The Body, Eyes, and Face p.105 (study of body movement accompanies speech, independent from speech, and includes gestures, facial expressions, eye behavior, posture, ectc.) 11. Hand Movements Three different classes for distinguishing hand movements: o Emblems: Most often occur when verbal discourse is prevented by an external circumstance Communicative and Interactive Ex. A pilot & landing crew o Illustrators: Acts that are immediately related on a moment to moment basis with speech, phrasing, content, voice, contour, loudness, etc. o Adaptors: Movements first learned as part of an effort to: Satisfy selfneeds or body needs To perform bodily actions To manage and cope with emotions To develop or maintain prototypic interpersonal contacts To learn instrumental activities Ex. The scalp may be touched but the itch may not be thoroughly scratched. 12. Initiating Interaction: Greetings and Beckonings across the World 1. greetings vary from culture to culture. One greeting in one culture does not mean the same in another culture. 2. BE FAMILIAR WITH DIFFERENT GREETINGS FROM DIFFERENT CULTURES 3. Some greetings can be secret messages 4. The way someone shakes hands can convey confidence 5. Snapping at a waitress, or raising a finger, can have a very different meaning in different cultures (beckoning gestures) 13. Eye Contact: The Core of Interpersonal Relatedness 1. Impact of Direct Vision 2. “The eyes serve as a scanning function” (p.120). 3. Eye contact and the length of eye contact held can mean very many different things. 4. “Eye contact is usually the first step in interpersonal engagement, beginning a train of action that develops and defines the relationship between the gazer and gazed upon” (p. 121). 5. Survival Implications 6. Eye contact can be menacing and can mean danger. 7. There is a difference between looking and staring Staring can be more intimidating, looking is more curiositybased. 8. Couriers of Affection 9. Eye contact plays a role in love 10. The Search for Meaning 11. Eye contact can be crucial for comprehension 12. Dyadic encounters= people look at their conversational partners a large percentage of the time, especially while listening 13. Herbert W. Kalmbach’s senate testimony (p. 124) 14. A Multiplicity of Functions 15. Social Position persons in positions of leadership tend to gravitate toward locations where they are the visual focus of attention, such as the head of table 16. Positive vs Negative Emotions positive emotions, such as surprise, delight, or interest, are associated with increased gaze while negative emotions such as horror or disgust are associated with gaze aversion 17. Willingness to RelateWillingness to Relate a person’s decision to look back into the eyes of someone who is already looking at him is one of the principal signals by which one denotes a willingness to begin an encounter 18. Women v. Men women tend to look at their conversational partners somewhat more than men 19. Cultural Factors culturally prescribed norms of visual engagement exert a profound effect on gazing partners 20. Synchrony of speech analysis of eye contacts during speech reveals typical patterns for listening and speaking (what we normally do) 21. Character traits a direct gaze is more likely to be returned by the person with aggressive and assertive character moves (examples on p. 126) 14. Civil Inattention Exists—in Elevators Civil Inattention: a behavioral ritual enacted when when two or more persons are mutually present but not involved in any form of interaction. o Ex. Exchange of glances First study: The participants were in an elevator and wanted to study people studying other people. They estimated the age and sex of each subject. They found there was an average of sixteen seconds per elevator ride. o 50.3% of the subjects looked once at others, 25% looked twice, 10% looked three times, 4.1% looked four or five times, and 10.6% didn’t look at all. o 88% of all looks lasted less than a second. Second study: Designed to examine subjects reactions to violations of the rule of civil inattention. Results look on page 135 Third study: Exact replication of the second study, but took place two years later with different experimenters and different subject population Results look on page 135 16. Nonverbal Behavior and the Outcome of Selection Interviews Important functions in social interaction: 1. Communicating interpersonal attitudes and emotions Nonverbal signals are used to establish and maintain relationships 2. Supporting and maintaining conversation “We speak with our vocal organs, but we converse with our whole body’s” Body Position: Individual’s body position varies with his/her emotional state Head nodding & shaking: They act as reinforces, rewarding and encouraging what has gone before. They play an important role in the controlling and synchronizing of speech. Facial Expression: Used to communicate interpersonal attitudes and emotions. Often in close combination with speech. Eye contact: The most researched area of nonverbal communication. Participants in a conversation look at each other between 2575% of the time. Gestures: A movement of the hand, feet, or part of the body. Some are intended to communicate definite messages Section C. VOCALICS: Sound and Silence 17. Vocal Attractiveness: What Sounds Beautiful Is Good The attractive pitch is not too high nor too low. Resonance is a vocal quality that can be described as the fullness of sound in the facial cavity. We stereotype based on the way people sound. People with “good” voices seen as good people 18. The Sounds of Seduction and Affection Vocalics represent another critical part of the nonverbal language of intimacy. Tone of voice changes for affection and seduction. Male seducer wants to appear strong and then tender. Women want to have fun. Affection is “the direct or indirect expression of affectionate feelings for the other” Affection plays significant role between first encounters of two people because of “it’s ability to contribute to relational development.” According to a study, romantic partners were more likely to use baby talk than platonic friends. Platonic relationships between women use baby talk more than men. 19. Characteristics of Vocal Communication between Young Adults and Their Parents and Grandparents People possess the keen ability to express their attitudes by modifying their vocal behavior in social interactions. We speak differently and in different tones with mothers and fathers. People feel much more comfortable with their mom than with their dad. 20. The Power of Silence in Communication Silence carries meaning. SIlence can lead to a state of confusion or disrespect. Silence can also be interpreted differently by two individuals. Pausing during conversation can also be misinterpreted, the reason being, more pausing within a conversation can lead to “awkward silence”. Silence can be associated with concealing the truth. Section D. CONTACT CODES: Proxemics and Haptics p.182241 21. Proxemics and Haptics in Managerial Communication How we use personal space in the workplace and how it can vary in different cultures, 4 zones, intimate(for people closest to us), personal(close friends/introductions), social(day to day lives/business), and public(reserved for strangers), people have a “space bubble” also known as proxemics men tend to maintain a larger personal bubble than women scholars studying this divide territoriality which is our tendency to defend an area of space generally the closer one is to the organization’s leader the more power they are perceived to enjoy The person with more power is more likely to touch a subordinate Proxemics The perception and use of space HapticsThe study of touching behavior, also known as tactile communication, five categories are functional/professional, social/polite, friendship/warmth, love/intimacy, sexual and arousal 22. Perceived Retail Crowding and Shopping Satisfaction Human and spatial crowding can affect the shopping experience, physical, social, and emotional The perceptions of crowding are different and unique for each person Emotional responses are recalled from the satisfaction of the shopping experience Behavioral reaction to emotion develop early and can affect our reactions, perception, motivation, and behavior Expect some situation to happen during the shopping experience and are let down can alter if we are satisfied or not Study hypothesis that perceived crowding decreases feelings of pleasure in a service environment Findings of the effect of retail crowding is not simple or direct and depends on the individual and their satisfaction factors 23. The Unbearable Likeness of Being Digital: The Persistence of Nonverbal Social Norms in Online Virtual Environments How the nonverbal/verbal behaviors of behaviors of avatars on online role playing games compared to face to face interactions Use a broad trigger script to test avatars of all genders were standing in relation to each other and how they would face each other Second life is the virtual world where players view their own customized avatar IPD interpersonal distance Findings: The IPD was significant and larger in male male dyads than opposite sex dyads Eye gaze regulates conversation flow Limitations: Only studied one world out of many that exist 24. TieSigns in a Public Setting: Relationship and Sex Differences Tie Signs Shows other that partner is taken ex. Putting arm around waist, holding hands That tie signs vary in purpose but usually carry a significant meaning They conducted three studies to examine how tie signs are used in college bars Findings that men and women use tie signs for different reasons, that both genders overestimate to which extent the opposite uses tie signs for the same reasons 25. Public Touch Behavior in Romantic Relationships between Men and Women Tie Signs Shows others that your partner is taken ex. Putting arm around waist, holding hands Behavioral Matching Two people use similar positive behaviors and feel more satisfied with those behaviors That couples touch more when they are seriously dating then casually dating couples or married couples Men were more likely to initiate touch in casual relationships, where women were more likely to initiate touch in married relationships Relational stage can be different in public settings with touch as the relationship develops touch behavior will become more similar even though the frequency of touch may go down Limitations: For hetersexual couples, and affection in private may be different 26. The Midas Touch: The Effects of Interpersonal Touch on Restaurant Tipping Results showed that touch can increase tips and touch can be used as a persuasive tool Findings Sex differences in touch interactions, females touch more than males, and males touch females twice as much, and males respond less positively when being touched Touch can be used to signify inferiority or dependency Touching the hand is more positive for both males and females, when touching the shoulder showed more dominance Our failure to find if there was a big difference between touching shoulder and hand were hard to find and seemed similar with tipping, niceness of restaurant could have an effect 27. Relational Violence: The Darkest Side of Haptic Communication Relationship violence and the use of haptics for that Examined two forms of couple violence, intimate violence and Intimate Terrorism refers to an enduring pattern of violent behavior that is characterized by one partner trying to control the other, usually tends to be male, and used to control and demonstrate one's control of their partner Men believe historically that they can control women Common Couple Violence is a reciprocal form of violence that occurs when conflict gets out of hand Shown by each gender, something gets out of control, milder than intimate terrorism Women are as likely as men to commit common couple violence Section E. TIME AND PLACE CODES: Chronemics and the Environment 28. Time in Perspective Majority of people have a balanced sense of time orientation between present and future Older women have the strongest belief in a balanced time orientation Men are more likely to report a future orientation than women Retired people have the weakest sense of long term future orientation Both men and women become more future oriented as they age More money people make the more future oriented they are Future oriented people tend to have jobs in a whitecollar profession 29. Monochronic Time is of as being linear people are expected to do one thing at a time, and they will not tolerate lateness or interruptions and Polychronic TimeTime is considered cyclical people can be involved with many things at once, are less focused on the preciseness of accounting for each and every moment, and emphasis relationships. 30. The Experience of Time at Work: Future orientated people feel more overloaded at work, but feel more satisfaction after completing a task. o A model of organization temporality 1. Conceptions of Time Intersubjective: social, or shared, created through interactions among members of a group Subjective: influence of unique individual level characteristics Objective: Product life cycles, fiscal year, deadlines 2. Mapping Activities to Time Enactments: refer to the way workgroup members perform time 3. How People Relate to Time o Communication overload: a measure of the extent to which in a given period of time an organization's members perceives more quantity, complexity in the information that an individual desires, needs or can handle o Communication between department members: o Job Satisfaction: associated with open communication climates, increases information flow and the outcome of healthy interactions patterns in organizations 31. Physical Activity and the Built Environment: Built environment is the man made surrounding that provide the setting for human activity. The built environment functions as powerful arguments produced by the arrangements of the environment. 32. Communicating with Color Colors have an impact on our mood and our behavior The color orange and red are typically used in fast food restaurants however make people feel impatient and restless. Luscher claimed that color preferences demonstrate certain mental states that could be used as the basis for physical and psychological diagnosis Health care professionals, doctors, artists, therapists have joined together to promote the idea that viewing or creating art can boost the immune system Colors like blues and mint greens are quiet colors Dark blue can make people feel melancholy Lemon yellow is a color that can promote inspiration 33. "Stop" Signs: Regulating Privacy with Environmental Features Both the natural and the built environment afford people many ways to achieve privacy. When it is possible, people often choose to utilize certain features of their environment to manage their privacy before resorting to more overt verbal or nonverbal actions. Distancing Primarily a method used to avoid, withdraw from, or delay the intrusions of others. Separating Mechanisms act as a wall that discourages privacy violations, helping people to deny access of themselves to others by setting off an area as a distinct. Masking Mechanisms used when some exposure of the self to others in unavoidable or actually desired. RejectingTypically considered more polite strategies of one's desire for privacy, i.e. “Do not disturb” signs on hotel doors
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